Alternation of apoptotic and implanting genes expression of mouse embryos after re-vitrification.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Nowadays, oocytes and embryos vitrification has become a routine technique. Based on clinical judgment, re-vitrification maybe required. But little is known about re-vitrification impact on genes expression. OBJECTIVE:The impact of re-vitrification on apoptotic and implanting genes, Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4, at compaction stage embryos were evaluated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this experimental study, 8 cell embryos (n=240) were collected from female mature mice, 60-62 hr post HCG injection. The embryos were divided randomly to 3 groups included: fresh (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage thawed and re-vitrified at compaction stage (n=80). Embryos were vitrified by using cryolock, (open system) described by Kuwayama. Q-PCR was used to examine the expression of Bax, Bcl2 ErbB4 genes in derived blastocysts. RESULTS:Our result showed that expanded blastocyst rate was similar between vitrified and re-vitrified groups, while re-vitrified embryos showed significant decrease in expanded blastocyst rate comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.03). In addition, significant difference was observed on apoptotic gene expression when comparing re-vitrified and fresh embryos (p=0.004), however expression of Bax and Bcl-2 (apoptotic) genes didn't demonstrate a significant difference between re-vitrified and vitrified groups. The expression rate of ErbB4, an implantation gene was decreased in re-vitrified embryos comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.003), but it was similar between re-vitrified and vitrified embryos. CONCLUSION:Re-vitrification can alter the expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4 genes and developmental rate of mouse embryos in compaction stage.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to clarify whether or not our vitrification procedure at the germinal vesicle (GV)-stage triggers the apoptotic cascade in oocytes and subsequent embryos. Immature porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes were either vitrified and warmed (vitrified group) or subjected to cryoprotectant agents (CPA group) or cultured without any treatment (control). Oocytes of all treatment groups were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization, and embryo culture. Apoptosis was assayed in live oocytes at the end of IVM culture and in cleavage-stage embryos after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We detected similar frequencies of DNA fragmentation, levels of caspase activity, phosphatidylserine externalization, and mRNA levels for pro-apoptotic Bax and CASP3 genes in oocytes at the end of IVM and in early embryos among all groups. However, in the vitrified group, the anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL gene was upregulated in 4-8 cell embryos, which caused an 8-fold significant increase in the Bcl-XL/Bax mRNA ratio compared with the control and CPA groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, vitrification of porcine oocytes at the GV stage by our method did not trigger the apoptotic cascade in oocytes and subsequent embryos but triggered the upregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL gene in embryos.
Project description:The present study sought to determine whether in vitro maturation (IVM) of pig oocytes in a medium supplemented with insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I) and subsequent vitrification with or without reduced glutathione (GSH) affect their quality and developmental competence, and the expression of genes involved in antioxidant, apoptotic and stress responses. In Experiment 1, cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured in the absence or presence of IGF-I (100 ng·mL-1) and then vitrified-warmed with or without 2 mM of GSH. Maturation rate was evaluated before vitrification, and oocyte viability, DNA fragmentation and relative transcript abundances of BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX), BCL2-like1 (BCL2L1), heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) genes were assessed in fresh and vitrified-warmed oocytes. In Experiment 2, fresh and vitrified-warmed oocytes were in vitro fertilized and their developmental competence determined. Whereas the addition of IGF-I to maturation medium had no effect on oocyte maturation, it caused an increase in the survival rate of vitrified-warmed oocytes. This effect was accompanied by a concomitant augment in the relative transcript abundance of HSPA1A and a decrease of BAX. Furthermore, the addition of GSH to vitrification-warming media increased survival rates at post-warming. Likewise, the action of GSH was concomitant with an increase in the relative abundance of GPX1 and a decrease of BAX transcript. Blastocyst rates of vitrified-warmed oocytes did not differ from their fresh counterparts when IGF-I and GSH were combined. In conclusion, supplementing maturation medium with 100 ng·mL-1 IGF-I and vitrification-warming solutions with 2 mM GSH improves the quality and cryotolerance of IVM pig oocytes, through a mechanism that involves BAX, GPX1 and HSPA1A expression.
