Fentanyl and Midazolam Are Ineffective in Reducing Episodic Intracranial Hypertension in Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of bolus-dose fentanyl and midazolam to treat episodic intracranial hypertension in children with severe traumatic brain injury.Retrospective cohort.PICU in a university-affiliated children's hospital level I trauma center.Thirty-one children 0-18 years of age with severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score of ? 8) who received bolus doses of fentanyl and/or midazolam for treatment of episodic intracranial hypertension.None.The area under the curve from high-resolution intracranial pressure-time plots was calculated to represent cumulative intracranial hypertension exposure: area under the curve for intracranial pressure above 20 mm Hg (area under the curve-intracranial hypertension) was calculated in 15-minute epochs before and after administration of fentanyl and/or midazolam for the treatment of episodic intracranial hypertension. Our primary outcome measure, the difference between predrug and postdrug administration epochs (?area under the curve-intracranial hypertension), was calculated for all occurrences. We examined potential covariates including age, injury severity, mechanism, and time after injury; time after injury correlated with ?area under the curve-intracranial hypertension. In a mixed-effects model, with patient as a random effect, drug/dose combination as a fixed effect, and time after injury as a covariate, intracranial hypertension increased after administration of fentanyl and/or midazolam (overall aggregate mean ?area under the curve-intracranial hypertension = +17 mm Hg × min, 95% CI, 0-34 mm Hg × min; p = 0.04). The mean ?area under the curve-intracranial hypertension increased significantly after administration of high-dose fentanyl (p = 0.02), low-dose midazolam (p = 0.006), and high-dose fentanyl plus low-dose midazolam (0.007). Secondary analysis using age-dependent thresholds showed no significant impact on cerebral perfusion pressure deficit (mean ?area under the curve-cerebral perfusion pressure).Bolus dosing of fentanyl and midazolam fails to reduce the intracranial hypertension burden when administered for episodic intracranial hypertension. Paradoxically, we observed an overall increase in intracranial hypertension burden following drug administration, even after accounting for within-subject effects and time after injury. Future work is needed to confirm these findings in a prospective study design.
Project description:The brain's ability to maintain cerebral blood flow approximately constant despite cerebral perfusion pressure changes is known as cerebral autoregulation (CA) and is governed by vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Cerebral perfusion pressure is defined as the pressure gradient between arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure. Measuring CA is a challenging task and has created a variety of evaluation methods, which are often categorized as static and dynamic CA assessments. Because CA is quantified as the performance of a regulatory system and no physical ground truth can be measured, conflicting results are reported. The conflict further arises from a lack of healthy volunteer data with respect to cerebral perfusion pressure measurements and the variety of diseases in which CA ability is impaired, including stroke, traumatic brain injury and hydrocephalus. To overcome these differences, we present a healthy non-human primate model in which we can control the ability to autoregulate blood flow through the type of anesthesia (isoflurane vs fentanyl). We show how three different assessment methods can be used to measure CA impairment, and how static and dynamic autoregulation compare under challenges in intracranial pressure and blood pressure. We reconstructed Lassen's curve for two groups of anesthesia, where only the fentanyl anesthetized group yielded the canonical shape. Cerebral perfusion pressure allowed for the best distinction between the fentanyl and isoflurane anesthetized groups. The autoregulatory response time to induced oscillations in intracranial pressure and blood pressure, measured as the phase lag between intracranial pressure and blood pressure, was able to determine autoregulatory impairment in agreement with static autoregulation. Static and dynamic CA both show impairment in high dose isoflurane anesthesia, while low isoflurane in combination with fentanyl anesthesia maintains CA, offering a repeatable animal model for CA studies.
