Green bean biofortification for Si through soilless cultivation: plant response and Si bioaccessibility in pods.
ABSTRACT: Food plants biofortification for micronutrients is a tool for the nutritional value improvement of food. Soilless cultivation systems, with the optimal control of plant nutrition, represent a potential effective technique to increase the beneficial element content in plant tissues. Silicon (Si), which proper intake is recently recommended for its beneficial effects on bone health, presents good absorption in intestinal tract from green bean, a high-value vegetable crop. In this study we aimed to obtain Si biofortified green bean pods by using a Si-enriched nutrient solution in soilless system conditions, and to assess the influence of boiling and steaming cooking methods on Si content, color parameters and Si bioaccessibility (by using an in vitro digestion process) of pods. The Si concentration of pods was almost tripled as a result of the biofortification process, while the overall crop performance was not negatively influenced. The Si content of biofortified pods was higher than unbiofortified also after cooking, despite the cooking method used. Silicon bioaccessibility in cooked pods was more than tripled as a result of biofortification, while the process did not affect the visual quality of the product. Our results demonstrated that soilless cultivation can be successfully used for green bean Si biofortification.
Project description:Around the world, cereals are stapled foods and good sources of vitamins A, B, and E. As cereals are inexpensive and consumed in large quantities, attempts are being made to enrich cereals using fortification and biofortification in order to address vitamin deficiency disorders in a vulnerable population. The processing and cooking of cereals significantly affect vitamin content. Depending on grain structure, milling can substantially reduce vitamin content, while cooking methods can significantly impact vitamin retention and bioaccessibility. Pressure cooking has been reported to result in large vitamin losses, whereas minimal vitamin loss was observed following boiling. The fortification of cereal flour with vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B9, which are commonly deficient, has been recommended; and in addition, region-specific fortification using either synthetic or biological vitamins has been suggested. Biofortification is a relatively new concept and has been explored as a method to generate vitamin-rich crops. Once developed, biofortified crops can be utilized for several years. A recent cereal biofortification success story is the enrichment of maize with provitamin A carotenoids.
Project description:Biofortification is a plant breeding method that introduces increased concentrations of minerals in staple food crops (e.g., legumes, cereal grains), and has shown success in alleviating insufficient Fe intake in various human populations. Unlike other strategies utilized to alleviate Fe deficiency, studies of the gut microbiota in the context of Fe biofortification have not yet been reported, although the consumption of Fe biofortified staple food crops has increased significantly over time. Hence, in this study, we performed a 6-week feeding trial in Gallus gallus (n = 14), aimed to investigate the alterations in the gut microbiome following administration of an Fe biofortified bean-based diet (biofortified, BFe) versus a bean based diet with poorly-bioavailable Fe (standard, SFe). Cream seeded carioca bean based diets were designed in an identical fashion to those used in a recent human clinical trial of Fe biofortified beans in Rwanda. We hypothesized that the different dietary Fe contents in the beans based diets will alter the composition and function of the intestinal microbiome. The primary outcomes were changes in the gut microbiome composition and function analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We observed no significant changes in phylogenetic diversity between groups. There were significant differences in the composition of the microbiota between groups, with the BFe group harboring fewer taxa participating in bacterial Fe uptake, increased abundance of bacteria involved in phenolic catabolism, and increased abundance of beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Additionally, depletion of key bacterial pathways responsible for bacterial viability and Fe uptake suggest that improvements in Fe bioavailability, in addition to increases in Fe-polyphenol and Fe-phytate complexes due to biofortification, led to decreased concentrations of cecal Fe available for bacterial utilization. Our findings demonstrate that Fe biofortification may improve Fe status without negatively altering the structure and function of the gut microbiota, as is observed with other nutritional methods of Fe supplementation. These results may be used to further improve the efficacy and safety of future biofortification efforts in eradicating global Fe deficiency.
Project description:Biofortification is an effective method to improve the nutritional content of crops and nutritional intake. Breeding for higher micronutrient mineral content in beans is correlated with an increase in phytic acid, a main inhibitor of mineral absorption in humans. Low phytic acid (lpa) beans have a 90% lower phytic acid content compared to conventional beans. This is the first study to investigate mineral and total phytic acid retention after preparing common household recipes from conventional, biofortified and lpa beans. Mineral retention was determined for two conventional, three biofortified and two lpa bean genotypes. Treatments included soaking, boiling (boiled beans) and refrying (bean paste). The average true retention of iron after boiling was 77.2-91.3%; for zinc 41.2-84.0%; and for phytic acid 49.9-85.9%. Soaking led to a significant decrease in zinc and total phytic acid after boiling and refrying, whereas for iron no significant differences were found. lpa beans did not exhibit a consistent pattern of difference in iron and phytic acid retention compared to the other groups of beans. However, lpa beans had a significantly lower retention of zinc compared to conventional and biofortified varieties (p < 0.05). More research is needed to understand the underlying factors responsible for the differences in retention between the groups of beans, especially the low retention of zinc. Combining the lpa and biofortification traits could further improve the nutritional benefits of biofortified beans, by decreasing the phytic acid:iron and zinc ratio in beans.
