Efficacy and Safety of Metreleptin in Patients with Partial Lipodystrophy: Lessons from an Expanded Access Program.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Patients with lipodystrophy have severe metabolic abnormalities (insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridemia) that may increase morbidity and mortality. Metreleptin is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of generalized forms of lipodystrophy. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of metreleptin among patients with partial lipodystrophy using an expanded-access model. METHODS:Study FHA101 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00677313) was an open-label, expanded-access, long-term clinical effectiveness and safety study in 23 patients with partial lipodystrophy and diabetes and/or hypertriglyceridemia with no prespecified leptin level. Metreleptin was administered subcutaneously at 0.02 mg/kg twice daily (BID) at Week 1, followed by 0.04 mg/kg BID at Week 2. Dose adjustments thereafter were based on patient response (maximum dose of 0.08 mg/kg BID). One-year changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were evaluated. RESULTS:HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides were numerically decreased throughout 1 year, with mean (standard error) changes from baseline of -0.88 (0.62)%, -42.0 (22.4) mg/dL, and -119.8 (84.1) mg/dL, respectively, which were greater among patients with higher baseline abnormalities. Liver enzymes did not worsen, and the most frequently observed TEAEs (? 10% incidence) were mild to moderate and included nausea (39.1%), hypoglycemia (26.1%), and urinary tract infections (26.1%)-all reported previously. There were no reports of clinically significant immune-related adverse events or new safety signals. CONCLUSIONS:Our clinical observations document the large heterogeneity and disease burden of partial lipodystrophy syndromes and suggest that metreleptin treatment benefits may extend to patients with partial lipodystrophy. Additional studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.
Project description:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study is to summarize the effectiveness and safety of metreleptin in patients with congenital or acquired generalized lipodystrophy. METHODS:Patients (n?=?66) aged ?6 months had lipodystrophy, low circulating leptin, and ?1 metabolic abnormality (diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, or hypertriglyceridemia). Metreleptin dose (once or twice daily) was titrated to a mean dose of 0.10?mg/kg/day with a maximum of 0.24?mg/kg/day. Means and changes from baseline to month 12 were assessed for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting triglycerides (TGs), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Additional assessments included the proportions of patients achieving target decreases in HbA1c or fasting TGs at months 4, 12, and 36, medication changes, and estimates of liver size. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were recorded. RESULTS:Significant mean reductions from baseline were seen at month 12 for HbA1c (-2.2%, n?=?59) and FPG (-3.0?mmol/L, n?=?59) and mean percent change in fasting TGs (-32.1%, n?=?57) (all p???0.001). Reductions from baseline over time in these parameters were also significant at month 36 (all p?<?0.001, n?=?14). At month 4, 34.8% of patients had a ?1% reduction in HbA1c and 62.5% had a ?30% reduction in fasting TGs; at month 12, 80% of patients had a ?1% decrease in HbA1c or ?30% decrease in TGs, and 66% had a decrease of ?2% in HbA1c or ?40% decrease in TGs. Of those on medications, 41%, 22%, and 24% discontinued insulin, oral antidiabetic medications, or lipid-lowering medications, respectively. Mean decrease in liver volume at month 12 was 33.8% (p?<?0.001, n?=?12). Most TEAEs were of mild/moderate severity. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with generalized lipodystrophy, long-term treatment with metreleptin was well tolerated and resulted in sustained improvements in hypertriglyceridemia, glycemic control, and liver volume.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the effects of metreleptin in patients with partial lipodystrophy (PL). METHODS:Patients aged???6 months with PL, circulating leptin?<?12.0?ng/mL, and diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, or hypertriglyceridemia received metreleptin doses (once or twice daily) titrated to a mean of 0.124?mg/kg/day. Changes from baseline to month 12 in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting serum triglycerides (TGs; co-primary endpoints), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and liver volume were evaluated. Additional assessments included the proportions of patients achieving target decreases in HbA1c or fasting TGs at month 12, long-term treatment effects, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). RESULTS:Significant (p?<?0.05) reductions in HbA1c (-0.6%), fasting TGs (-20.8%), FPG (-1.2?mmol/L), and liver volume (-13.4%) were observed in the overall PL population at month 12. In a subgroup of patients with baseline HbA1c???6.5% or TGs???5.65?mmol/L, significant (p?<?0.05) reductions were seen in HbA1c (-0.9%), fasting TGs (-37.4%), FPG (-1.9?mmol/L), and liver volume (-12.4%). In this subgroup, 67.9% of patients had a???1% decrease in HbA1c or???30% decrease in fasting TGs, and 42.9% had a???2% decrease in HbA1c or???40% decrease in fasting TGs. Long-term treatment in this subgroup led to significant (p?<?0.05) reductions at months 12, 24, and 36 in HbA1c, fasting TGs, and FPG. Metreleptin was well tolerated with no unexpected safety signals. The most common TEAEs were abdominal pain, hypoglycemia, and nausea. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with PL, treatment with metreleptin was well tolerated and resulted in improvements in glycemic control, hypertriglyceridemia, and liver volume.