Project description:AIMS:Chlorzoxazone is the paradigm marker substrate for CYP2E1 phenotyping in vivo. Because at the commonly used milligram doses (250-750 mg) chlorzoxazone acts as an inhibitor of the CYP3A4/5 marker substrate midazolam, previous attempts failed to combine both drugs in a common phenotyping cocktail. Microdosing chlorzoxazone could circumvent this problem. METHOD:We enrolled 12 healthy volunteers in a trial investigating the dose-exposure relationship of single ascending chlorzoxazone oral doses over a 10,000-fold range (0.05-500 mg) and assessed the effect of 0.1 and 500 mg of chlorzoxazone on oral midazolam pharmacokinetics (0.003 mg). RESULTS:Chlorzoxazone area under the concentration-time curve was dose-linear in the dose range between 0.05 and 5 mg. A nonlinear increase occurred with doses ?50 mg, probably due to saturated presystemic metabolic elimination. While midazolam area under the concentration-time curve increased 2-fold when coadministered with 500 mg of chlorzoxazone, there was no pharmacokinetic interaction between chlorzoxazone and midazolam microdoses. CONCLUSION:The chlorzoxazone microdose did not interact with the CYP3A marker substrate midazolam, enabling the simultaneous administration in a phenotyping cocktail. This microdose assay is now ready to be further validated and tested as a phenotyping procedure assessing the impact of induction and inhibition of CYP2E1 on chlorzoxazone microdose pharmacokinetics.
Project description:Untimely diagnosis of intracranial hypertension may lead to delays in therapy and worsening of outcome. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) detects variations in cerebral blood flow velocity which may correlate with intracranial pressure (ICP). We investigated if intracranial hypertension can be accurately excluded through use of TCD.This was a multicenter prospective pilot study in patients with acute brain injury requiring invasive ICP (ICPi) monitoring. ICP estimated with TCD (ICPtcd) was compared with ICPi in three separate time frames: immediately before ICPi placement, immediately after ICPi placement, and 3 hours following ICPi positioning. Sensitivity and specificity, and concordance correlation coefficient between ICPi and ICPtcd were calculated. Receiver operating curve (ROC) and the area under the curve (AUC) analyses were estimated after measurement averaging over time.A total of 38 patients were enrolled, and of these 12 (31.6%) had at least one episode of intracranial hypertension. One hundred fourteen paired measurements of ICPi and ICPtcd were gathered for analysis. With dichotomized ICPi (?20 mmHg vs >20 mmHg), the sensitivity of ICPtcd was 100%; all measurements with high ICPi (>20 mmHg) also had a high ICPtcd values. Bland-Altman plot showed an overestimation of 6.2 mmHg (95% CI 5.08-7.30 mmHg) for ICPtcd compared to ICPi. AUC was 96.0% (95% CI 89.8-100%) and the estimated best threshold was at ICPi of 24.8 mmHg corresponding to a sensitivity 100% and a specificity of 91.2%.This study provides preliminary evidence that ICPtcd may accurately exclude intracranial hypertension in patients with acute brain injury. Future studies with adequate power are needed to confirm this result.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To develop computer algorithms that can recognize physiologic patterns in traumatic brain injury patients that occur in advance of intracranial pressure and partial brain tissue oxygenation crises. The automated early detection of crisis precursors can provide clinicians with time to intervene in order to prevent or mitigate secondary brain injury. DESIGN:A retrospective study was conducted from prospectively collected physiologic data. intracranial pressure, and partial brain tissue oxygenation crisis events were defined as intracranial pressure of greater than or equal to 20?mm Hg lasting at least 15 minutes and partial brain tissue oxygenation value of less than 10?mm Hg for at least 10 minutes, respectively. The physiologic data preceding each crisis event were used to identify precursors associated with crisis onset. Multivariate classification models were applied to recorded data in 30-minute epochs of time to predict crises between 15 and 360 minutes in the future. SETTING:The neurosurgical unit of Ben Taub Hospital (Houston, TX). SUBJECTS:Our cohort consisted of 817 subjects with severe traumatic brain injury. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Our algorithm can predict the onset of intracranial pressure crises with 30-minute advance warning with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.86 using only intracranial pressure measurements and time since last crisis. An analogous algorithm can predict the start of partial brain tissue oxygenation crises with 30-minute advanced warning with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.91. CONCLUSIONS:Our algorithms provide accurate and timely predictions of intracranial hypertension and tissue hypoxia crises in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Almost all of the information needed to predict the onset of these events is contained within the signal of interest and the time since last crisis.
