Neuroendocrine immunomodulation network dysfunction in SAMP8 mice and PrP-hA?PPswe/PS1?E9 mice: potential mechanism underlying cognitive impairment.
ABSTRACT: Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 strain (SAMP8) and PrP-hA?PPswe/PS1?E9 (APP/PS1) mice are classic animal models of sporadic Alzheimer's disease and familial AD respectively. Our study showed that object recognition memory, spatial learning and memory, active and passive avoidance were deteriorated and neuroendocrine immunomodulation (NIM) network was imbalance in SAMP8 and APP/PS1 mice. SAMP8 and APP/PS1 mice had their own specific phenotype of cognition, neuroendocrine, immune and NIM molecular network. The endocrine hormone corticosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, chemotactic factor monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted factor and eotaxin, pro-inflammatory factor interleukin-23, and the Th1 cell acting as cell immunity accounted for cognitive deficiencies in SAMP8 mice, while adrenocorticotropic hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone, colony stimulating factor granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and Th2 cell acting as humoral immunity in APP/PS1 mice. On the pathway level, chemokine signaling and T cell receptor signaling pathway played the key role in cognition impairments of two models, while cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity were more important in cognitive deterioration of SAMP8 mice than APP/PS1 mice. This mechanisms of NIM network underlying cognitive impairment is significant for further understanding the pathogenesis of AD and can provide useful information for development of AD therapeutic drug.
Project description:Mounting evidence points to alterations in the gut microbiota-neuroendocrine immunomodulation (NIM) network that might drive Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathology. In previous studies, we found that Liuwei Dihuang decoction (LW) had beneficial effects on the cognitive impairments and gastrointestinal microbiota dysbiosis in an AD mouse model. In particular, CA-30 is an oligosaccharide fraction derived from LW. We sought to determine the effects of CA-30 on the composition and function of the intestinal microbiome in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse strain, an AD mouse model. Treatment with CA-30 delayed aging processes, ameliorated cognition in SAMP8 mice. Moreover, CA-30 ameliorated abnormal NIM network in SAMP8 mice. In addition, we found that CA-30 mainly altered the abundance of four genera and 10 newborn genera. Advantageous changes in carbohydrate-active enzymes of SAMP8 mice following CA-30 treatment, especially GH85, were also noted. We further found that seven genera were significantly correlated with the NIM network and cognitive performance. CA-30 influenced the relative abundance of these intestinal microbiomes in SAMP8 mice and restored them to SAMR1 mouse levels. CA-30 ameliorated the intestinal microbiome, rebalanced the NIM network, improved the AD-like cognitive impairments in SAMP8 mice, and can thus be a potential therapeutic agent for AD.
Project description:APP/PS1 double transgenic mice expressing human mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) demonstrate robust brain amyloid beta (A?) peptide containing plaque deposition, increased markers of oxidative stress, behavioral dysfunction, and proinflammatory gliosis. On the other hand, lack of growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone due to a recessive mutation in the Prop 1 gene (Prop1df) in Ames dwarf mice results in a phenotype characterized by potentiated antioxidant mechanisms, improved learning and memory, and significantly increased longevity in homozygous mice. Based on this, we hypothesized that a similar hormone deficiency might attenuate disease changes in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. To test this idea, APP/PS1 mice were crossed to the Ames dwarf mouse line. APP/PS1, wild-type, df/+, df/df, df/+/APP/PS1, and df/df/APP/PS1 mice were compared at 6 months of age through behavioral testing and assessing amyloid burden, reactive gliosis, and brain cytokine levels. df/df mice demonstrated lower brain growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations. This correlated with decreased astrogliosis and microgliosis in the df/df/APP/PS1 mice and, surprisingly, reduced A? plaque deposition and A? 1-40 and A? 1-42 concentrations. The df/df/APP/PS1 mice also demonstrated significantly elevated brain levels of multiple cytokines in spite of the attenuated gliosis. These data indicate that the df/df/APP/PS1 line is a unique resource in which to study aging and resistance to disease and suggest that the affected pituitary hormones may have a role in regulating disease progression.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by the accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease among the elderly. No effective treatment is available now in restricting the pathological progression of AD. The aim of this study is to determine the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (SCF+G-CSF) in aged APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice. SCF+G-CSF was subcutaneously injected for 12 days to 25-month-old male APP/PS1 mice. We observed that SCF+G-CSF treatment reduced the A? plaques in both the cortex and hippocampus. SCF+G-CSF treatment increased the association of TREM2<sup>+</sup>/Iba1<sup>+</sup> cells with A? plaques and enhanced A? uptake by Iba1<sup>+</sup> and CD68<sup>+</sup>cells in the brains of aged APP/PS1 mice. Importantly, cerebral expression area of P2RY12<sup>+</sup>and TMEM119<sup>+</sup> homeostatic microglia and the branches of P2RY12<sup>+</sup> homeostatic microglia were increased in the SCF+G-CSF-treated aged APP/PS1 mice. SCF+G-CSF treatment also decreased NOS-2 and increased IL-4 in the brains of aged APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, the loss of MAP2<sup>+</sup>dendrites and PSD-95<sup>+</sup>post-synapses and the accumulation of aggregated tau in the brains of aged APP/PS1 mice were ameliorated by SCF+G-CSF treatment. Furthermore, the density of P2RY12<sup>+</sup> microglia was negatively correlated with A? deposits, but positively correlated with the densities of MAP2<sup>+</sup> dendrites and PSD-95<sup>+</sup> puncta in the brains of aged APP/PS1 mice. These findings reveal the therapeutic potential of SCF+G-CSF treatment in ameliorating AD pathology at the late stage.