Project description:Staple food crops tend to be low in micronutrients; therefore, individuals whose diets rely heavily on them can suffer from micronutrient deficiency. Biofortification addresses this issue through the breeding of staple crops that are micronutrient-dense and high yielding. One such crop is iron-biofortified beans. Ten iron-biofortified bean varieties were released between 2010 and 2012 in Rwanda, a country with high rates of bean production and consumption, to address iron deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of the most widely adopted of these varieties, RWR2245, on household yield, land cultivated under beans, bean consumption, purchases, and sales. Because the adoption decision could be endogenous, we use a control function approach to quantify the impacts of adoption. RWR2245 provides a yield gain of 20%-49% over traditional bush bean varieties. In our preferred model specification, we find that over a 12-month period, growing RWR2245 for at least one out of two annual growing seasons increases the length of time beans are consumed from own production by 0.64 months (19-20 days), reduces the length of time beans are purchased for consumption by 0.73 months (22-23 days), and increases the probability of selling beans by 12%. Adoption can thus improve household nutrition via two channels: primarily by increasing iron intake via substituting biofortified harvested beans for less nutrient-dense beans from the market, and additionally by increasing household income that can be spent on nutritious foods through the reduction in bean purchases and increased likelihood of selling beans. Moreover, the sale of iron-biofortified beans implies the availability of iron-dense food in markets, also benefiting households that purchase beans. These findings are promising for the continued adoption of iron-biofortified beans in Rwanda and elsewhere and provide evidence that biofortified crops are an effective investment for nutrition, food security, and poverty reduction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Iron-biofortified staple foods can improve iron status and resolve iron deficiency. However, whether improved iron status from iron biofortification can improve physical performance remains unclear. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to examine whether changes in iron status from an iron-biofortified bean intervention affect work efficiency. METHODS:A total of 125 iron-depleted (ferritin <20 ?g/L) female Rwandan university students (18-26 y) were selected from a larger sample randomly assigned to consume iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Bean; 86.1 mg Fe/kg) or conventional beans (control: 50.6 mg Fe/kg) twice daily for 18 wk (average of 314 g beans consumed/d). Blood biomarkers of iron status (primary outcome) and physical work efficiency (secondary outcome) were measured before and after the intervention. Work performed was assessed during 5-min steady-state periods at 0-, 25-, and 40-W workloads using a mechanically braked cycle ergometer. Work efficiency was calculated at 25 W and 40 W as the work accomplished divided by the energy expended at that workload above that expended at 0 W. General linear models were used to evaluate the relation between changes in iron status biomarkers and work efficiency. RESULTS:The Fe-Bean intervention had significant positive effects on hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and body iron stores but did not affect work efficiency. However, 18-wk change in hemoglobin was positively related to work efficiency at 40 W in the full sample (n = 119; estimate: 0.24 g/L; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.48 g/L; P = 0.044) and among women who were anemic (hemoglobin <120 g/L) at baseline (n = 43; estimate: 0.64 g/L; 95% CI: 0.05, 1.23 g/L; P = 0.036). Among women who were nonanemic at baseline, change in serum ferritin was positively related to change in work efficiency at 40 W (n = 60; estimate: 0.50 ?g/L; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.95 ?g/L; P = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS:Increasing iron status during an iron-biofortified bean feeding trial improves work efficiency in iron-depleted, sedentary women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01594359.
Project description:In many poorer parts of the world, biofortification is a strategy that increases the concentration of target nutrients in staple food crops, mainly by genetic manipulation, to alleviate prevalent nutrient deficiencies. We reviewed the (i) prevalence of vitamin A, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies; (ii) availability of vitamin A, iron and Zn biofortified crops, and their acceptability in South Africa. The incidence of vitamin A and iron deficiency among children below five years old is 43.6% and 11%, respectively, while the risk of Zn deficiency is 45.3% among children aged 1 to 9 years. Despite several strategies being implemented to address the problem, including supplementation and commercial fortification, the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is still high. Biofortification has resulted in the large-scale availability of ?carotene-rich orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP), while provitamin A biofortified maize and Zn and/or iron biofortified common beans are at development stages. Agronomic biofortification is being investigated to enhance yields and concentrations of target nutrients in crops grown in agriculturally marginal environments. The consumer acceptability of OFSP and provitamin A biofortified maize were higher among children compared to adults. Accelerating the development of other biofortified staple crops to increase their availability, especially to the target population groups, is essential. Nutrition education should be integrated with community health programmes to improve the consumption of the biofortified crops, coupled with further research to develop suitable recipes/formulations for biofortified foods.
