Ureaplasma diversum Genome Provides New Insights about the Interaction of the Surface Molecules of This Bacterium with the Host.
ABSTRACT: Whole genome sequencing and analyses of Ureaplasma diversum ATCC 49782 was undertaken as a step towards understanding U. diversum biology and pathogenicity. The complete genome showed 973,501 bp in a single circular chromosome, with 28.2% of G+C content. A total of 782 coding DNA sequences (CDSs), and 6 rRNA and 32 tRNA genes were predicted and annotated. The metabolic pathways are identical to other human ureaplasmas, including the production of ATP via hydrolysis of the urea. Genes related to pathogenicity, such as urease, phospholipase, hemolysin, and a Mycoplasma Ig binding protein (MIB)-Mycoplasma Ig protease (MIP) system were identified. More interestingly, a large number of genes (n = 40) encoding surface molecules were annotated in the genome (lipoproteins, multiple-banded antigen like protein, membrane nuclease lipoprotein and variable surface antigens lipoprotein). In addition, a gene encoding glycosyltransferase was also found. This enzyme has been associated with the production of capsule in mycoplasmas and ureaplasma. We then sought to detect the presence of a capsule in this organism. A polysaccharide capsule from 11 to 17 nm of U. diversum was observed trough electron microscopy and using specific dyes. This structure contained arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose. In order to understand the inflammatory response against these surface molecules, we evaluated the response of murine macrophages J774 against viable and non-viable U. diversum. As with viable bacteria, non-viable bacteria were capable of promoting a significant inflammatory response by activation of Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2), indicating that surface molecules are important for the activation of inflammatory response. Furthermore, a cascade of genes related to the inflammasome pathway of macrophages was also up-regulated during infection with viable organisms when compared to non-infected cells. In conclusion, U. diversum has a typical ureaplasma genome and metabolism, and its surface molecules, including the identified capsular material, represent major components of the organism immunopathogenesis.
Project description:<h4>Background and aim</h4>Due to the incomplete development of the immune system in immature piglets, the respiratory tract is susceptible to invasion by numerous pathogens that cause a range of potential respiratory diseases. However, few studies have reported the changes in pig lung microorganisms during respiratory infection. Therefore, we aimed to explore the differences in lung environmental microorganisms between healthy piglets and piglets with respiratory diseases.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Histopathological changes in lung sections were observed in both diseased and healthy pigs. Changes in the composition and abundance of microbiomes in alveolar lavage fluid from eleven 4-week-old Chinese Kele piglets (three clinically healthy and eight diseased) were studied by IonS5™ XL sequencing of the bacterial16S rRNA genes.<h4>Results</h4>Histopathological sections showed that diseased pigs displayed more lung lesions than healthy pigs. Diseased piglets harbored lower bacterial operational taxonomic units, α-diversity, and bacterial community complexity in comparison to healthy piglets. Taxonomic composition analysis showed that in the diseased piglets, the majority of flora was composed of <i>Ureaplasma</i>, <i>Mycoplasma</i>, and <i>Actinobacillus</i>; while <i>Actinobacillus</i>, <i>Sphingomonas</i>, and <i>Stenotrophomonas</i> were dominant in the control group. The abundance of <i>Ureaplasma</i> was significantly higher in ill piglets (p<0.05), and the phylogenetic tree indicated that <i>Ureaplasma</i> was clustered in <i>Ureaplasma diversum</i>, a conditional pathogen that has the potential to affect the swine respiratory system.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The results of this study show that the microbial species and structure of piglets' lungs were changed during respiratory tract infection. The finding of <i>Ureaplasma</i> suggested that besides known pathogens such as <i>Mycoplasma</i> and <i>Actinobacillus</i>, unknown pathogens can exist in the respiratory system of diseased pigs and provide a potential basis for clinical treatment.
Project description:Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Ureaplasma diversum strain ATCC 49782. This species is of bovine origin, having an association with reproductive disorders in cattle, including placentitis, fetal alveolitis, abortion, and birth of weak calves. It has a small circular chromosome of 975,425 bp.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Ureaplasma diversum is a pathogen found in the genital tract of cattle and associated with genital disorders such as infertility, placentitis, abortion, birth of weak calves, low sperm motility, seminal vesiculitis and epididymitis. There are few studies evaluating the genetic diversity of U. diversum strains and their influence on the immune response in cattle. Therefore, to better understand genetic relationships of the pathogenicity of U. diversum, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was performed to characterize the ATCC 49782 strain and another 40 isolates recovered from different Brazilian states.<h4>Results</h4>Primers were designed for housekeeping genes ftsH, polC, rpL22, rpoB, valS and ureA and for virulence genes, phospholipase D (pld), triacylglycerol lipase (tgl), hemolysin (hlyA), MIB-MIP system (mib,mip), MBA (mba), VsA (VsA) and ribose transporter (tABC). PCRs were performed and the targeted gene products were purified and sequenced. Sequence types (STs), and clonal complexes (CCs) were assigned and the phylogenetic relationship was also evaluated. Thus, a total of 19 STs and 4 CCs were studied. Following the molecular analysis, six isolates of U. diversum were selected, inoculated into bovine monocyte/macrophage culture and evaluated for gene expression of the cytokines TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17. Differences were detected in the induction of cytokines, especially between isolates 198 and BA78, promoted inflammatory and anti-inflammatory profiles, respectively, and they also differed in virulence factors.<h4>Conclusion</h4>It was observed that intra-species variability between isolates of U. diversum can induce variations of virulent determinants and, consequently, modulate the expression of the triggered immune response.