Project description:Lipodystrophies are extreme forms of metabolic syndrome. Metreleptin was approved in the United States for generalized lipodystrophy (GLD) but not partial lipodystrophy (PLD).The objective of the study was to test metreleptin's efficacy in PLD vs GLD and find predictors for treatment response.This was a prospective, single-arm, open-label study since 2000 with continuous enrollment. Current analysis included metreleptin treatment for 6 months or longer as of January 2014.The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Maryland).Patients clinically diagnosed with lipodystrophy, leptin less than 8 ng/mL (males) or less than 12 (females), age older than 6 months, and one or more metabolic abnormalities (diabetes, insulin resistance, or hypertriglyceridemia) participated in the study.The interventions included sc metreleptin injections (0.06-0.24 mg/kg · d).Changes in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and triglycerides after 6 and 12 months of metreleptin were measured.Baseline metabolic parameters were similar in 55 GLD [HbA1c 8.4% ± 2.3%; triglycerides, geometric mean (25th, 75th percentile), 467 mg/dL (200, 847)] and 31 PLD patients [HbA1c 8.1% ± 2.2%, triglycerides 483 mg/dL (232, 856)] despite different body fat and endogenous leptin. At 12 months, metreleptin decreased HbA1c (to 6.4% ± 1.5%, GLD, P < .001; 7.3% ± 1.6%, PLD, P = .004) and triglycerides [to 180 mg/dL (106, 312), GLD, P < .001; 326 mg/dL (175, 478), PLD, P = .02]. HbA1c and triglyceride changes over time significantly differed between GLD and PLD. In subgroup analyses, metreleptin improved HbA1c and triglycerides in all GLD subgroups except those with baseline triglycerides less than 300 mg/dL and all PLD subgroups except baseline triglycerides less than 500 mg/dL, HbA1c less than 8%, or endogenous leptin greater than 4 ng/mL.In addition to its proven efficacy in GLD, metreleptin is effective in selected PLD patients with severe metabolic derangements or low leptin.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the long-term clinical effect of treatment with metreleptin (an analogue of human leptin) on glycemic and lipid abnormalities and markers of hepatic steatosis in patients with inherited or acquired lipodystrophy. METHODS:Fifty-five patients (36 with generalized lipodystrophy and 19 with partial lipodystrophy) with at least 1 of 3 metabolic abnormalities (diabetes mellitus, fasting triglyceride level ?200 mg/dL, and insulin resistance) and low leptin levels received subcutaneous injections of metreleptin once or twice daily in an ongoing clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health. RESULTS:At baseline, hemoglobin A1c-8.5% ± 2.1% (mean ± standard deviation [SD])-and triglycerides-479 ± 80 mg/dL (geometric mean ± standard error [SE])-were substantially elevated. Robust and sustained reductions in both variables were evident for the observed patient population during a 3-year metreleptin treatment period (-2.1% ± 0.5% [mean ± SE] and -35.4% ± 13.7% [mean ± SE], respectively). Mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were elevated at baseline (100 ± 120 U/L and 71 ± 77 U/L [mean ± SD], respectively) and decreased by -45 ± 19 U/L and -33 ± 14 U/L (mean ± SE), respectively, during the 3-year metreleptin treatment period. Improvements in hemoglobin A1c, triglycerides, ALT, and AST were more pronounced in the subsets of patients having elevated levels at baseline. The most notable adverse events observed in this patient population were likely attributable to underlying metabolic abnormalities or comorbidities. CONCLUSION:Metreleptin treatment substantially reduced glycemic variables, triglycerides, and liver enzymes (ALT and AST) and demonstrated durability of response throughout a 3-year treatment period. These results support metreleptin as a potential treatment for certain metabolic disorders (for example, diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia) associated with lipodystrophy.