Project description:Intravenous propofol, fentanyl, and midazolam are utilized commonly in critical care for metabolic suppression and anesthesia. The impact of propofol, fentanyl, and midazolam on cerebrovasculature and cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unclear in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may carry important implications, as care is shifting to focus on cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring/directed therapies. The aim of this study was to perform a scoping review of the literature on the cerebrovascular/CBF effects of propofol, fentanyl, and midazolam in human patients with moderate/severe TBI and animal models with TBI. A search of MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Library from inception to May 2020 was performed. All articles were included pertaining to the administration of propofol, fentanyl, and midazolam, in which the impact on CBF/cerebral vasculature was recorded. We identified 14 studies: 8 that evaluated propofol, 5 that evaluated fentanyl, and 2 that evaluated midazolam. All studies suffered from significant limitations, including: small sample size, and heterogeneous design and measurement techniques. In general, there was no significant change seen in CBF/cerebrovascular response to administration of propofol, fentanyl, or midazolam during experiments where PCO<sub>2</sub> and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were controlled. This review highlights the current knowledge gap surrounding the impact of commonly utilized sedative drugs in TBI care. This work supports the need for dedicated studies, both experimental and human-based, evaluating the impact of these drugs on CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity/response in TBI.
Project description:Herb-drug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herb-drug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160?mg/day × 14 days) was predicted to increase midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by 1%, which was corroborated with external data; a higher dose (1,650?mg/day × 7 days) was predicted to increase midazolam and (S)-warfarin AUC by 5% and 4%, respectively. A proof-of-concept clinical study confirmed minimal interaction between high-dose silibinin and both midazolam and (S)-warfarin (9 and 13% increase in AUC, respectively). Unexpectedly, (R)-warfarin AUC decreased (by 15%), but this is unlikely to be clinically important. Application of this PBPK modeling framework to other herb-drug interactions could facilitate development of guidelines for quantitative prediction of clinically relevant interactions.CPT Pharmacometrics Syst. Pharmacol. (2014) 3, e107; doi:10.1038/psp.2013.69; advance online publication 26 March 2014.
Project description:Morphine delays oral P2Y12 platelet inhibitor absorption and is associated with adverse outcomes after myocardial infarction. Consequently, many physicians and first responders are now considering fentanyl as an alternative. We conducted a single-centre trial randomizing cardiac patients undergoing coronary angiography to intravenous fentanyl or not. All participants received local anaesthetic and intravenous midazolam. Those requiring percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting received 180?mg oral ticagrelor intra-procedurally. The primary outcome was area under the ticagrelor plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24 hours). The secondary outcomes were platelet function assessed at 2 hours after loading, measured by P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs) and light transmission platelet aggregometry. Troponin-I was measured post-PCI using a high-sensitivity troponin-I assay (hs-TnI). All participants completed a survey of pain and anxiety. Of the 212 randomized, 70 patients required coronary stenting and were loaded with ticagrelor. Two participants in the no-fentanyl arm crossed over to receive fentanyl for pain. In as-treated analyses, ticagrelor concentrations were higher in the no-fentanyl arm (AUC0-24 hours 70% larger, p?=?0.03). Platelets were more inhibited by 2 hours in the no-fentanyl arm (71 vs. 113 by PRU, p?=?0.03, and 25% vs. 41% for adenosine diphosphate response by platelet aggregation, p?<?0.01). Mean hs-TnI was higher with fentanyl at 2 hours post-PCI (11.9 vs. 7.0 ng/L, p?=?0.04) with a rate of enzymatic myocardial infarction of 11% for fentanyl and 0% for no-fentanyl (p?=?0.08). No statistical differences in self-reported pain or anxiety were found. In conclusion, fentanyl administration can impair ticagrelor absorption and delay platelet inhibition, resulting in mild excess of myocardial damage. This newly described drug interaction should be recognized by physicians and suggests that the interaction between opioids and oral P2Y12 platelet inhibitors is a drug class effect associated with all opioids. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:?https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02683707 (: NCT02683707).
