Localization of Components of the RNA-Degrading Machine in Bacillus subtilis.
ABSTRACT: In bacteria, the control of mRNA stability is crucial to allow rapid adaptation to changing conditions. In most bacteria, RNA degradation is catalyzed by the RNA degradosome, a protein complex composed of endo- and exoribonucleases, RNA helicases, and accessory proteins. In the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis, the existence of a RNA degradosome assembled around the membrane-bound endoribonuclease RNase Y has been proposed. Here, we have studied the intracellular localization of the protein that have been implicated in the potential B. subtilis RNA degradosome, i.e., polynucleotide phosphorylase, the exoribonucleases J1 and J2, the DEAD-box RNA helicase CshA, and the glycolytic enzymes enolase and phosphofructokinase. Our data suggests that the bulk of these enzymes is located in the cytoplasm. The RNases J1 and J2 as well as the RNA helicase CshA were mainly localized in the peripheral regions of the cell where also the bulk of messenger RNA is localized. We were able to demonstrate active exclusion of these proteins from the transcribing nucleoid. Taken together, our findings suggest that the interactions of the enzymes involved in RNA degradation in B. subtilis are rather transient.
Project description:The control of mRNA stability is an important component of regulation in bacteria. Processing and degradation of mRNAs are initiated by an endonucleolytic attack, and the cleavage products are processively degraded by exoribonucleases. In many bacteria, these RNases, as well as RNA helicases and other proteins, are organized in a protein complex called the RNA degradosome. In Escherichia coli, the RNA degradosome is assembled around the essential endoribonuclease E. In Bacillus subtilis, the recently discovered essential endoribonuclease RNase Y is involved in the initiation of RNA degradation. Moreover, RNase Y interacts with other RNases, the RNA helicase CshA, and the glycolytic enzymes enolase and phosphofructokinase in a degradosome-like complex. In this work, we have studied the domain organization of RNase Y and the contribution of the domains to protein-protein interactions. We provide evidence for the physical interaction between RNase Y and the degradosome partners in vivo. We present experimental and bioinformatic data which indicate that the RNase Y contains significant regions of intrinsic disorder and discuss the possible functional implications of this finding. The localization of RNase Y in the membrane is essential both for the viability of B. subtilis and for all interactions that involve RNase Y. The results presented in this study provide novel evidence for the idea that RNase Y is the functional equivalent of RNase E, even though the two enzymes do not share any sequence similarity.
Project description:Bacterial two-hybrid analysis identified the Staphylococcus aureus RNA degradosome-like complex to include RNase J1, RNase J2, RNase Y, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), enolase, phosphofructokinase, and a DEAD box RNA helicase. Results also revealed that the recently recognized RNase RnpA interacts with the S. aureus degradosome and that this interaction is conserved in other Gram-positive organisms.
Project description:DEAD-box RNA helicases play important roles in remodeling RNA molecules and in facilitating a variety of RNA-protein interactions that are key to many essential cellular processes. In spite of the importance of RNA, our knowledge about RNA helicases is limited. In this study, we investigated the role of the four DEAD-box RNA helicases in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. A strain deleted of all RNA helicases is able to grow at 37°C but not at lower temperatures. The deletion of cshA, cshB, or yfmL in particular leads to cold-sensitive phenotypes. Moreover, these mutant strains exhibit unique defects in ribosome biogenesis, suggesting distinct functions for the individual enzymes in this process. Based on protein accumulation, severity of the cold-sensitive phenotype, and the interaction with components of the RNA degradosome, CshA is the major RNA helicase of B. subtilis. To unravel the functions of CshA in addition to ribosome biogenesis, we conducted microarray analysis and identified the ysbAB and frlBONMD mRNAs as targets that are strongly affected by the deletion of the cshA gene. Our findings suggest that the different helicases make distinct contributions to the physiology of B. subtilis. Ribosome biogenesis and RNA degradation are two of their major tasks in B. subtilis.