Project description:Lipodystrophy syndromes are rare disorders of deficient adipose tissue. Metreleptin, a human analog of leptin, improved metabolic abnormalities in mixed cohorts of children and adults with lipodystrophy and low leptin.Determine effects of metreleptin on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), growth, and puberty in pediatric patients with lipodystrophy and low leptin.Prospective, single-arm, open-label studies with continuous enrollment since 2000.National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.Fifty-three patients aged 6 months to <18 years with lipodystrophy, leptin level <8 ng/mL (male patients) or <12 ng/mL (female patients), and ?1 metabolic abnormality (diabetes, insulin resistance, or hypertriglyceridemia).Subcutaneous metreleptin injections (0.04 to 0.19 mg/kg/d).Change in A1c, lipid, and transaminase levels after a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 12 ± 0.2 months and 61 ± 39 months. Changes in liver histology, growth, and pubertal development throughout treatment.After 12 months, the A1c level (mean ± SD) decreased from 8.3% ± 2.4% to 6.5% ± 1.8%, and median triglyceride level decreased from 374 mg/dL [geometric mean (25th,75th percentile), 190, 1065] to 189 mg/dL (112, 334; P < 0.0001), despite decreased glucose- and lipid-lowering medications. The median [geometric mean (25th,75th percentile)] alanine aminotransferase level decreased from 73 U/L (45, 126) to 41 U/L (25, 59; P = 0.001), and that of aspartate aminotransferase decreased from 51 U/L (29, 90) to 26 U/L (18, 42; P = 0.0002). These improvements were maintained over long-term treatment. In 17 patients who underwent paired biopsies, the NAFLD activity score (mean ± SD) decreased from 4.5 ± 2.0 to 3.4 ± 2.0 after 3.3 ± 3.2 years of metreleptin therapy (P = 0.03). There were no clinically significant changes in growth or puberty.Metreleptin lowered A1c and triglyceride levels, and improved biomarkers of NAFLD in pediatric patients with lipodystrophy. These improvements are likely to reduce the lifetime burden of disease.
Project description:CONTEXT:Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) is most commonly caused by pathogenic variants in LMNA and PPARG. Leptin replacement with metreleptin has largely been studied in the LMNA group. OBJECTIVE:To understand the efficacy of metreleptin in PPARG vs LMNA pathogenic variants and investigate predictors of metreleptin responsiveness. DESIGN:Subgroup analysis of a prospective open-label study of metreleptin in lipodystrophy. SETTING:National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS:Patients with LMNA (n = 22) or PPARG pathogenic variants (n = 7), leptin <12 ng/mL, and diabetes, insulin resistance, or high triglycerides. INTERVENTION:Metreleptin (0.08 to 0.16 mg/kg) for 12 months. OUTCOME:Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipids, and medication use at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS:Baseline characteristics were comparable in patients with PPARG and LMNA: HbA1c, 9.2 ± 2.3 vs 7.8 ± 2.1%; median [25th, 75th percentile] triglycerides, 1377 [278, 5577] vs 332 [198, 562] mg/dL; leptin, 6.3 ± 3.8 vs 5.5 ± 2.5 ng/mL (P > 0.05). After 12 months of metreleptin, HbA1c declined to 7.7 ± 2.4 in PPARG and 7.3 ± 1.7% in LMNA; insulin requirement decreased from 3.8 [2.7, 4.3] to 2.1 [1.6, 3.0] U/kg/d in PPARG and from 1.7 [1.3, 4.4] to 1.2 [1.0, 2.3] U/kg/d in LMNA (P < 0.05). Triglycerides decreased to 293 [148, 406] mg/dL in LMNA (P < 0.05), but changes were not significant in PPARG: 680 [296, 783] mg/dL at 12 months (P = 0.2). Both groups were more likely to experience clinically relevant triglyceride (?30%) or HbA1c (?1%) reduction with metreleptin if they had baseline triglycerides ?500 mg/dL or HbA1c >8%. CONCLUSION:Metreleptin resulted in similar metabolic improvements in patients with LMNA and PPARG