Project description:Background:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fentanyl for sedation therapy in mechanically ventilated children. Methods:This was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of mechanically ventilated patients between 2 months and 18 years of age. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the control group with midazolam alone, and the combination group with both fentanyl and midazolam. The sedation level was evaluated using the Comfort Behavior Scale (CBS), and the infusion rates were adjusted according to the difference between the measured and the target CBS score. Results:Forty-four patients were recruited and randomly allocated, with 22 patients in both groups. The time ratio of cumulative hours with a difference in CBS score (measured CBS-target CBS) of ? 4 points (i.e., under-sedation) was lower in the combination group (median, 0.06; interquartile range [IQR], 0-0.2) than in the control group (median, 0.15; IQR, 0.04-0.29) (P < 0.001). The time ratio of cumulative hours with a difference in CBS score of ? 8 points (serious under-sedation) was also lower in the combination group (P < 0.001). The cumulative amount of midazolam used in the control group (0.11 mg/kg/hr; 0.07-0.14 mg/kg/hr) was greater than in the combination group (0.07 mg/kg/hr; 0.06-0.11 mg/kg/hr) (P < 0.001). Two cases of hypotension in each group were detected but coma and ileus, the major known adverse reactions to fentanyl, did not occur. Conclusion:Fentanyl combined with midazolam is safe and more effective than midazolam alone for sedation therapy in mechanically ventilated children. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02172014.
Project description:Tenapanor (RDX5791, AZD1722) is an inhibitor of sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 in development for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis. We aimed to investigate whether tenapanor inhibits or induces cytochrome P450s (CYPs). In vitro experiments assessing the potential of tenapanor to affect various CYPs indicated that it could inhibit CYP3A4/5 (IC50 0.4-0.7 ?M). An open-label, phase 1 clinical study (NCT02140268) evaluated the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A4 substrate midazolam when administered with and without tenapanor. Healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of midazolam 7.5 mg on day 1 followed by tenapanor 15 mg twice daily on days 2 to 15, with an additional single 7.5-mg midazolam dose coadministered on day 15. Midazolam exposure was similar whether it was administered alone or with tenapanor (geometric least-squares mean ratio [90%CI] for [midazolam + tenapanor]/midazolam: area under the concentration-time curve, 107% [101% to 113%]; Cmax 104% [89.6% to 122%]). Findings were similar for metabolites of midazolam. These results indicate that tenapanor 15 mg twice daily does not have a clinically relevant impact on CYP3A4 in humans and suggest that tenapanor can be coadministered with CYP3A4-metabolized drugs without affecting their exposure.
Project description:PURPOSE:Drug-drug interaction (DDI) potentials of lusutrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and of cyclosporine, which inhibits P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein, on lusutrombopag pharmacokinetics were assessed via clinical studies and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. METHODS:The effect of lusutrombopag on midazolam (a CYP3A probe substrate) pharmacokinetics was assessed in 15 healthy subjects receiving a single midazolam 5-mg dose with or without coadministration of lusutrombopag 0.75 mg for 6 days (first dose: 1.5-mg dose). The effect of cyclosporine on lusutrombopag pharmacokinetics was assessed in 16 healthy subjects receiving a single lusutrombopag 3-mg dose with or without a single cyclosporine 400- to 600-mg dose. PBPK modeling was employed to extrapolate the effect of lusutrombopag at the clinical dose (3 mg once daily) on midazolam pharmacokinetics. RESULTS:In the clinical study, mean ratios (90% confidence intervals [CIs]) of with/without lusutrombopag for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of midazolam were 1.01 (0.908-1.13) and 1.04 (0.967-1.11), respectively, indicating no effect of lusutrombopag on midazolam pharmacokinetics. PBPK modeling suggested no effect of lusutrombopag at the clinical dose on midazolam pharmacokinetics. Mean ratios (90% CIs) of with/without cyclosporine for lusutrombopag Cmax and AUC were 1.18 (1.11-1.24) and 1.19 (1.13-1.25), respectively, indicating a slight increase in lusutrombopag exposure. CONCLUSIONS:In consideration with in vitro data, the in vivo and in silico results suggested no clinically significant DDI potential of lusutrombopag with other medical products via metabolic enzymes and transporters.