A novel approach to study the structure-property relationships and applications in living systems of modular Cu(2+) fluorescent probes.
ABSTRACT: A series of Cu(2+) probe which contains 9 probes have been synthesized and established. All the probes were synthesized using Rhodamine B as the fluorophore, conjugated to various differently substituted cinnamyl aldehyde with C=N Schiff base structural motif as their core moiety. The structure-property relationships of these probes have been investigated. The change of optical properties, caused by different electronic effect and steric effect of the recognition group, has been analyzed systematically. DFT calculation simulation of the Ring-Close and Ring-Open form of all the probes have been employed to illuminate, summarize and confirm these correlations between optical properties and molecular structures. In addition, biological experiment demonstrated that all the probes have a high potential for both sensitive and selective detection, mapping of adsorbed Cu(2+) both in vivo and environmental microbial systems. This approach provides a significant strategy for studying structure-property relationships and guiding the synthesis of probes with various optical properties.
Project description:Monolayer Cu₂S and ZnO, and three kinds of complex films, Cu₂S/ZnO, ZnO/Cu₂S, and ZnO/Cu₂S/ZnO, were deposited on glass substrates by means of radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering device. The impact of the thickness of ZnO and Cu₂S on the whole transmittance, conductivity, and photocatalysis was investigated. The optical and electrical properties of the multilayer were studied by optical spectrometry and four point probes. Numerical simulation of the optical transmittance of the multilayer films has been carried out in order to guide the experimental work. The comprehensive performances of the multilayers as transparent conductive coatings were compared using the figure of merit. Compared with monolithic Cu₂S and ZnO films, both the optical transmission property and photocatalytic performance of complex films such as Cu₂S/ZnO and ZnO/Cu₂S/ZnO change significantly.
Project description:Nine new quadrupolar chromophores based on diketopyrrolopyrrole were designed and prepared by cross-coupling reactions. The property tuning has been achieved by structural variation of the peripheral substituents (donor) and enlargement of the ?-system. Fundamental properties of target molecules were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, electrochemistry, and absorption and emission spectra. Nonlinear optical properties were studied by measuring the third harmonic generation. The experimental data were completed by quantum-chemical calculations and structure-property relationships were elucidated.
Project description:Visible light-driven Ag2S-grafted NiO-ZnO ternary nanocomposites are synthesized using a facile and cost-effective homogeneous precipitation method. The structural, morphological, and optical properties were extensively studied, confirming the formation of ternary nanocomposites. The surface area of the synthesized nanocomposites was calculated by electrochemical double-layer capacitance (C dl). Ternary Ag2S/NiO-ZnO nanocomposites showed excellent visible light photocatalytic property which increases further with the concentration of Ag2S. The maximum photocatalytic activity was shown by 8% Ag2S/NiO-ZnO with a RhB degradation efficiency of 95%. Hydroxyl and superoxide radicals were found to be dominant species for photodegradation of RhB, confirmed by scavenging experiments. It is noteworthy that the recycling experiments demonstrated high stability and recyclable nature of the photocatalyst. Moreover, the electrochemical results indicated that the prepared nanocomposite exhibits remarkable activity toward detection of acetone. The fabricated nanocomposite sensor showed high sensitivity (4.0764 ?A mmol L-1 cm-2) and a lower detection limit (0.06 mmol L-1) for the detection of acetone. The enhanced photocatalytic and the sensing property of Ag2S/NiO-ZnO can be attributed to the synergistic effects of strong visible light absorption, excellent charge separation, and remarkable surface properties.
Project description:Bulk photopolymerization of a library of synthesized multifunctional azides and alkynes was carried out toward developing structure-property relationships for CuAAC-based polymer networks. Multifunctional azides and alkynes were formulated with a copper catalyst and a photoinitiator, cured, and analyzed for their mechanical properties. Material properties such as the glass transition temperatures (Tg) show a strong dependence on monomer structure with Tg values ranging from 41 to 90 °C for the series of CuAAC monomers synthesized in this study. Compared to the triazoles, analogous thioether-based polymer networks exhibit a 45-49 °C lower Tg whereas analogous monomers composed of ethers in place of carbamates exhibit a 40 °C lower Tg. Here, the formation of the triazole moiety during the polymerization represents a critical component in dictating the material properties of the ultimate polymer network where material properties such as the rubbery modulus, cross-link density, and Tg all exhibit strong dependence on polymerization conversion, monomer composition, and structure postgelation.
Project description:We induced a terpyridine moiety into a norbornene-based polymer to demonstrate its self-healing property, without an external stimulus, such as light, heat, or healing agent, using metal⁻ligand interactions. We synthesized terpyridine incorporated norbornene-based polymers using a ring-opening metathesis polymerization. The sol state of diluted polymer solutions was converted into supramolecular assembled gels, through the addition of transition metal ions (Ni2+, Co2+, Fe2+, and Zn2+). In particular, a supramolecular complex gel with Zn2+, which is a metal with a lower binding affinity, demonstrated fast self-healing properties, without any additional external stimuli, and its mechanical properties were completely recovered.
