The regulator of G-protein signaling RGS16 promotes insulin secretion and ?-cell proliferation in rodent and human islets.
ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling regulates insulin secretion and pancreatic ? cell-proliferation. While much knowledge has been gained regarding how GPCRs are activated in ? cells, less is known about the mechanisms controlling their deactivation. In many cell types, termination of GPCR signaling is controlled by the family of Regulators of G-protein Signaling (RGS). RGS proteins are expressed in most eukaryotic cells and ensure a timely return to the GPCR inactive state upon removal of the stimulus. The aims of this study were i) to determine if RGS16, the most highly enriched RGS protein in ? cells, regulates insulin secretion and ?-cell proliferation and, if so, ii) to elucidate the mechanisms underlying such effects.Mouse and human islets were infected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing shRNA or cDNA sequences to knock-down or overexpress RGS16, respectively. 60 h post-infection, insulin secretion and cAMP levels were measured in static incubations in the presence of glucose and various secretagogues. ?-cell proliferation was measured in infected islets after 72 h in the presence of 16.7 mM glucose ± somatostatin and various inhibitors.RGS16 mRNA levels are strongly up-regulated in islets of Langerhans under hyperglycemic conditions in vivo and ex vivo. RGS16 overexpression stimulated glucose-induced insulin secretion in isolated mouse and human islets while, conversely, insulin secretion was impaired following RGS16 knock-down. Insulin secretion was no longer affected by RGS16 knock-down when islets were pre-treated with pertussis toxin to inactivate G?i/o proteins, or in the presence of a somatostatin receptor antagonist. RGS16 overexpression increased intracellular cAMP levels, and its effects were blocked by an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor. Finally, RGS16 overexpression prevented the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on insulin secretion and ?-cell proliferation.Our results identify RGS16 as a novel regulator of ?-cell function that coordinately controls insulin secretion and proliferation by limiting the tonic inhibitory signal exerted by ?-cell-derived somatostatin in islets.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Islets synthesise and secrete numerous peptides, some of which are known to be important regulators of islet function and glucose homeostasis. In this study, we quantified mRNAs encoding all peptide ligands of islet G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in isolated human and mouse islets and carried out in vitro islet hormone secretion studies to provide functional confirmation for the species-specific role of peptide YY (PYY) in mouse islets. MATERIALS AND METHODS:GPCR peptide ligand mRNAs in human and mouse islets were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR relative to the reference genes ACTB, GAPDH, PPIA, TBP and TFRC. The pathways connecting GPCR peptide ligands with their receptors were identified by manual searches in the PubMed, IUPHAR and Ingenuity databases. Distribution of PYY protein in mouse and human islets was determined by immunohistochemistry. Insulin, glucagon and somatostatin secretion from islets was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS:We have quantified GPCR peptide ligand mRNA expression in human and mouse islets and created specific signalomes mapping the pathways by which islet peptide ligands regulate human and mouse GPCR signalling. We also identified species-specific islet expression of several GPCR ligands. In particular, PYY mRNA levels were ~ 40,000-fold higher in mouse than human islets, suggesting a more important role of locally secreted Pyy in mouse islets. This was confirmed by IHC and functional experiments measuring insulin, glucagon and somatostatin secretion. DISCUSSION:The detailed human and mouse islet GPCR peptide ligand atlases will allow accurate translation of mouse islet functional studies for the identification of GPCR/peptide signalling pathways relevant for human physiology, which may lead to novel treatment modalities of diabetes and metabolic disease.
Project description:Somatostatin secreted by pancreatic ? cells mediates important paracrine interactions in Langerhans islets, including maintenance of glucose metabolism through the control of reciprocal insulin and glucagon secretion. Disruption of this circuit contributes to the development of diabetes. However, the precise mechanisms that control somatostatin secretion from islets remain elusive. Here, we found that a super-complex comprising the cullin 4B-RING E3 ligase (CRL4B) and polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) epigenetically regulates somatostatin secretion in islets. Constitutive ablation of CUL4B, the core component of the CRL4B-PRC2 complex, in ? cells impaired glucose tolerance and decreased insulin secretion through enhanced somatostatin release. Moreover, mechanistic studies showed that the CRL4B-PRC2 complex, under the control of the ? cell-specific transcription factor hematopoietically expressed homeobox (HHEX), determines the levels of intracellular calcium and cAMP through histone posttranslational modifications, thereby altering expression of the Cav1.2 calcium channel and adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6) and modulating somatostatin secretion. In response to high glucose levels or urocortin 3 (UCN3) stimulation, increased expression of cullin 4B (CUL4B) and the PRC2 subunit histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 and reciprocal decreases in Cav1.2 and AC6 expression were found to regulate somatostatin secretion. Our results reveal an epigenetic regulatory mechanism of ? cell paracrine interactions in which CRL4B-PRC2 complexes, Cav1.2, and AC6 expression fine-tune somatostatin secretion and facilitate glucose homeostasis in pancreatic islets.