Project description:Regulated RNA turnover is vital for the control of gene expression in all cellular life. In Escherichia coli, this process is largely controlled by a stable degradosome complex containing RNase E and a variety of additional enzymes. In the Firmicutes phylum, species lack RNase E and often encode the paralogous enzymes RNase J1 and RNase J2. Unlike RNase J1, surprisingly little is known about the regulatory function and protein interactions of RNase J2, despite being a central pleiotropic regulator for the streptococci and other closely related organisms. Using crosslink coimmunoprecipitation in Streptococcus mutans, we have identified the major proteins found within RNase J2 protein complexes located in the cytoplasm and at the cell membrane. In both subcellular fractions, RNase J2 exhibited the most robust interactions with RNase J1, while additional transient and/or weaker "degradosome-like" interactions were also detected. In addition, RNase J2 exhibits multiple novel interactions that have not been previously reported for any RNase J proteins, some of which were highly biased for either the cytoplasmic or membrane fractions. We also determined that the RNase J2 C-terminal domain (CTD) encodes a structure that is likely conserved among RNase J enzymes and may have an analogous function to the C-terminal portion of RNase E. While we did observe a number of parallels between the RNase J2 interactome and the E. coli degradosome paradigm, our results suggest that S. mutans degradosomes are either unlikely to exist or are quite distinct from those of E. coli.
Project description:DEAD-box RNA helicases are present in almost all living organisms and participate in various processes of RNA metabolism. Bacterial proteins of this large family were shown to be required for translation initiation, ribosome biogenesis and RNA decay. The latter is primordial for rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions. In particular, the RhlB RNA helicase from E. coli was shown to assist the bacterial degradosome machinery. Recently, the CshA DEAD-box proteins from Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus were shown to interact with proteins that are believed to form the degradosome. S. aureus can cause life-threatening disease, with particular concern focusing on biofilm formation on catheters and prosthetic devices, since in this form the bacteria are almost impossible to eradicate both by the immune system and antibiotic treatment. This persistent state relies on the expression of surface encoded proteins that allow attachment to various surfaces, and contrasts with the dispersal mode of growth that relies on the secretion of proteins such as hemolysins and proteases. The switch between these two states is mainly mediated by the Staphylococcal cell density sensing system encoded by agr. We show that inactivation of the cshA DEAD-box gene results in dysregulation of biofilm formation and hemolysis through modulation of agr mRNA stability. Importantly, inactivation of the agrA gene in the cshA mutant background reverses the defect, indicating that cshA is genetically upstream of agr and that a delicate balance of agr mRNA abundance mediated through stability control by CshA is critical for proper expression of virulence factors.
Project description:The Bacillus subtilis genome encodes four 3’ exoribonucleases: polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), RNase R, RNase PH, and YhaM. Previous work showed that PNPase, encoded by the pnpA gene, is the major 3’ exonuclease involved in mRNA turnover; in a pnpA deletion strain, numerous mRNA decay intermediates accumulate. Whether B. subtilis mRNA decay occurs in the context of a degradosome complex is controversial. In this study, global mapping of mRNA decay intermediate 3’ ends within coding sequences was performed in strains that were either deleted for, or had an inactivating point mutation in, the pnpA gene. The pattern of 3’ end accumulation in these strains was highly similar, suggesting that mRNA decay was not occurring in the context of a degradosome, whose structure would be affected by the absence of PNPase. A comparison with mapped 3’ ends in a strain lacking CshA, the major RNA helicase, indicated that different mRNAs may require both PNPase and CshA for efficient decay. RNA-seq analysis of strains lacking RNase R suggested that this enzyme did not play a major role in mRNA turnover in the wild-type strain. Strains were constructed that contained only one of the four known 3’ exoribonucleases. When RNase R was the only 3’ exonuclease present, it was able to degrade a model mRNA efficiently, showing processive decay even through a strong stem-loop structure that inhibits PNPase processivity. Strains containing only RNase PH or only YhaM were also insensitive to this RNA secondary structure, suggesting the existence of another, as-yet unidentified, 3’ exoribonuclease. Overall design: Term-seq/RNA-seq analysis from Bacillus subtilis strains with pnpA gene deleted or mutated to be catalytically inactive or cshA gene deleted. Triplicate samples.
Project description:CshA is a DEAD-box RNA helicase that belongs to the DExD/H-box family of proteins, which generally have an RNA-dependent ATPase activity. In Staphylococcus aureus, CshA was identified as a component of the RNA degradosome and plays important roles in RNA turnover. In this study, the crystal structures of the N-terminal RecA-like domain 1 of S. aureus CshA (SaCshAR1) and of its complex with AMP (SaCshAR1-AMP) are reported at resolutions of 1.5 and 1.8?Å, respectively. SaCshAR1 adopts a conserved ?/? RecA-like structure with seven parallel strands surrounded by nine ?-helices. The Q motif and motif I are responsible for the binding of the adenine group and phosphate group of AMP, respectively. Structure comparison of SaCshAR1-AMP and SaCshAR1 reveals that motif I undergoes a conformational change upon AMP binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry assays further conformed the essential roles of Phe22 in the Q motif and Lys52 in motif I for binding ATP, indicating a conserved substrate-binding mechanism in SaCshA compared with other DEAD-box RNA helicases.