Project description:Mineral deficiency is worldwide one of the major problems associated with human health, and biofortification through breeding is considered an important strategy to improve the nutritional content of staple food in countries that face this problem. The assessment of genetic variability for seed nutrient contents is a first step in the development of a biofortified crop. From the germplasm bank IDR-IAPAR-EMATER, a set of 1,512 common bean accessions, consisting of local and commercial varieties and improved lines, was analyzed. High variability among the accessions was observed for all evaluated nutrient contents (P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and S and protein). In the mean, the contents of the carioca and black market groups (Mesoamerican gene pool), were around 7% higher for the minerals Ca, Cu, Mn and Fe and between 2-4% higher for P, K, Mg and Zn than in the other groups with Mesoamerican and Andean common bean. Few differences were observed among the Mesoamerican accessions that belong to the carioca and black commercial groups. Wide variability was observed among the evaluated genotypes, and the concentrations of the best accessions exceeded the overall mean by 14-28%. Due to the high variability in the evaluated accessions, these results may contribute to the selection of promising parents for the establishment of mating blocks. The nutritional contents of many of the improved lines evaluated in this study were higher than those of the commercial cultivars, indicating the possibility of developing new biofortified cultivars.
Project description:Biofortification is an upcoming, promising, cost-effective, and sustainable technique of delivering micronutrients to a population that has limited access to diverse diets and other micronutrient interventions. Unfortunately, major food crops are poor sources of micronutrients required for normal human growth. The manuscript deals in all aspects of crop biofortification which includes-breeding, agronomy, and genetic modification. It tries to summarize all the biofortification research that has been conducted on different crops. Success stories of biofortification include lysine and tryptophan rich quality protein maize (World food prize 2000), Vitamin A rich orange sweet potato (World food prize 2016); generated by crop breeding, oleic acid, and stearidonic acid soybean enrichment; through genetic transformation and selenium, iodine, and zinc supplementation. The biofortified food crops, especially cereals, legumes, vegetables, and fruits, are providing sufficient levels of micronutrients to targeted populations. Although a greater emphasis is being laid on transgenic research, the success rate and acceptability of breeding is much higher. Besides the challenges biofortified crops hold a bright future to address the malnutrition challenge.
Project description:Biofortification breeding for three important micronutrients for human health, namely, iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and provitamin A (PVA), has gained momentum in recent years. HarvestPlus, along with its global consortium partners, enhances Fe, Zn, and PVA in staple crops. The strategic and applied research by HarvestPlus is driven by product-based impact pathway that integrates crop breeding, nutrition research, impact assessment, advocacy, and communication to implement country-specific crop delivery plans. Targeted breeding has resulted in 393 biofortified crop varieties by the end of 2020, which have been released or are in testing in 63 countries, potentially benefitting more than 48 million people. Nevertheless, to reach more than a billion people by 2030, future breeding lines that are being distributed by Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) centers and submitted by National Agricultural Research System (NARS) to varietal release committees should be biofortified. It is envisaged that the mainstreaming of biofortification traits will be driven by high-throughput micronutrient phenotyping, genomic selection coupled with speed breeding for accelerating genetic gains. It is noteworthy that targeted breeding gradually leads to mainstreaming, as the latter capitalizes on the progress made in the former. Efficacy studies have revealed the nutritional significance of Fe, Zn, and PVA biofortified varieties over non-biofortified ones. Mainstreaming will ensure the integration of biofortified traits into competitive varieties and hybrids developed by private and public sectors. The mainstreaming strategy has just been initiated in select CGIAR centers, namely, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), and International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT). This review will present the key successes of targeted breeding and its relevance to the mainstreaming approaches to achieve scaling of biofortification to billions sustainably.
Project description:Iron biofortification of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a promising approach to combat iron deficiency (ID) in the millet-consuming communities of developing countries. To evaluate the potential of iron-biofortified millet to provide additional bioavailable iron compared with regular millet and post-harvest iron-fortified millet, an iron absorption study was conducted in 20 Beninese women with marginal iron status. Composite test meals consisting of millet paste based on regular-iron, iron-biofortified, or post-harvest iron-fortified pearl millet flour accompanied by a leafy vegetable sauce or an okra sauce were fed as multiple meals for 5 d. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Fractional iron absorption from test meals based on regular-iron millet (7.5%) did not differ from iron-biofortified millet meals (7.5%; P = 1.0), resulting in a higher quantity of total iron absorbed from the meals based on iron-biofortified millet (1125 vs. 527 ?g; P < 0.0001). Fractional iron absorption from post-harvest iron-fortified millet meals (10.4%) was higher than from regular-iron and iron-biofortified millet meals (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), resulting in a higher quantity of total iron absorbed from the post-harvest iron-fortified millet meals (1500 ?g; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Results indicate that consumption of iron-biofortified millet would double the amount of iron absorbed and, although fractional absorption of iron from biofortification is less than that from fortification, iron-biofortified millet should be highly effective in combatting ID in millet-consuming populations.