Project description:Background: Certain high-risk (hr) types of human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical cancer in women and penile cancer in men. Hr-HPV can also cause cancers of the oropharynx and anus in both sexes. In the anal and cervical region, a contribution of co-infections with Ureaplasma spp. on the persistence of the hr-HPV infection by a profound inflammatory state is suggested. Here, we investigated if non-HPV sexually transmitted infections are associated with oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC). Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a brush test directly from the tumor surface of OPC patients (study group) and from the oropharynx of healthy volunteers (control group), both groups matching in age and sex, was performed. HPV subtypes were detected using a commercially available test kit. For non-HPV sexually transmitted infections (Ureaplasma spp., Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma genitalium), a multiplex nucleic acid amplification approach was performed. Results: In the study group, 96 patients (23 female/73 male), with histologically confirmed OPC and in the control group 112 patients (19 female/93 male), were included. Oropharyngeal hr-HPV-positivity was detected in 68% (65/96 patients) of the study group and 1.8% (2/112 patients) of the control group (p < 0.001). In three patients in the study group, Ureaplasma spp. was detected, whereas no patient was Ureaplasma spp. positive in the control group (p = 0.097). Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma genitalium were negative in both groups. Conclusion: Based on the current study, the prevalence of oropharyngeal Ureaplasma spp. among patients with OPC is low and does not support a role in oropharyngeal cancer. However, the detection of the pathogen only among OPC patients but not in the healthy individuals might indicate a potential role and needs further elucidation.
Project description:Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species are well-known human pathogens responsible for a broad array of inflammatory conditions involving the respiratory and urogenital tracts of neonates, children, and adults. Greater attention is being given to these organisms in diagnostic microbiology, largely as a result of improved methods for their laboratory detection, made possible by powerful molecular-based techniques that can be used for primary detection in clinical specimens. For slow-growing species, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium, molecular-based detection is the only practical means for rapid microbiological diagnosis. Most molecular-based methods used for detection and characterization of conventional bacteria have been applied to these organisms. A complete genome sequence is available for one or more strains of all of the important human pathogens in the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma genera. Information gained from genome analyses and improvements in efficiency of DNA sequencing are expected to significantly advance the field of molecular detection and genotyping during the next few years. This review provides a summary and critical review of methods suitable for detection and characterization of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas of humans, with emphasis on molecular genotypic techniques.
Project description:The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of bacterial, mycoplasmal and viral pathogens in the lower respiratory tract of calves in all-in all-out calf-rearing units. According to clinical status, non-medicated calves with and without respiratory disease signs were selected of the 40 herds investigated to analyse the micro-organisms present in healthy and diseased calves. Tracheobronchial lavage (TBL) and paired serum samples were analysed for bacteria, mycoplasmas, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3), bovine corona virus (BCV) and bovine adenovirus (BAV). Pasteurella multocida was the most common bacterial pathogen. It was isolated from 34% of the TBL samples in 28 herds and was associated with clinical respiratory disease (p < 0.05) when other pathogenic bacteria or mycoplasma were present in the sample. Mannheimia spp. and Histophilus somni were rarely found. Mycoplasma bovis was not detected at all. Ureaplasma diversum was associated with clinical respiratory disease (p < 0.05). TBL samples from healthy or suspect calves were more often negative in bacterial culture than samples from diseased calves (p < 0.05). No viral infections were detected in six herds, while 16-21 herds had RSV, BCV, BAV or PIV3. In the herds that had calves seroconverted to BCV, respiratory shedding of BCV was more frequently observed than faecal shedding. This study showed that the microbial combinations behind BRD were diverse between herds. M. bovis, an emerging pathogen in many countries, was not detected.
Project description:Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is frequently found in cattle worldwide. The etiology of BRDC is complicated by infections with multiple pathogens, making identification of the causal pathogen difficult. Here, we developed a detection system by applying TaqMan real-time PCR (Dembo respiratory-PCR) to screen a broad range of microbes associated with BRDC in a single run. We selected 16 bovine respiratory pathogens (bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza virus 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, influenza D virus, bovine rhinitis A virus, bovine rhinitis B virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine adenovirus 3, bovine adenovirus 7, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma bovis and Ureaplasma diversum) as detection targets and designed novel specific primer-probe sets for nine of them. The assay performance was assessed using standard curves from synthesized DNA. In addition, the sensitivity of the assay was evaluated by spiking solutions extracted from nasal swabs that were negative by Dembo respiratory-PCR for nucleic acids of pathogens or synthesized DNA. All primer-probe sets showed high sensitivity. In this study, a total of 40 nasal swab samples from cattle on six farms were tested by Dembo respiratory-PCR. Dembo respiratory-PCR can be applied as a screening system with wide detection targets.