Project description:The extremely large number of unique polymer compositions that can be achieved through copolymerisation makes it an attractive strategy for tuning their optoelectronic properties. However, this same attribute also makes it challenging to explore the resulting property space and understand the range of properties that can be realised. In an effort to enable the rapid exploration of this space in the case of binary copolymers, we train a neural network using a tiered data generation strategy to accurately predict the optical and electronic properties of 350 000 binary copolymers that are, in principle, synthesizable from their dihalogen monomers via Yamamoto, or Suzuki-Miyaura and Stille coupling after one-step functionalisation. By extracting general features of this property space that would otherwise be obscured in smaller datasets, we identify simple models that effectively relate the properties of these copolymers to the homopolymers of their constituent monomers, and challenge common ideas behind copolymer design. We find that binary copolymerisation does not appear to allow access to regions of the optoelectronic property space that are not already sampled by the homopolymers, although it conceptually allows for more fine-grained property control. Using the large volume of data available, we test the hypothesis that copolymerisation of 'donor' and 'acceptor' monomers can result in copolymers with a lower optical gap than their related homopolymers. Overall, despite the prevalence of this concept in the literature, we observe that this phenomenon is relatively rare, and propose conditions that greatly enhance the likelihood of its experimental realisation. Finally, through a 'topographical' analysis of the co-polymer property space, we show how this large volume of data can be used to identify dominant monomers in specific regions of property space that may be amenable to a variety of applications, such as organic photovoltaics, light emitting diodes, and thermoelectrics.
Project description:A new series of 2,4,6-triaryl-?5 -phosphinines have been synthesized that contain different substituents both on the carbon backbone and the phosphorus atom of the six-membered heterocycle. Their optical and redox properties were studied in detail, supported by in-depth theoretical calculations. The modularity of the synthetic strategy allowed the establishment of structure-property relationships for this class of compounds and an OLED based on a blue phosphinine emitter could be developed for the first time.
Project description:Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) is a wide-field diffuse optical imaging modality that has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Typically, diffuse reflectance measurements of spatially modulated light are used to quantify the optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tissue, and with these, chromophore concentrations are extracted. However, uncertainties in estimated absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are rarely reported, and we know of no method capable of providing these when look-up table (LUT) algorithms are used to recover the optical properties. We present a method to generate optical property uncertainty estimates from knowledge of diffuse reflectance measurement errors. By employing the Cramér-Rao bound, we can quickly and efficiently explore theoretical SFDI performance as a function of spatial frequencies and sample optical properties, allowing us to optimize spatial frequency selection for a given application. In practice, we can also obtain useful uncertainty estimates for optical properties recovered with a two-frequency LUT algorithm, as we demonstrate with tissue-simulating phantom and in vivo experiments. Finally, we illustrate how absorption coefficient uncertainties can be propagated forward to yield uncertainties for chromophore concentrations, which could significantly impact the interpretation of experimental results.
Project description:Spider silks have been a focus of research for almost two decades due to their outstanding mechanical and biophysical properties. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of recombinant spider silks, thus helping to unravel a fundamental understanding of structure-function-property relationships. The relationships between molecular composition, secondary structures and mechanical properties found in different types of spider silks are described, along with a discussion of artificial spinning of these proteins and their bioapplications, including the role of silks in biomineralization and fabrication of biomaterials with controlled properties.
Project description:According to the currently accepted structure-property relationships, aceno-pentalenes with an angular shape (fused to the 1,2-bond of the acene) exhibit higher antiaromaticity than those with a linear shape (fused to the 2,3-bond of the acene). To explore and expand the current view, we designed and synthesized molecules where two isomeric, yet, different, 8? antiaromatic subunits, a benzocyclobutadiene (BCB) and a pentalene, are combined into, respectively, an angular and a linear topology via an unsaturated six-membered ring. The antiaromatic character of the molecules is supported experimentally by 1H NMR, UV-vis, and cyclic voltammetry measurements and X-ray crystallography. The experimental results are further confirmed by theoretical studies including the calculation of several aromaticity indices (NICS, ACID, HOMA, FLU, MCI). In the case of the angular molecule, double bond-localization within the connecting six-membered ring resulted in reduced antiaromaticity of both the BCB and pentalene subunits, while the linear structure provided a competitive situation for the two unequal [4n]? subunits. We found that in the latter case the BCB unit alleviated its unfavorable antiaromaticity more efficiently, leaving the pentalene with strong antiaromaticity. Thus, a reversed structure-antiaromaticity relationship when compared to aceno-pentalenes was achieved.