pathogenic variants. Our findings support the efficacy of metreleptin in patients with the two most common genetic causes of FPLD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A number of genetic syndromes associated with variants in the BSCL2/seipin gene have been identified. Variants that cause skipping of exon 7 are associated with progressive encephalopathy with/without lipodystrophy (PELD), which is characterized by the development of progressive myoclonic epilepsy at a young age, severe progressive neurological impairment, and early death, often in childhood. Because the genetic basis of PELD is similar to that of congenital lipodystrophy type 2, we hypothesized that a patient with PELD may respond to treatments approved for other congenital lipodystrophic syndromes. CASE PRESENTATION:We describe a 5-year-old boy with an extremely rare phenotype involving severe progressive myoclonic epilepsy who received metreleptin (a recombinant analogue of leptin) to control metabolic abnormalities. At the age of two, he had no subcutaneous adipose tissue, with hypertriglyceridemia, hypertransaminasemia and hepatic steatosis. He also had a moderate psychomotor delay and generalized tonic seizures. At 4?years, he had insulin resistance, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, mild hepatosplenomegaly and mild hepatic steatosis; he began a hypolipidemic diet. Severe psychomotor delay and myoclonic/myoclonic atonic seizures with absences was evident. At 5?years of age, metreleptin 0.06?mg/kg/day was initiated; after 2?months, the patient's lipid profile improved and insulin resistance resolved. After 1?year of treatment, hepatic steatosis improved and abdominal ultrasound showed only mild hepatomegaly. Seizure frequency decreased but was not eliminated during metreleptin therapy. CONCLUSIONS:Metreleptin may be used to control metabolic disturbances and may lead to better seizure control in children with PELD.
Project description:Most childhood cancer survivors who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation subsequently develop impaired glucose tolerance and hypertriglyceridemia. These conditions are presumably associated with total-body irradiation-related acquired lipodystrophy and may lead to cardiovascular disease. Metreleptin (recombinant leptin) may help improve the lipoprotein profile, insulin sensitivity, and quality of life of patients with total-body irradiation-related lipodystrophy. This report describes the safe and effective use of metreleptin supplementation for insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in acquired incomplete lipodystrophy. A 24-year-old Japanese woman with diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia was admitted to our hospital. She was diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia at 3 years of age and had undergone systemic chemotherapy and total-body irradiation before allogeneic stem cell transplantation. She was also diagnosed with hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes mellitus at 11 years of age. She had a low adiponectin level, low-normal leptin level, and diabetes mellitus with marked insulin resistance. Thus, acquired incomplete lipodystrophy was diagnosed. Her serum triglyceride and lipoprotein profiles improved within 1 month of treatment initiation. Glycemic metabolism and insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscles improved after 6 months. As previously reported, metreleptin therapy is effective in improving lipid and glycemic profiles in generalized lipodystrophy. In the present case, we considered that metreleptin supplementation could reduce the remnant VLDL cholesterol fraction and improve diabetes mellitus. We conclude that it may be an effective alternative therapy for improving the expected prognosis of patients with acquired incomplete lipodystrophy, including childhood cancer survivors.
