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Molecular Evolutionary Pathways toward Two Successful Community-Associated but Multidrug-Resistant ST59 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Lineages in Taiwan: Dynamic Modes of Mobile Genetic Element Salvages.

ABSTRACT: Clonal complex 59 (CC59) Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan includes both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). As the most prominent community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) in Taiwan, CC59 has two major clones characterized as PVL-negative SCCmec IV (carrying the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec IV but Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative) and PVL-positive SCCmec V (5C2&5). We investigated the drug resistance, phylogeny and the distribution and sequence variation of SCCmec, staphylococcal bacteriophage ?SA3, genomic island ?Sa? and MES (an enterococcal mobile genetic element conferring multidrug resistance) in 195 CC59 S. aureus. Sequencing and PCR mapping revealed that all of the CC59/SCCmec V (5C2&5) MRSA strains had acquired MESPM1 or its segregants, and obtained a ?SA3-related fragment in ?Sa?. In contrast, MES6272-2 and MES4578, which showed gentamicin resistance that was not encoded by MESPM1, were dominant in SCCmec IVg MRSA. Translocation of a whole ?SA3 into ?Sa? instead of only a ?SA3-related fragment was common in SCCmec IVg MRSA. However, the non-subtype-g SCCmec IV MRSA (SCCmec IVa is the major) still carried MES and ?Sa? structures similar to those in SCCmec V (5C2&5) MRSA. A minimum spanning tree constructed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis revealed that SCCmec IVg MRSA and SCCmec V (5C2&5) MRSA grouped respectively in two major clades. The CC59 MSSA was equally distributed among the two clades, while the non-subtype-g SCCmec IV MRSA mostly clustered with SCCmec V (5C2&5) MRSA. Our findings strongly suggest that CC59 MSSA acquired divergent mobile genetic elements and evolved to SCCmec IVg MRSA and SCCmec V (5C2&5) MRSA/non-subtype-g SCCmec IV MRSA independently. The evolutionary history of CC59 S. aureus explains how mobile genetic elements increase the antimicrobial resistance and virulence and contribute to the success of CA-MRSA in Taiwan.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC5015870 | BioStudies | 2016-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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