TFC3: gene encoding the B-block binding subunit of the yeast transcription factor IIIC.
ABSTRACT: Yeast transcription factor IIIC (TFIIIC) is a multisubunit protein complex that interacts with two control elements of class III promoters called the A and B blocks. Here we describe the gene encoding the 138-kDa subunit (tau 138), which is involved in B-block binding. From the DNA sequence, the open reading frame, interrupted by an intron with an unusual 3' splice acceptor site, is in agreement with all the microsequencing data for peptides within tau 138. TFC3 is a single-copy gene located on chromosome I; it is essential for cell viability as shown by a gene disruption experiment. Epitope-tagging of the TFC3 gene product and DNA binding experiments are consistent with the presence of one copy of tau 138 in TFIIIC-DNA complexes.
Project description:Transcription factor IIIC (TFIIIC) (or tau) is a large multisubunit and multifunctional factor required for transcription of all class III genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is responsible for promoter recognition and TFIIIB assembly. We report here the cloning and characterization of TFC6, an essential gene encoding the 91-kDa polypeptide, tau91, present in affinity-purified TFIIIC. Tau91 has a predicted molecular mass of 74 kDa. It harbors a central cluster of His and Cys residues and has basic and acidic amino acid regions, but it shows no specific similarity to known proteins or predicted open reading frames. The TFIIIC subunit status of tau91 was established by the following biochemical and genetic evidence. Antibodies to tau91 bound TFIIIC-DNA complexes in gel shift assays; in vivo, a B block-deficient U6 RNA gene (SNR6) harboring GAL4 binding sites was reactivated by fusing the GAL4 DNA binding domain to tau91; and a point mutation in TFC6 (tau91-E330K) was found to suppress the thermosensitive phenotype of a tfc3-G349E mutant affected in the B block binding subunit (tau138). The suppressor mutation alleviated the DNA binding and transcription defects of mutant TFIIIC in vitro. These results indicated that tau91 cooperates with tau138 for DNA binding. Recombinant tau91 by itself did not interact with a tRNA gene, although it showed a strong affinity for single-stranded DNA.
Project description:Transcription factor IIIC (TFIIIC) is a multisubunit basic TF for RNA polymerase III. It initiates transcription complex assembly on tRNA and related genes by binding to the internal box B promoter element and is also required for transcription of 5S rRNA and other stable nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs transcribed by polymerase III. In mammalian cells, regulation of TFIIIC activity controls overall polymerase III transcription in response to growth factors and viral infection. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of a full-length cDNA (and genomic DNA from the transcription initiation region) encoding the box B binding subunit of human TFIIIC, the 243-kDa alpha subunit. Specific antisera raised against the encoded protein super shifts a TFIIIC-box B DNA complex during an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and immunodepletes TFIIIC transcriptional activity from a partially purified TFIIIC fraction, proving that the cDNA encodes a component of TFIIIC. The human protein shows surprisingly little similarity to the box B binding subunit of yeast TFIIIC.
Project description:The multisubunit yeast transcription factor IIIC (TFIIIC; also called tau) can undergo considerable conformational changes upon binding to the A and B blocks of tRNA genes. After binding to DNA encoding tRNA (tDNA), TFIIIC acts as an assembly factor to recruit an initiation factor, TFIIIB, via its tau 131 subunit. We have cloned the gene encoding the tau 131 subunit and named it TFC4. This gene is unique, essential for cell viability, and encodes a M(r) 120,153 protein. Epitope-tagging and mobility-shift assays indicated the presence of a single tau 131 subunit in TFIIIC-tDNA complexes. tau 131 contains two sequence motifs, accounting for nearly one-half of the protein mass, that may provide a molecular explanation for the properties of TFIIIC-tDNA complex. A series of 11 copies of the tetratricopeptide repeat motif may account for the flexibility and interaction properties of TFIIIC. A motif akin to the basic helix-loop-helix motif of MyoD suggests the direct involvement of tau 131 in promoting DNA binding of TFIIIB.
Project description:The multisubunit yeast transcription factor IIIC (TFIIIC) is a multifunctional protein required for promoter recognition, transcription factor IIIB recruitment, and chromatin antirepression. We report the isolation and characterization of TFC7, an essential gene encoding the 55-kDa polypeptide, tau55, present in affinity-purified TFIIIC. tau55 is a chimeric protein generated by an ancient chromosomal rearrangement. Its C-terminal half is essential for cell viability and sufficient to ensure TFIIIC function in DNA binding and transcription assays. The N-terminal half is nonessential and highly similar to a putative yeast protein encoded on another chromosome and to a cyanobacterial protein of unknown function. Partial deletions of the N-terminal domain impaired tau55 function at a high temperature or in media containing glycerol or ethanol, suggesting a link between PolIII transcription and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, tau55 was found, together with TFIIIC subunit tau95, in a protein complex which was distinct from TFIIIC and which may play a role in the regulation of PolIII transcription, possibly in relation to cell metabolism.