Project description:The coincidences between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are so compelling that it is attractive to speculate that diabetic conditions might aggravate AD pathologies by calcium dysfunction, although the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved remains elusive. The present work was undertaken to investigate whether calcium dyshomeostasis is associated with the exacerbated Alzheimer-like cognitive dysfunction observed in diabetic conditions in APP/PS1-ob/ob mice, which were generated by crossing ob/ob mice with APP/PS1 mice. We confirmed that the diabetic condition can aggravate not only Aβ deposition but also tau phosphorylation, synaptic loss, neuronal death, and inflammation, exacerbating cognitive impairment in AD mice. More importantly, we found that the diabetic condition dramatically elevated calcium levels in APP/PS1 mice, thereby stimulating the phosphorylation of the calcium-dependent kinases. Our findings suggest that controlling over-elevation of intracellular calcium may provide novel insights for approaching AD in diabetic patients and delaying AD progression.
Project description:Reactive astrogliosis is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its role for disease initiation and progression has remained incompletely understood. We here show that the transcription factor Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), a canonical inducer of astrogliosis, is activated in an AD mouse model and human AD Therefore, using a conditional knockout approach, we deleted Stat3 specifically in astrocytes in the APP/PS1 model of AD We found that Stat3-deficient APP/PS1 mice show decreased ?-amyloid levels and plaque burden. Plaque-close microglia displayed a more complex morphology, internalized more ?-amyloid, and upregulated amyloid clearance pathways in Stat3-deficient mice. Moreover, astrocyte-specific Stat3-deficient APP/PS1 mice showed decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine activation and lower dystrophic neurite burden, and were largely protected from cerebral network imbalance. Finally, Stat3 deletion in astrocytes also strongly ameliorated spatial learning and memory decline in APP/PS1 mice. Importantly, these protective effects on network dysfunction and cognition were recapitulated in APP/PS1 mice systemically treated with a preclinical Stat3 inhibitor drug. In summary, our data implicate Stat3-mediated astrogliosis as an important therapeutic target in AD.
1000-01-01 | S-EPMC6365929 | BioStudies
Project description:Reactive astrogliosis is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its role for disease initiation and progression have remained incompletely understood. We here show that the transcription factor Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), a canonical inducer of astrogliosis, is activated in an AD mouse model and human AD. Therefore, using a conditional knockout approach, we deleted Stat3 specifically in astrocytes in the APP/PS1 model of AD. We find that Stat3-deficient APP/PS1 mice show decreased ?-amyloid levels and plaque burden. Plaque-close microglia displayed a more complex morphology, internalized more ?-amyloid and upregulated amyloid clearance pathways in Stat3-deficient mice. Moreover, astrocyte-specific Stat3-deficient APP/PS1 mice showed decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine activation and lower dystrophic neurite burden, and were largely protected from cerebral network imbalance. Finally, Stat3 deletion in astrocytes also strongly ameliorated spatial learning and memory decline in APP/PS1 mice. Importantly, these protective effects on network dysfunction and cognition were recapitulated in APP/PS1 mice systemically treated with a preclinical Stat3 inhibitor drug. In summary, our data implicate Stat3-mediated astrogliosis as an important therapeutic target in AD.