Project description:Acetylcholine regulates hormone secretion from the pancreatic islet and is thus crucial for glucose homeostasis. Little is known, however, about acetylcholine (cholinergic) signaling in the human islet. We recently reported that in the human islet, acetylcholine is primarily a paracrine signal released from ?-cells rather than primarily a neural signal as in rodent islets. In this study, we demonstrate that the effects acetylcholine produces in the human islet are different and more complex than expected from studies conducted on cell lines and rodent islets. We found that endogenous acetylcholine not only stimulates the insulin-secreting ?-cell via the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors M3 and M5, but also the somatostatin-secreting ?-cell via M1 receptors. Because somatostatin is a strong inhibitor of insulin secretion, we hypothesized that cholinergic input to the ?-cell indirectly regulates ?-cell function. Indeed, when all muscarinic signaling was blocked, somatostatin secretion decreased and insulin secretion unexpectedly increased, suggesting a reduced inhibitory input to ?-cells. Endogenous cholinergic signaling therefore provides direct stimulatory and indirect inhibitory input to ?-cells to regulate insulin secretion from the human islet.
Project description:Diabetes is characterized by the loss, or gradual dysfunction, of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells. Although beta-cells can replicate in younger adults, the available diabetes therapies do not specifically target beta-cell regeneration. Novel approaches are needed to discover new therapeutics and to understand the contributions of endocrine progenitors and beta-cell regeneration during islet expansion. Here, we show that the regulators of G protein signaling Rgs16 and Rgs8 are expressed in pancreatic progenitor and endocrine cells during development, then extinguished in adults, but reactivated in models of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 (Glp-1)/incretin mimetic that stimulates beta-cell expansion, insulin secretion and normalization of blood glucose levels in diabetics, also promoted re-expression of Rgs16::GFP within a few days in pancreatic ductal-associated cells and islet beta-cells. These findings show that Rgs16::GFP and Rgs8::GFP are novel and early reporters of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-stimulated beta-cell expansion after therapeutic treatment and in diabetes models. Rgs16 and Rgs8 are likely to control aspects of islet progenitor cell activation, differentiation and beta-cell expansion in embryos and metabolically stressed adults.
Project description:Pancreatic islets are complex micro-organs consisting of at least three different cell types: glucagon-secreting ?-, insulin-producing ?- and somatostatin-releasing ?-cells1. Somatostatin is a powerful paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion2. In diabetes, increased somatostatinergic signalling leads to defective counter-regulatory glucagon secretion3. This increases the risk of severe hypoglycaemia, a dangerous complication of insulin therapy4. The regulation of somatostatin secretion involves both intrinsic and paracrine mechanisms5 but their relative contributions and whether they interact remains unclear. Here we show that dapagliflozin-sensitive glucose- and insulin-dependent sodium uptake stimulates somatostatin secretion by elevating the cytoplasmic Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and promoting intracellular Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR). This mechanism also becomes activated when [Na+]i is elevated following the inhibition of the plasmalemmal Na+-K+ pump by reductions of the extracellular K+ concentration emulating those produced by exogenous insulin in vivo 6. Islets from some donors with type-2 diabetes hypersecrete somatostatin, leading to suppression of glucagon secretion that can be alleviated by a somatostatin receptor antagonist. Our data highlight the role of Na+ as an intracellular second messenger, illustrate the significance of the intraislet paracrine network and provide a mechanistic framework for pharmacological correction of the hormone secretion defects associated with diabetes that selectively target the ?-cells.
Project description:In obesity fasting levels of both glucagon and insulin are elevated. In these subjects fasting levels of the free fatty acid palmitate are raised. We have demonstrated that palmitate enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated human islets via free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40). Since FFAR1 is also present on glucagon-secreting alpha-cells, we hypothesized that palmitate simultaneously stimulates secretion of glucagon and insulin at fasting glucose concentrations. In addition, we hypothesized that concomitant hypersecretion of glucagon and insulin was also contributed by reduced somatostatin secretion. We found basal glucagon, insulin and somatostatin secretion and respiration from human islets, to be enhanced during palmitate treatment at normoglycemia. Secretion of all hormones and mitochondrial respiration were lowered when FFAR1 or fatty acid ?-oxidation was inhibited. The findings were confirmed in the human beta-cell line EndoC-?H1. We conclude that fatty acids enhance both glucagon and insulin secretion at fasting glucose concentrations and that FFAR1 and enhanced mitochondrial metabolism but not lowered somatostatin secretion are crucial in this effect. The ability of chronically elevated palmitate levels to simultaneously increase basal secretion of glucagon and insulin positions elevated levels of fatty acids as potential triggering factors for the development of obesity and impaired glucose control.