Project description:Abstract Introduction Metreleptin treatment may improve the metabolic aspects of partial lipodystrophy; however, the treatment response is heterogeneous. This study aimed to explore changes in circulating apolipoprotein concentrations, as well as ANGPLT3, ANGPLT4, and IGF-1 levels in patients treated with Metreleptin as part of a clinical study investigating the efficacy of Metreleptin in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) associated with partial lipodystrophy (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01679197). Methods Serum samples of 18 patients with partial lipodystrophy who underwent a full metabolic evaluation and paired liver biopsies before and after Metreleptin were studied. Patients were tested at baseline, month (M) 3, M6, and M12. Glycemic response was defined as “more than 1% HbA1c reduction from baseline”. Lipid response was defined as “more than 30% decrease in triglycerides from baseline”. The hepatic response was defined as “a decrease of 2 points or more from baseline in NASH score, without an increase in fibrosis”. Patients with “any 2 of 3 above” at M12 were defined as metabolic responders. Results Metreleptin treatment resulted in significant reductions in triglycerides (346 mg/dL vs. 253 mg/dL; F: 8.474; p < 0.001), apo B (145.24 mg/dL vs. 111.09 mg/dL; F: 9.266: p < 0.001), apo CII (18.65 mg/dL vs. 15.95 mg/dL; F: 6.663: p = 0.001), apo CIII (62.95 mg/dL vs. 49.33 mg/dL; F: 5.640, p = 0.002), apo E (8.16 mg/dL vs. 6.52 mg/dL; F: 11.056, p < 0.001), and ANGPLT3 (14.36 ng/mL vs. 12.00 mg/dL; F: 4.348; p = 0.008) over time. IGF-1 levels significantly increased at M3 (134 ng/mL vs. 139 ng/mL; p = 0.001), however the difference was not significant over time. Metabolic responders had lower baseline leptin (12.4 ng/mL vs. 27.8 ng/mL; p = 0.024) and IGF-1 (95 ng/ml vs. 151 ng/mL; p = 0.008), and higher apo CII (39.06 mg/dL vs. 17.90 mg/dL; p = 0.011), apo CIII (173.57 mg/dL vs. 51.51 mg/dL; p = 0.015), apo E (18.41 mg/dL vs. 5.89 mg/dL; p = 0.002), and ANGPLT3 (17.33 ng/mL vs. 10.06 ng/mL; p = 0.04). Metabolic responders had a significant increase in IGF-1 (95 ng/mL vs. 134 ng/mL; p = 0.019), which was statistically distinguished from non-responders (p = 0.004). Responders also had a greater reduction in apo CII (20.51 mg/dL vs. -1.84 mg/dL; p = 0.001), apo CIII (32.59 mg/dL vs. -7.83 mg/dL; p = 0.007), apo E (8.17 mg/dL vs. 0.22 mg/dL; p = 0.001), and ANGPLT3 (6.08 ng/mL vs. -0.16 ng/mL; p = 0.005) early after treatment at M3. Conclusions Metreleptin treatment lowers levels of apolipoproteins associated with triglyceride metabolism as well as ANGPLT3 in patients with partial lipodystrophy. Metabolic response to Metreleptin appears to be correlated with early changes in these factors and an increase in IGF-1 levels.
Project description:PURPOSE:The primary objective of this study was to assess long-term safety with sublingual asenapine 2.5 or 5 mg twice daily (BID) in patients with schizophrenia. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Actively treated patients on asenapine 2.5 mg BID, asenapine 5 mg BID, or olanzapine 15 mg once daily (QD) who completed a 6-week randomized, double-blind, placebo- and olanzapine-controlled study continued lead-in treatment in this 26-week, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, olanzapine-controlled Phase IIIB extension study; placebo patients were assigned to asenapine 2.5 mg BID treatment. Safety analyses were based on the all treated set (patients who received one or more doses of extension trial medication); change from baseline analyses used the acute study baseline. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and changes in laboratory parameters were monitored; weight change for asenapine versus olanzapine was the key secondary objective. Descriptive statistics were used; weight change was analyzed using a mixed-model repeated-measure approach. RESULTS:Of the 120 patients in the all-treated set, 60% completed treatment (asenapine 2.5 mg BID 66.1% overall, asenapine 5 mg BID 52.4%, olanzapine 15 mg QD 56.3%). The incidence of TEAEs was higher for placebo patients from the lead-in study who switched to asenapine 2.5 mg BID for extension treatment (71.0%) versus patients continuing asenapine 2.5 mg BID (38.7%), asenapine 5 mg BID (38.1%), or olanzapine 15 mg QD (25.0%). The most common TEAE (?5% in every group) was worsening of schizophrenia. Least squares mean change in body weight from the acute study baseline to week 26 was +0.6 kg for overall asenapine 2.5 mg BID, +0.8 kg for asenapine 5 mg BID, and +1.2 kg for olanzapine 15 mg QD. There were no clinically relevant changes in metabolic parameters; values were generally similar across treatment groups. CONCLUSION:Asenapine 2.5 mg BID and 5 mg BID were generally well tolerated in long-term treatment. Weight gain was less for overall asenapine 2.5 mg BID and 5 mg BID than for olanzapine 15 mg QD.