Project description:The generation of reactive oxygen species causes cellular oxidative damage, and has been implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). L-NNNBP, a new chiral pyrrolyl ?-nitronyl nitroxide radical synthesized in our department, shows potential antioxidant effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of L-NNNBP on ?-amyloid (A?) deposition and memory deficits in an AD model of APP/PS1 mice. In cultured cortical neurons, L-NNNBP acted as an antioxidant by quenching reactive oxygen species, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, nitrosative stress, and stimulating cellular antioxidant defenses. L-NNNBP inhibited cell apoptosis induced by A? exposure. In vivo treatment with L-NNNBP for 1 month induced a marked decrease in brain A? deposition and tau phosphorylation in the blinded study on APP/PS1 transgenic mice (1 mM in drinking water, initiated when the mice were 6 months old). The L-NNNBP-treated APP/PS1 mice showed decreased astrocyte activation and improved spatial learning and memory compared with the vehicle-treated APP/PS1 mice. These actions were more potent compared with that of curcumin, a natural product, and TEMPO, a nitroxide radical, which are used as free radical scavengers in clinics. These results proved that the newly synthesized L-NNNBP was an effective therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of AD.
Project description:Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been recently identified to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, the role of an important COX-2 metabolic product, prostaglandin (PG) I2 , in the pathogenesis of AD remains unknown. Using human- and mouse-derived neuronal cells as well as amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice as model systems, we elucidated the mechanism of anterior pharynx-defective (APH)-1? and pharynx-defective-1? induction. In particular, we found that PGI2 production increased during the course of AD development. Then, PGI2 accumulation in neuronal cells activates PKA/CREB and JNK/c-Jun signaling pathways by phosphorylation, which results in APH-1?/1? expression. As PGI2 is an important metabolic by-product of COX-2, its suppression by NS398 treatment decreases the expression of APH-1?/1? in neuronal cells and APP/PS1 mice. More importantly, ?-amyloid protein (A?) oligomers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of APP/PS1 mice are critical for stimulating the expression of APH-1?/1?, which was blocked by NS398 incubation. Finally, the induction of APH-1?/1? was confirmed in the brains of patients with AD. Thus, these findings not only provide novel insights into the mechanism of PGI2 -induced AD progression but also are instrumental for improving clinical therapies to combat AD.
Project description:The lemon essential oil (LEO), extracted from the fruit of lemon, has been used to treat multiple pathological diseases, such as diabetes, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, depression and hepatobiliary dysfunction. The study was designed to study the effects of LEO on cognitive dysfunction induced by Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used APP/PS1 double transgene (APP/PS1) AD mice in the experiment; these mice exhibit significant deficits in synaptic density and hippocampal-dependent spatial related memory. The effects of LEO on learning and memory were examined using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test, Novel object recognition test, and correlative indicators, including a neurotransmitter (acetylcholinesterase, AChE), a nerve growth factor (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF), a postsynaptic marker (PSD95), and presynaptic markers (synapsin-1, and synaptophysin), in APP/PS1 mice. Histopathology was performed to estimate the effects of LEO on AD mice. A significantly lowered brain AChE depression in APP/PS1 and wild-type C57BL/6L (WT) mice. PSD95/ Synaptophysin, the index of synaptic density, was noticeably improved in histopathologic changes. Hence, it can be summarized that memory-enhancing activity might be associated with a reduction in the AChE levels and is elevated by BDNF, PSD95, and synaptophysin through enhancing synaptic plasticity.
Project description:<b>This study was designed to examine whether AD pathological phenotype in APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice exposed to continuous high-fat diet predispose these murine models to metabolic dysfunction and neuropathological impairments. One-month old male APP/PS1 and C57BL/6J mice were provided with 60% high-fat diet for 6.5 months. After dietary intervention, metabolic phenotyping, cognitive behaviors, AD-related brain pathological changes and insulin signaling were compared. high fat diet induced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and aggravated inflammatory stress in both APP/PS1 and C57BL/6J mice. Compared with C57BL/6J control mice, APP/PS1 mice showed lower glucose transporter protein expression in liver, muscle, and brain. High-fat diet caused a decrease of glucose transporter protein expression in muscle and liver but increased cortical glucose transporter protein expression in APP/PS1 mice. High-fat diet-fed APP/PS1 mice demonstrated decreased cognitive function, as well as elevated cortical soluble amyloid-? levels and APP protein expression. Decrease in cortical IR, p-IR protein expression and p-GSK3?/GSK3? ratio were observed in high-fat diet-fed APP/PS1 mice. High-fat diet caused discrepant peripheral and central nervous system metabolic phenotype in APP/PS1 and C57BL/6J mice. AD pathological phenotype might accelerate metabolic changes and cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 mice treated with HFD.</b>