Project description:G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for islet function, but most studies use rodent islets due to limited human islet availability. We have systematically compared the GPCR mRNA expression in human and mouse islets to determine to what extent mouse islets can be used as surrogates for human islets to study islet GPCR function, and we have identified species-specific expression of several GPCRs. The A3 receptor (ADORA3) was expressed only in mouse islets and the A3 agonist MRS 5698 inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion from mouse islets, with no effect on human islets. Similarly, mRNAs encoding the galanin receptors GAL1 (GALR1), GAL2 (GALR2) and GAL3 GALR3) were abundantly expressed in mouse islets but present only at low levels in human islets, so that it reads (GALR3) and galanin inhibited insulin secretion only from mouse islets. Conversely, the sst1 receptor (SSTR1) was abundant only in human islets and its selective activation by CH 275 inhibited insulin secretion from human islets, with no effect on mouse islets. Our comprehensive human and mouse islet GPCR atlas has demonstrated that species differences do exist in islet GPCR expression and function, which are likely to impact on the translatability of mouse studies to the human context.
Project description:The peptide hormone urocortin3 (Ucn3) is abundantly expressed by mature beta cells, yet its physiological role is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Ucn3 is stored and co-released with insulin and potentiates glucose-stimulated somatostatin secretion via cognate receptors on delta cells. Further, we found that islets lacking endogenous Ucn3 have fewer delta cells, reduced somatostatin content, impaired somatostatin secretion, and exaggerated insulin release, and that these defects are rectified by treatment with synthetic Ucn3 in vitro. Our observations indicate that the paracrine actions of Ucn3 activate a negative feedback loop that promotes somatostatin release to ensure the timely reduction of insulin secretion upon normalization of plasma glucose. Moreover, Ucn3 is markedly depleted from beta cells in mouse and macaque models of diabetes and in human diabetic islets. This suggests that Ucn3 is a key contributor to stable glycemic control, whose reduction during diabetes aggravates glycemic volatility and contributes to the pathophysiology of this disease.
Project description:Aberrant activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway supports growth of many tumors including those of breast, lung, and prostate. Resistance of breast cancer cells to targeted chemotherapies including tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has been linked to persistent PI3K activity, which may in part be due to increased membrane expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (HER2 and HER3). Recently we found that proteins of the RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) family suppress PI3K activity downstream of the receptor by sequestering its p85alpha subunit from signaling complexes. Because a substantial percentage of breast tumors have RGS16 mutations and reduced RGS16 protein expression, we investigated the link between regulation of PI3K activity by RGS16 and breast cancer cell growth. RGS16 overexpression in MCF7 breast cancer cells inhibited EGF-induced proliferation and Akt phosphorylation, whereas shRNA-mediated extinction of RGS16 augmented cell growth and resistance to TKI treatment. Exposure to TKI also reduced RGS16 expression in MCF7 and BT474 cell lines. RGS16 bound the amino-terminal SH2 and inter-SH2 domains of p85alpha and inhibited its interaction with the EGF receptor-associated adapter protein Gab1. These results suggest that the loss of RGS16 in some breast tumors enhances PI3K signaling elicited by growth factors and thereby promotes proliferation and TKI evasion downstream of HER activation.
Project description:Intra-islet and gut-islet crosstalk are critical in orchestrating basal and postprandial metabolism. The aim of this study was to identify regulatory proteins and receptors underlying somatostatin secretion though the use of transcriptomic comparison of purified murine alpha, beta and delta cells.Sst-Cre mice crossed with fluorescent reporters were used to identify delta cells, while Glu-Venus (with Venus reported under the control of the Glu [also known as Gcg] promoter) mice were used to identify alpha and beta cells. Alpha, beta and delta cells were purified using flow cytometry and analysed by RNA sequencing. The role of the ghrelin receptor was validated by imaging delta cell calcium concentrations using islets with delta cell restricted expression of the calcium reporter GCaMP3, and in perfused mouse pancreases.A database was constructed of all genes expressed in alpha, beta and delta cells. The gene encoding the ghrelin receptor, Ghsr, was highlighted as being highly expressed and enriched in delta cells. Activation of the ghrelin receptor raised cytosolic calcium levels in primary pancreatic delta cells and enhanced somatostatin secretion in perfused pancreases, correlating with a decrease in insulin and glucagon release. The inhibition of insulin secretion by ghrelin was prevented by somatostatin receptor antagonism.Our transcriptomic database of genes expressed in the principal islet cell populations will facilitate rational drug design to target specific islet cell types. The present study indicates that ghrelin acts specifically on delta cells within pancreatic islets to elicit somatostatin secretion, which in turn inhibits insulin and glucagon release. This highlights a potential role for ghrelin in the control of glucose metabolism.