Possible Evidence for a New Form of Liquid Buried in the Surface Tension of Supercooled Water.
ABSTRACT: Contrary to the historical data, several recent experiments indicate that the surface tension of supercooled water follows a smooth extrapolation of the IAPWS equation in the supercooled regime. It can be seen, however, that a small deviation from the IAPWS equation is present in the recent experimental measurements. It is shown with simulations using the WAIL water potential that the small deviation in the experimental data is consistent with the tail of an exponential growth in surface tension as temperature decreases. The emergence temperature, Te, of a substantial deviation from the IAPWS equation is shown to be 227?K for the WAIL water and 235?K for real water. Since the 227?K Te is close to the Widom line in WAIL water, we argue that real water at 235?K approaches a similar crossover line at one atmospheric pressure.
Project description:We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the TIP4P/2005 model of water to investigate the origin of the Boson peak reported in experiments on supercooled water in nanoconfined pores, and in hydration water around proteins. We find that the onset of the Boson peak in supercooled bulk water coincides with the crossover to a predominantly low-density-like liquid below the Widom line TW. The frequency and onset temperature of the Boson peak in our simulations of bulk water agree well with the results from experiments on nanoconfined water. Our results suggest that the Boson peak in water is not an exclusive effect of confinement. We further find that, similar to other glass-forming liquids, the vibrational modes corresponding to the Boson peak are spatially extended and are related to transverse phonons found in the parent crystal, here ice Ih.
Project description:Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), we measure the rotational mobility of probe molecules highly diluted in deeply supercooled bulk water and negligibly constrained by the possible ice fraction. The mobility increases above the putative glass transition temperature of water, T(g) = 136 K, and smoothly connects to the thermodynamically stable region by traversing the so called "no man's land" (the range 150-235 K), where it is believed that the homogeneous nucleation of ice suppresses the liquid water. Two coexisting fractions of the probe molecules are evidenced. The 2 fractions exhibit different mobility and fragility; the slower one is thermally activated (low fragility) and is larger at low temperatures below a fragile-to-strong dynamic cross-over at approximately 225 K. The reorientation of the probe molecules decouples from the viscosity below approximately 225 K. The translational diffusion of water exhibits a corresponding decoupling at the same temperature [Chen S-H, et al. (2006) The violation of the Stokes-Einstein relation in supercooled water. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:12974-12978]. The present findings are consistent with key issues concerning both the statics and the dynamics of supercooled water, namely the large structural fluctuations [Poole PH, Sciortino F, Essmann U, Stanley HE (1992) Phase behavior of metastable water. Nature 360:324-328] and the fragile-to-strong dynamic cross-over at approximately 228 K [Ito K, Moynihan CT, Angell CA (1999) Thermodynamic determination of fragility in liquids and a fragile-to-strong liquid transition in water. Nature 398:492-494].
Project description:Water anomalies still defy explanation. In the supercooled liquid, many quantities, for example heat capacity and isothermal compressibility ?T, show a large increase. The question arises if these quantities diverge, or if they go through a maximum. The answer is key to our understanding of water anomalies. However, it has remained elusive in experiments because crystallization always occurred before any extremum is reached. Here we report measurements of the sound velocity of water in a scarcely explored region of the phase diagram, where water is both supercooled and at negative pressure. We find several anomalies: maxima in the adiabatic compressibility and nonmonotonic density dependence of the sound velocity, in contrast with a standard extrapolation of the equation of state. This is reminiscent of the behavior of supercritical fluids. To support this interpretation, we have performed simulations with the 2005 revision of the transferable interaction potential with four points. Simulations and experiments are in near-quantitative agreement, suggesting the existence of a line of maxima in ?T (LM?T). This LM?T could either be the thermodynamic consequence of the line of density maxima of water [Sastry S, Debenedetti PG, Sciortino F, Stanley HE (1996) Phys Rev E 53:6144-6154], or emanate from a critical point terminating a liquid-liquid transition [Sciortino F, Poole PH, Essmann U, Stanley HE (1997) Phys Rev E 55:727-737]. At positive pressure, the LM?T has escaped observation because it lies in the "no man's land" beyond the homogeneous crystallization line. We propose that the LM?T emerges from the no man's land at negative pressure.
Project description:The return of supercooled water to a stable equilibrium condition is an irreversible process which, in large enough samples, takes place adiabatically. We investigated this phenomenon in water by fast imaging techniques. As water freezes, large energy and density fluctuations promote the spatial coexistence of solid and liquid phases at different temperatures. Upon synchronously monitoring the time evolution of the local temperature, we observed a sharp dynamic transition between a fast and a slow decay regime at about 266.6 K. We construe the observed phenomenon in terms of the temperature dependence of heat transfers from solid and liquid volumes already at their bulk coexistence temperature towards adjacent still supercooled liquid regions. These findings can be justified by observing that convective motions induced by thermal gradients in a supercooled liquid near coexistence are rapidly suppressed as the nucleated solid fraction overcomes, at low enough temperatures, a characteristic percolation threshold.
Project description:Twenty years ago Poole et al. suggested that the anomalous properties of supercooled water may be caused by a critical point that terminates a line of liquid-liquid separation of lower-density and higher-density water. Here we present a thermodynamic model based on this hypothesis, which describes all available experimental data for supercooled water with better quality and fewer adjustable parameters than any other model. Liquid water at low temperatures is viewed as an 'athermal solution' of two molecular structures with different entropies and densities. Alternatively to popular models for water, in which liquid-liquid separation is driven by energy, the phase separation in the athermal two-state water is driven by entropy upon increasing the pressure, while the critical temperature is defined by the 'reaction' equilibrium constant. The model predicts the location of density maxima at the locus of a near-constant fraction of the lower-density structure.
