Cyclin G2 inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by disrupting Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has the highest mortality rate among gynecological malignancies owing to poor screening methods, non-specific symptoms and limited knowledge of the cellular targets that contribute to the disease. Cyclin G2 is an unconventional cyclin that acts to oppose cell cycle progression. Dysregulation of the cyclin G2 gene (CCNG2) in a variety of human cancers has been reported; however, the role of cyclin G2 in tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the function of cyclin G2 in EOC. In vitro and in vivo studies using several EOC-derived tumor cell lines revealed that cyclin G2 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and spheroid formation, as well as tumor formation and invasion. By interrogating cDNA microarray data sets, we found that CCGN2 mRNA is reduced in several large cohorts of human ovarian carcinoma when compared with normal ovarian surface epithelium or borderline tumors of the ovary. Mechanistically, cyclin G2 was found to suppress epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as demonstrated by the differential regulation of various EMT genes, such as Snail, Slug, vimentin and E-cadherin. Moreover, cyclin G2 potently suppressed the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway by downregulating key Wnt components, namely LRP6, DVL2 and ?-catenin, which could be linked to inhibition of EMT. Taken together, our novel findings demonstrate that cyclin G2 has potent tumor-suppressive effects in EOCs by inhibiting EMT through attenuating Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. Cyclin G2 has been shown to be associated with the development of multiple types of tumors, but its underlying mechanisms in gastric tumors is not well-understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the role and the underlying mechanisms of cyclin G2 on Wnt/?-catenin signaling in gastric cancer. METHODS:Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and in silico assay were used to determine the expression of cyclin G2 in gastric cancer. TCGA datasets were used to evaluate the association between cyclin G2 expression and the prognostic landscape of gastric cancers. The effects of ectopic and endogenous cyclin G2 on the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells were assessed using the MTS assay, colony formation assay, cell cycle assay, wound healing assay and transwell assay. Moreover, a xenograft model and a metastasis model of nude mice was used to determine the influence of cyclin G2 on gastric tumor growth and migration in vivo. The effects of cyclin G2 expression on Wnt/?-catenin signaling were explored using a TOPFlash luciferase reporter assay, and the molecular mechanisms involved were investigated using immunoblots assay, yeast two-hybrid screening, immunoprecipitation and Duolink in situ PLA. Ccng2-/- mice were generated to further confirm the inhibitory effect of cyclin G2 on Wnt/?-catenin signaling in vivo. Furthermore, GSK-3? inhibitors were utilized to explore the role of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the suppression effect of cyclin G2 on gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration. RESULTS:We found that cyclin G2 levels were decreased in gastric cancer tissues and were associated with tumor size, migration and poor differentiation status. Moreover, overexpression of cyclin G2 attenuated tumor growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Dpr1 was identified as a cyclin G2-interacting protein which was required for the cyclin G2-mediated inhibition of ?-catenin expression. Mechanically, cyclin G2 impacted the activity of CKI to phosphorylate Dpr1, which has been proved to be a protein that acts as a suppressor of Wnt/?-catenin signaling when unphosphorylated. Furthermore, GSK-3? inhibitors abolished the cyclin G2-induced suppression of cell proliferation and migration. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that cyclin G2 suppresses Wnt/?-catenin signaling and inhibits gastric cancer cell growth and migration through Dapper1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The adhesion molecule, FAT4, has a tumor suppressor function with a critical role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and anti-malignant growth in several cancers. No study has investigated yet its role in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression. In the present study, we examined the role of FAT4 in proliferation and metastasis, and its mechanisms of interaction in these processes. METHODS:We have performed cell viability, colony formation, and invasion assays in ovarian cancer cells treated with siRNA to knockdown FAT4 gene expression. The regulatory effects of FAT4 on proteins involved in apoptotic, Wnt, Hippo, and retinoblastoma signaling pathways were evaluated by Western blotting following FAT4 repression. Also, 426 ovarian tumor samples and 88 non-tumor samples from the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) database were analyzed for the expression of FAT4. Pearson's correlation was performed to determine the correlation between FAT4 and the E2F5, cyclin D1, cdk4, and caspase 9 expressions. RESULTS:Lower expression of FAT4 was observed in ovarian cancer cell lines and human samples as compared to non-malignant tissues. This down-regulation seems to enhance cell viability, invasion, and colony formation. Silencing FAT4 resulted in the upregulation of E2F5, vimentin, YAP, ?-catenin, cyclin D1, cdk4, and Bcl2, and in the downregulation of GSK-3-?, and caspase 9 when compared to control. Furthermore, regulatory effects of FAT4 on the EMT and aggressive phenotype seem to occur through Hippo, Wnt, and cell cycle pathways. CONCLUSION:FAT4 downregulation promotes increased growth and invasion through the activation of Hippo and Wnt-?-catenin pathways.