Project description:This study aimed to examine whether the addition of glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-OEt) to the in vitro maturation (IVM) medium would improve the resilience of bovine oocytes to withstand vitrification. The effects of GSH-OEt on spindle morphology, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial activity and distribution, and embryo developmental potential were assessed together with the expression of genes with a role in apoptosis (BAX, BCL2), oxidative-stress pathways (GPX1, SOD1), water channels (AQP3), implantation (IFN-?) and gap junctions (CX43) in oocytes and their derived blastocysts. Vitrification gave rise to abnormal spindle microtubule configurations and elevated ROS levels. Supplementation of IVM medium with GSH-OEt before vitrification preserved mitochondrial distribution pattern and diminished both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ROS contents and percentages of embryos developing beyond the 8-cell stage were similar to those recorded in fresh non-vitrified oocytes. Although not significantly different from control vitrified oocytes, vitrified oocytes after GSH-OEt treatment gave rise to similar day 8-blastocyst and hatching rates to fresh non-vitrified oocytes. No effects of GSH-OEt supplementation were noted on the targeted gene expression of oocytes and derived blastocysts, with the exception of GPX1, AQP3 and CX43 in derived blastocysts. The addition of GSH-OEt to the IVM medium before vitrification may be beneficial for embryo development presumably as the consequence of additional anti-oxidant protection during IVM.
Project description:PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitrification on the preimplantation developmental competence of mouse 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell stage embryos. METHODS: Mouse 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell stage embryos were cryopreserved using the cryotop vitrification method and subsequently warmed on a later date. The embryos were then assessed by their morphology, blastocyst formation and hatching rates. Additionally, trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) cell numbers were compared in hatched blastocysts from the control and experimental groups. RESULTS: Vitrified embryos at the 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell stages appeared morphologically normal after warming. The overall survival rate of vitrified embryos at various stages after warming was 96.7% and there were no significant differences among 2-cell stage (96.0%), 4-cell stage (96.8%) and 8-cell stage (97.1%) embryos (P > 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate (69.4%) and hatching rate (52.6%) of vitrified 2-cell embryos were significantly lower than that from the control group and vitrified 8-cell embryos (P < 0.05). In the vitrified 4-cell embryo group, the blastocyst formation rate (90.3%) was similar to the 8-cell group (91.2%), but the hatching rate (60.0%) was significantly lower than that of the non-vitrified control ( 84.1%) and vitrified 8-cell embryo (78.4%) groups (P < 0.05). When further development to the fully hatched blastocyst stage was compared, hatched blastocysts derived from vitrified 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell embryos had significantly lower cell counts both in the ICM and TE, as compared to fresh blastocysts (P < 0.05). Among the vitrified 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell embryo groups, there were no significant differences in the cell counts of ICM and TE (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although cryotop vitrification was suitable for the cryopreservation of mouse embryos from the 2-cell stage, 4-cell stage and 8-cell stage without significant loss of survival, vitrification had an adverse effect on the development of 2-cell embryos. Mouse embryos at the 8-cell stage had the best tolerance for vitrification and would yield the highest level of post-vitrification developmental competence among early cleavage stage embryos. Nevertheless, it is unclear how these findings can be extrapolated to human embryos.
Project description:Oocyte cryopreservation has a significant impact on subsequent embryonic development. Herein, we investigated whether supplementing in vitro maturation medium with Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) prior to vitrification affects embryo development and gene expression at different embryo developmental stages. A panel of genes including maternal effect, epigenetics, apoptosis and heat stress was relatively quantified. The results show reduced cleavage rates after vitrification, regardless of the LIF treatment. Although not statistically different from control-vitrified oocytes, oocyte apoptosis and the blastocyst yield of LIF-vitrified oocytes were similar to their non-vitrified counterparts. Vitrification increased oocyte ZAR1, NPM2 and DPPA3 gene expression while its expression decreased in LIF-vitrified oocytes to similar or close levels to those of non-vitrified oocytes. With a few gene-specific exceptions, vitrification significantly increased the expression of DNMT3A, HDAC1, KAT2A, BAX and BCL2L1 in oocytes and most stages of embryo development, while comparable expression patterns for these genes were observed between LIF-vitrified and non-vitrified groups. Vitrification increased HSPA1A expression in oocytes and HSP90AA1 in 2-cell embryos. Our data suggest that vitrification triggers stage-specific changes in gene expression throughout embryonic development. However, the inclusion of LIF in the IVM medium prior to vitrification stimulates blastocyst development and several other developmental parameters and induces oocytes and embryos to demonstrate gene expression patterns similar to those derived from non-vitrified oocytes.