Project description:Using a precise method of least-squares nonlinear electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) line fitting, we have obtained experimental evidence of a decoupling of the rotational motion of four nitroxide spin probes from the viscosity of bulk water at 277 K. This decoupling is about 50 K higher than another such phenomenon observed in interstitial supercooled water of polycrystalline ice by Banerjee et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106 (2009) 11448-11453). Above 277 K the activation energies of the rotation of the probes and water viscosity are very close, while in the supercooled region the activation energies of the probes' rotation are greater than that of the viscosity of water. The rotational correlation times of the probes can be fit well to a power law functionality with a singular temperature. The temperature dependence of the hydrodynamic radii of the probes indicates two distinct dynamical regions, which cross at 277 K.
Project description:Bimolecular collision rate constants of a model solute are measured in water at T = 259-303 K, a range encompassing both normal and supercooled water. A stable, spherical nitroxide spin probe, perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl, is studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), taking advantage of the fact that the rotational correlation time, ?(R), the mean time between successive spin exchanges within a cage, ?(RE), and the long-time-averaged spin exchange rate constants, K(ex), of the same solute molecule may be measured independently. Thus, long- and short-time translational diffusion behavior may be inferred from K(ex) and ?(RE), respectively. In order to measure K(ex), the effects of dipole-dipole interactions (DD) on the EPR spectra must be separated, yielding as a bonus the DD broadening rate constants that are related to the dephasing rate constant due to DD, W(dd). We find that both K(ex) and W(dd) behave hydrodynamically; that is to say they vary monotonically with T/? or ?/T, respectively, where ? is the shear viscosity, as predicted by the Stokes-Einstein equation. The same is true of the self-diffusion of water. In contrast, ?(RE) does not follow hydrodynamic behavior, varying rather as a linear function of the density reaching a maximum at 276 ± 2 K near where water displays a maximum density.
Project description:We probe the mechanical response of two supercooled liquids, glycerol and ortho-terphenyl, by conducting rheological experiments at very weak stresses. We find a complex fluid behavior suggesting the gradual emergence of an extended, delicate solid-like network in both materials in the supercooled state-i.e., above the glass transition. This network stiffens as it ages, and very early in this process it already extends over macroscopic distances, conferring all well known features of soft glassy rheology (yield-stress, shear thinning, aging) to the supercooled liquids. Such viscoelastic behavior of supercooled molecular glass formers is difficult to observe because the large stresses in conventional rheology can easily shear-melt the solid-like structure. The work presented here, combined with evidence for long-lived heterogeneity from previous single-molecule studies [Zondervan R, Kulzer F, Berkhout GCG, Orrit M (2007) Local viscosity of supercooled glycerol near T(g) probed by rotational diffusion of ensembles and single dye molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:12628-12633], has a profound impact on the understanding of the glass transition because it casts doubt on the widely accepted assumption of the preservation of ergodicity in the supercooled state.
Project description:Akin to bulk water, water confined to an isolated nanoslit can show a wealth of new 2D phases of ice and amorphous ice, as well as unusual phase behavior. Indeed, 2D water phases, such as bilayer hexagonal ice and monolayer square ice, have been detected in the laboratory, confirming earlier computational predictions. Herein, we report theoretical evidence of a hitherto unreported state, namely, bilayer very low density amorphous ice (BL-VLDA), as well as evidence of a strong first-order transition between BL-VLDA and the BL amorphous ice (BL-A), and a weak first-order transition between BL-VLDA and the BL very low density liquid (BL-VLDL) water. The diffusivity of BL-VLDA is typically in the range of 10-9 cm2/s to 10-10 cm2/s. Similar to bulk (3D) water, 2D water can exhibit two forms of liquid in the deeply supercooled state. However, unlike supercooled bulk water, for which the two forms of liquid can coexist and merge into one at a critical point, the 2D BL-VLDL and BL high-density liquid (BL-HDL) phases are separated by the highly stable solid phase of BL-A whose melting line exhibits the isochore end point (IEP) near 220 K in the temperature-pressure diagram. Above the IEP temperature, BL-VLDL and BL-HDL are indistinguishable. At negative pressures, the metastable BL-VLDL exhibits a spatially and temporally heterogeneous structure induced by dynamic changes in the nanodomains, a feature much less pronounced in the BL-HDL.
Project description:We present experiments on molecular density fluctuations in liquid and supercritical (SC) CO<sub>2</sub> using small-angle neutron scattering. Thermal density fluctuations in SC-CO<sub>2</sub> determine susceptibility and correlation length identifying the Widom line at their maxima. Droplet formation occurs at the gas-liquid line and between 20 and 60 bar above the Widom line, the corresponding borderline identified as the Frenkel line. The droplets start to form spheres of constant radius of ? 45 Å and transform into rods and globules at higher pressure. Droplet formation represents a liquid-liquid (polymorphic) phase transition of the same composition but different density, whose difference defines its order parameter. Polymorphism in CO<sub>2</sub> is a new observation stimulating interesting discussions on the topics of gas-like to liquid-like transition in SC fluids and polymorphism since CO<sub>2</sub> represents a "simple" van der Waals liquid in contrast to water, which is the most widely studied liquid showing polymorphism in its supercooled state.