Project description:Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics for this disease. Cellular senescence is an important tumor suppression mechanism that has recently been suggested as a novel mechanism to target for developing cancer therapeutics. Wnt5a is a noncanonical Wnt ligand that plays a context-dependent role in human cancers. Here, we investigate the role of Wnt5a in regulating senescence of EOC cells. We show that Wnt5a is expressed at significantly lower levels in human EOC cell lines and in primary human EOCs (n = 130) compared with either normal ovarian surface epithelium (n = 31; P = 0.039) or fallopian tube epithelium (n = 28; P < 0.001). Notably, a lower level of Wnt5a expression correlates with tumor stage (P = 0.003) and predicts shorter overall survival in EOC patients (P = 0.003). Significantly, restoration of Wnt5a expression inhibits the proliferation of human EOC cells both in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic EOC mouse model. Mechanistically, Wnt5a antagonizes canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling and induces cellular senescence by activating the histone repressor A/promyelocytic leukemia senescence pathway. In summary, we show that loss of Wnt5a predicts poor outcome in EOC patients and Wnt5a suppresses the growth of EOC cells by triggering cellular senescence. We suggest that strategies to drive senescence in EOC cells by reconstituting Wnt5a signaling may offer an effective new strategy for EOC therapy.
Project description:Growing evidence demonstrates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression and spreading; however, its molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. We have previously shown that the antigen receptor LY75 can modulate EOC cell phenotype and metastatic potential, as LY75 depletion directed mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) in EOC cell lines with mesenchymal phenotype. We used the LY75-mediated modulation of EMT as a model to investigate for DNA methylation changes during EMT in EOC cells, by applying the reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) methodology. Numerous genes have displayed EMT-related DNA methylation patterns alterations in their promoter/exon regions. Ten selected genes, whose DNA methylation alterations were further confirmed by alternative methods, were further identified, some of which could represent new EOC biomarkers/therapeutic targets. Moreover, our methylation data were strongly indicative for the predominant implication of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway in the EMT-induced DNA methylation variations in EOC cells. Consecutive experiments, including alterations in the Wnt/?-catenin pathway activity in EOC cells with a specific inhibitor and the identification of LY75-interacting partners by a proteomic approach, were strongly indicative for the direct implication of the LY75 receptor in modulating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling in EOC cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Products of the SOX gene family play important roles in the life process. One of the members, SOX7, is associated with the development of a variety of cancers as a tumor suppression factor, but its relevance with ovarian cancer was unclear. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SOX7 in the progression and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and the involved mechanisms. METHODS: Expression profiles in two independent microarray data sets were analyzed for SOX7 between malignant and normal tissues. The expression levels of SOX7 in EOC, borderline ovarian tumors and normal ovarian tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry. We also measured levels of COX2 and cyclin-D1 to examine their possible involvement in the same signal transduction pathway as SOX7. RESULTS: The expression of SOX7 was significantly reduced in ovarian cancer tissues compared with normal controls, strongly indicating that SOX7 might be a negative regulator in the Wnt/?-catenin pathway in ovarian cancer. By immunohistochemistry staining, the protein expression of SOX7 showed a consistent trend with that of the gene expression microarray analysis. By contrast, the protein expression level of COX2 and cyclin-D1 increased as the tumor malignancy progressed, suggesting that SOX7 may function through the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway as a tumor suppressor. In comparison between the protein expression levels of SOX7 with pathological features of the cancer, we found that SOX7 was down-regulated mainly in serous cystadenocarcinoma and advanced stages of the cancers. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of SOX7 correlates with tumor progression as a tumor suppressor, possibly through the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in ovarian cancers, suggesting that SOX7 may be a promising prognostic marker.