Project description:This study was designed to compare the efficiency of the Cryotop and Calibrated plastic inoculation loop (CPIL) devices for vitrification of rabbit embryos on in vitro development and implantation rate, offspring rate at birth and embryonic and fetal losses. CPIL is a simple tool used mainly by microbiologists to retrieve an inoculum from a culture of microorganisms. In experiment 1, embryos were vitrified using a Cryotop device and a CPIL device. There were no significant differences in hatched/hatching blastocyst stage rates after 48 h of culture among the vitrified groups (62 ± 4.7% and 62 ± 4.9%, respectively); however, the rates were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of the fresh group (95 ± 3.4%). In experiment 2, vitrified embryos were transferred using laparoscopic technique. The number of implanted embryos was estimated by laparoscopy as number of implantation sites at day 14 of gestation. At birth, total offspring were recorded. Embryonic and fetal losses were calculated as the difference between implanted embryos and embryos transferred and total born at birth and implanted embryos, respectively. The rate of implantation and development to term was similar between both vitrification devices (56 ± 7.2% and 50 ± 6.8% for implantation rate and 40 ± 7.1% and 35 ± 6.5% for offspring rate at birth); but significantly lower than in the fresh group (78 ± 6.6% for implantation rate and 70 ± 7.2% for offspring rate at birth, P<0.05). Likewise, embryonic losses were similar between both vitrification devices (44 ± 7.2% and 50 ± 6.8%), but significantly higher than in the fresh group (23 ± 6.6%, P < 0.05). However, fetal losses were similar between groups (10 ± 4.4%, 15 ± 4.8% and 8 ± 4.2%, for vitrified, Cryotop or CPIL and fresh, respectively). These results indicate that the CPIL device is as effective as the Cryotop device for vitrification of rabbit embryos, but at a cost of €0.05 per device.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In this study, we evaluated the incidence of apoptosis at the ultrastructural levels and expression of some apoptosis-related genes in vitrified human ovarian tissue just after warming. METHODS:Human ovarian tissue biopsies from 23 women after caesarean section were transported to the laboratory within 2 hours, and then they were cut into small pieces. Some pieces were vitrified and warmed and the other samples were considered as control. Apoptosis was assessed by a transmission electron microscope and also by molecular analysis of pro-apoptotic (Fas, FasL, Bax, p53, caspase8, and caspase3) and antiapoptotic (Bcl-2 and BIRC5) genem RNA levels using real-time RT-PCR before and after vitrification. RESULTS:No sign of apoptosis was shown ultrastructurally in vitrified samples. The level of FasL, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, and caspase3 mRNA and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio were similar in non-vitrified and vitrified groups; however, the expression of Fas and caspase8 genes was higher and BIRC5 was lower in vitrified samples compared to non-vitrified group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION:The fine structure of human vitrified ovarian tissue was well preserved; moreover, vitrification was shown to affect the expression of some apoptosis-related genes. However, additional study is needed to confirm this observation.