Project description:Escherichia coli RNase E (Eco-RNase E), encoded by rne (Eco-rne), is considered the global RNA decay initiator. Although Eco-RNase E is an essential gene product in E. coli, some bacterial species, such as Bacillus subtilis, do not possess Eco-RNase E sequence homologues. B. subtilis instead possesses RNase J1/J2 (Bsu-RNase J1/J2) and RNase Y (Bsu-RNase Y) to execute RNA decay. Here we found that E. coli lacking the Eco-rne gene (?rne E. coli) was viable conditional on M9 minimal media by introducing Bsu-RNase J1/J2 or Bsu-RNase Y. We also cloned an extremely short Eco-RNase E homologue (Wpi-RNase E) and a canonical sized Bsu-RNase J1/J2 homologue (Wpi-RNase J) from Wolbachia pipientis, an ?-proteobacterial endosymbiont of arthropods. We found that Wpi-RNase J restored the colony-forming ability (CFA) of ?rne E. coli, whereas Wpi-RNase E did not. Unexpectedly, Wpi-RNase E restored defective CFA due to lack of Eco-RNase G, a paralogue of Eco-RNase E. Our results indicate that bacterial species that lack Eco-RNase E homologues or bacterial species that possess Eco-RNase E homologues which lack Eco-RNase E-like activities have a modest Eco-RNase E-like function using RNase J and/or RNase Y. These results suggest that Eco-RNase E-like activities might distribute among a wide array of bacteria and that functions of RNases may have changed dynamically during evolutionary divergence of bacterial lineages.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile opportunistic pathogen that adapts readily to a variety of different growth conditions. This adaptation requires a rapid regulation of gene expression including the control of mRNA abundance. The CshA DEAD-box RNA helicase was previously shown to be required for efficient turnover of the agr quorum sensing mRNA. Here we show by transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing and microarray analyses that CshA is required for the degradation of bulk mRNA. Moreover a subset of mRNAs is significantly stabilised in absence of CshA. Deletion of the C-terminal extension affects RNA turnover similar to the full deletion of the cshA gene. In accordance with RNA decay data, the C-terminal region of CshA is required for an RNA-independent interaction with components of the RNA degradation machinery. The C-terminal truncation of CshA reduces its ATPase activity and this reduction cannot be compensated at high RNA concentrations. Finally, the deletion of the C-terminal extension does affect growth at low temperatures, but to a significantly lesser degree than the full deletion, indicating that the core of the helicase can assume a partial function and opening the possibility that CshA is involved in different cellular processes.
Project description:Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) ? factors have roles related to cell envelope and/or cell membrane functions, in addition to other cellular functions. Without cell-surface stresses, ECF ? factors are sequestered by the cognate anti-? factor, leading to inactivation and the resultant repression of regulons due to the inhibition of transcription of their own genes. Bacillus subtilis has seven ECF ? factors including ?X and ?M that transcribe their own structural genes. Here, we report that glucose addition to the medium induced sigX and sigM transcription independent of their anti-? factors. This induction was dependent on an intracellular acetyl-CoA pool. Transposon mutagenesis searching for the mutants showing no induction of sigX and sigM revealed that the cshA gene encoding DEAD-box RNA helicase is required for gene induction. Global analysis of the acetylome in B. subtilis showed CshA has two acetylated lysine residues. We found that in a cshA mutant with acetylation-abolishing K to R exchange mutations, glucose induction of sigX and sigM was abolished and that glucose addition stimulated acetylation of CshA in the wild type strain. Thus, we present a model wherein glucose addition results in a larger acetyl-CoA pool, probably leading to increased levels of acetylated CshA. CshA is known to associate with RNA polymerase (RNAP), and thus RNAP with acetylated CshA could stimulate the autoregulation of sigX and sigM. This is a unique model showing a functional link between nutritional signals and the basal transcription machinery.