Project description:Collagen triple helix repeat-containing 1 (CTHRC1) is aberrantly overexpressed in multiple malignant tumors. However, the expression characteristics and function of CTHRC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remain unclear. We found that CTHRC1 expression was up-regulated in the paraffin-embedded EOC tissues compared to borderline or benign tumor tissues. CTHRC1 expression was positively correlated with tumor size (p = 0.008), menopause (p = 0.037), clinical stage (p = 0.002) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001) and was also an important prognostic factor for the overall survival of EOC patients, as revealed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. CTHRC1 increased the invasive capabilities of EOC cells in vitro by activating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. We showed that ectopic transfection of CTHRC1 in EOC cells up-regulated the expression of EMT markers such as N-cadherin and vimentin, and EMT-associated transcriptional factor Snail. Knockdown of CTHRC1 expression in EOC cells resulted in down-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail and translocation of ?-catenin. Collectively, CTHRC1 may promote EOC metastasis through the induction of EMT process and serve as a potential biomarker for prognosis as well as a target for therapy.
Project description:Cyclin G2 (CCNG2) is an atypical cyclin that inhibits cell cycle progression and is often dysregulated in human cancers. Cyclin G2 in the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy (DN), one of the most severe diabetic complications, has not been fully identified. In this study, we investigated the function and regulatory mechanism of cyclin G2 in DN. In vivo studies revealed that a deficiency of cyclin G2 significantly increased albuminuria and promoted tubulointerstitial fibrosis in established DN. Cyclin G2 regulated the expression of fibrosis-related proteins via the canonical Wnt signalling pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells. Moreover, the binding of cyclin G2 to Dapper1 (Dpr1/DACT1), a protein involved in Wnt signalling, decreased the phosphorylation of Dpr1 at Ser762 by casein kinase 1 (CK1) and suppressed the Wnt signalling pathway. These findings reveal that cyclin G2 can protect against renal injury and fibrosis associated with DN and, thus, is a new target for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications.
Project description:Inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1) activity is a key determinant of cellular inorganic pyrophosphate levels, and its expression is correlated with growth of several solid tumors. To investigate this relationship, we first examined PPA1 expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) samples, and found that PPA1 was overexpressed in tumors from EOC patients. Higher PPA1 levels correlated with advanced grades, stages, and poor survival in EOC patients. Examination of PPA1 function in EOC revealed that silencing PPA1 inhibited EOC migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, PPA1 may promote the dephosphorylation and translocation of ?-catenin. These results demonstrate that silencing PPA1 inhibits EOC metastasis by suppressing the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Strategies for downregulating PPA1 may have therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of EOC.
Project description:The implications of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mechanisms in the initiation and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remain poorly understood. We have previously shown that suppression of the antigen receptor LY75 directs mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) in EOC cell lines with the mesenchymal phenotype, associated with the loss of Wnt/?-catenin signaling activity. In the present study, we used the LY75-mediated modulation of EMT in EOC cells as a model in order to investigate in vivo the specific role of EOC cells, with an epithelial (E), mesenchymal (M) or mixed epithelial plus mesenchymal (E+M) phenotype, in EOC initiation, dissemination and treatment response, following intra-bursal (IB) injections of SKOV3-M (control), SKOV3-E (Ly75KD) and a mixed population of SKOV3-E+M cells, into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. We found that the IB-injected SKOV3-E cells displayed considerably higher metastatic potential and resistance to treatment as compared to the SKOV3-M cells, due to the acquisition of a Ly75KD-mediated hybrid phenotype and stemness characteristics. We also confirmed in vivo that the LY75 depletion directs suppression of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway in EOC cells, suggestive of a protective role of this pathway in EOC etiology. Moreover, our data raise concerns regarding the use of LY75-targeted vaccines for dendritic-cell EOC immunotherapy, due to the possible occurrence of undesirable side effects.
Project description:A growing body of evidence indicates that aberrant activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox factor 1 (ZEB1), as a crucial mediator of EMT, contributes to the malignant progression of various epithelial tumors. To determine whether ZEB1 is involved in the progression of ovarian cancer, we immunohistochemically evaluated the expression of ZEB1 in 238 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and analyzed its associations with clinicopathological parameters. Positive expression of ZEB1 was observed in 32.8% (78/238) of EOCs and it was found to be significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (P=0.001). The survival analysis indicated that the expression of ZEB1 was associated with a poor 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.021). A similar tendency was also observed between the expression of ZEB1 and 5-year overall survival, although it did not reach statistical significance (P=0.118). Moreover, the multivariate analysis demonstrated that ZEB1 expression was an independent risk factor for 5-year PFS in ovarian cancer. Taken together, our data provide evidence that ZEB1 may play a crucial role in promoting aggressive ovarian carcinoma progression. Therefore, ZEB1 may serve as an effectively predictive marker and a potential target for therapeutic intervention in EOC.