Project description:Morphometric and morphokinetic evaluation of in vitro cultured human embryos allows evaluation without time restriction and reduces intra- and inter-observer variability. Even though these technologies have been reported to improve the quality of cleavage stage embryo evaluation during fresh culture, possible advantages in the evaluation of cryopreserved embryos have been scarcely explored. This study aims to compare morphometric and morphokinetic parameters between slow frozen and vitrified embryos and to determine their relationship to embryo survival and implantation rate (IR) after thawing/warming.During fresh culture, morphometric characteristics (Total Cell Volume (TCV), symmetry, fragmentation and number of blastomeres) were measured in 286 thawed/warmed embryos. Likewise, after thawing/warming, similar morphometric characteristics were measured in 135 survived embryos. Moreover, morphokinetic parameters (time to mitosis resumption and time to compaction) were measured in 90 embryos after thawing/warming. Then, using linear regression, we investigated the differences between vitrified and slow frozen embryos and the relation of the measured characteristics to embryo survival and IR. Statistical corrections were applied to account for data clustering and for multiple testing.Vitrified embryos resume mitosis and start compaction significantly earlier than slow frozen embryos. Mitosis resumption rate was 82% for vitrified and 63% for slow frozen embryos and median time to mitosis resumption was 7.6 h and 13.1 h (p = 0.02), respectively. Compaction rate was 62% in vitrified and only 23% in slow frozen embryos. Median time to compaction was 18.1 h for vitrified embryos but, for slow frozen could not be computed since less than half of the slow frozen embryos reached compaction (p = 0.0001). Moreover, intact embryos resume mitosis significantly earlier than not intact ones regardless of the freezing method (rate: 79% vs. 66%, median time: 7.6 h vs 14.6 h, respectively, p = 0.03). Regarding morphometrics, slow frozen embryos showed lower TCV and higher blastomere symmetry after thawing than vitrified embryos despite having similar blastomere number. IR was related to blastomere number at cryopreservation in slow frozen embryos, but not in vitrified ones.Interestingly, vitrified/warmed embryos undergo mitosis resumption and compaction significantly earlier than slow frozen/thawed embryos. However, the clinical use of this morphokinetic parameters still remains to be investigated in larger studies.Retrospectively registered on December 15, 2015 NCT02639715 .
Project description:The aims of the present study are to identify the mechanism(s) whereby obesity impairs fresh embryos and to clarify the effects of vitrification on lipid droplet content within embryos from maternally obese mice.The diet-induced obesity mouse model was established, and the zygotes were captured and cultured to day 3. The eight-cell embryos were selected and divided into fresh and vitrified groups. The blastocysts derived from fresh embryos were used as a control. The expression profiles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes (Atf4, Grp78, and Hsp70) and other genes (MnSOD, p53, Gadd45g, caspase-3, IGF-II, ZO-1, and E-cadherin) on day-3 fresh and post-warming eight-cell embryos from obese and control groups were determined. For day-5 fresh blastocysts and blastocysts previously vitrified on day 3, the expression profiles for all of the above genes were also determined.For the fresh group, obesity significantly upregulated Hsp70, p53, IGF-II, and ZO-1 expression in embryos on day 3 and notably upregulated Atf4, MnSOD, Gadd45g, caspase-3, ZO-1, and E-cadherin expression in blastocysts on day 5. For vitrified ones, obesity significantly upregulated Atf4, MnSOD, and Gadd45g expression in embryos on day 3 and notably upregulated Hsp70 expression and downregulated MnSOD in day 5 blastocysts previously vitrified on day 3.Obesity impairs fresh embryos and aggravates embryonic vitrification injury at a molecular level.
Project description:PURPOSE: Embryos generated from oocytes which have been vitrified have lower blastocyst development rates than embryos generated from fresh oocytes. This is indicative of a level of irreversible damage to the oocyte possibly due to exposure to high cryoprotectant levels and osmotic stress. This study aimed to assess the effects of vitrification on the mitochondria of mature mouse oocytes while also examining the ability of the osmolyte glycine, to maintain cell function after vitrification. METHODS: Oocytes were cryopreserved via vitrification with or without 1 mM Glycine and compared to fresh oocyte controls. Oocytes were assessed for mitochondrial distribution and membrane potential as well as their ability to fertilise. Blastocyst development and gene expression was also examined. RESULTS: Vitrification altered mitochondrial distribution and membrane potential, which did not recover after 2 h of culture. Addition of 1 mM glycine to the vitrification media prevented these perturbations. Furthermore, blastocyst development from oocytes that were vitrified with glycine was significantly higher compared to those vitrified without glycine (83.9 % vs. 76.5 % respectively; p<0.05) and blastocysts derived from oocytes that were vitrified without glycine had significantly decreased levels of IGF2 and Glut3 compared to control blastocysts however those derived from oocytes vitrified with glycine had comparable levels of these genes compared to fresh controls. CONCLUSION: Addition of 1 mM glycine to the vitrification solutions improved the ability of the oocyte to maintain its mitochondrial physiology and subsequent development and therefore could be considered for routine inclusion in cryopreservation solutions.