Project description:Yeast transcription factor IIIC (TFIIIC) plays a key role in assembling the transcription initiation factor TFIIIB on class III genes after TFIIIC-DNA binding. The second largest subunit of TFIIIC, tau131, is thought to initiate TFIIIB assembly by interacting with Brf1/TFIIIB70. In this work, we have analyzed a TFIIIC mutant (tau131-DeltaTPR2) harboring a deletion in tau131 removing the second of its 11 tetratricopeptide repeats. Remarkably, this thermosensitive mutation was selectively suppressed in vivo by overexpression of B"/TFIIIB90, but not Brf1 or TATA-binding protein. In vitro, the mutant factor preincubated at restrictive temperature bound DNA efficiently but lost transcription factor activity. The in vitro transcription defect was abolished at high concentrations of B" but not Brf1. Copurification experiments of baculovirus-expressed proteins confirmed a direct physical interaction between tau131 and B". tau131, therefore, appears to be involved in the recruitment of both Brf1 and B".
Project description:In eukaryotes, RNA Polymerase III (Pol III) is specifically responsible for transcribing genes encoding tRNAs and other short non-coding RNAs. The recruitment of Pol III to tRNA-encoding genes requires the transcription factors (TF) IIIB and IIIC. TFIIIC has been described as a conserved, multi-subunit protein complex composed of two subcomplexes, called ?A and ?B. How these two subcomplexes are linked and how their interaction affects the formation of the Pol III pre-initiation complex (PIC) is poorly understood. Here we use chemical crosslinking mass spectrometry and determine the molecular architecture of TFIIIC. We further report the crystal structure of the essential TPR array from ?A subunit ?131 and characterize its interaction with a central region of ?B subunit ?138. The identified ?131-?138 interacting region is essential in vivo and overlaps with TFIIIB-binding sites, revealing a crucial interaction platform for the regulation of tRNA transcription initiation.
Project description:Transcription factor TFIIIC mediates tRNA and 5S RNA gene activation by binding to intragenic promoter elements. The factor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also called tau, is a large, multisubunit protein (550-650 kDa) containing two polypeptides that interact directly with DNA encoding tRNA (tDNA). We have obtained peptide sequences from the 95-kDa DNA-binding subunit (tau 95) and cloned the corresponding gene, called TFC1. The gene encodes a polypeptide of calculated Mr 73,500. However, when TFC1 was transcribed and translated in vitro, the gene product comigrated with tau 95 in SDS/polyacrylamide gels. A fusion protein expressed in bacteria was able to prevent the binding of anti-tau 95 antibodies to tau-tDNA complexes. The TFC1 gene is present in single copy on yeast chromosome II and is essential for growth. Spores containing a disrupted gene germinate but only proceed through a few cell divisions before ceasing to grow. The TFC1-encoded protein contains a potential helix-turn-helix structure and an acidic carboxyl-terminal domain, a feature characteristic of some DNA-binding proteins and transcriptional regulators.
Project description:Transcription factor IIIC (TFIIIC) is required for the assembly of a preinitiation complex on 5S RNA, tRNA, and adenovirus VA RNA genes and contains two separable components, TFIIIC1 and TFIIIC2. TFIIIC2 binds to the 3' end of the internal control region of the VAI RNA gene and contains five polypeptides ranging in size from 63 to 220 kDa; the largest of these directly contacts DNA. Here we describe the cloning of cDNAs encoding all (rat) or part (human) of the 220-kDa subunit (TFIIIC alpha). Surprisingly, TFIIIC alpha has no homology to any of the yeast TFIIIC subunits already cloned, suggesting a significant degree of evolutionary divergence for RNA polymerase III factors. Antibodies raised against the N terminus of recombinant human TFIIIC alpha specifically inhibit binding of natural TFIIIC to DNA. Furthermore, immunodepletion assays indicate that TFIIIC alpha is absolutely required for RNA polymerase III transcription of 5S RNA, tRNA, and VAI RNA genes but not for the 7SK RNA and U6 small nuclear RNA genes. Transcription from the tRNA and VAI RNA genes in TFIIIC-depleted nuclear extracts can be restored by addition of purified TFIIIC. In contrast, restoration of 5S RNA gene transcription requires readdition of both TFIIIC and TFIIIA, indicating a promoter-independent interaction between these factors. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate a tight association of all five polypeptides previously identified in the TFIIIC2 fraction, confirming the multisubunit structure of the human factor.
Project description:Chromatin function requires specific three-dimensional architectures of chromosomes. We investigated whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae extra TFIIIC (ETC) sites, which bind the TFIIIC transcription factor but do not recruit RNA polymerase III, show specific intranuclear positioning. We show that six of the eight known S. cerevisiae ETC sites localize predominantly at the nuclear periphery, and that ETC sites retain their tethering function when moved to a new chromosomal location. Several lines of evidence indicate that TFIIIC is central to the ETC peripheral localization mechanism. Mutating or deleting the TFIIIC-binding consensus ablated ETC -site peripheral positioning, and inducing degradation of the TFIIIC subunit Tfc3 led to rapid release of an ETC site from the nuclear periphery. We find, moreover, that anchoring one TFIIIC subunit at an ectopic chromosomal site causes recruitment of others and drives peripheral tethering. Localization of ETC sites at the nuclear periphery also requires Mps3, a Sad1-UNC-84-domain protein that spans the inner nuclear membrane. Surprisingly, we find that the chromatin barrier and insulator functions of an ETC site do not depend on correct peripheral localization. In summary, TFIIIC and Mps3 together direct the intranuclear positioning of a new class of S. cerevisiae genomic loci positioned at the nuclear periphery.
Project description:Human transcription factor IIIC (hTFIIIC) is a multisubunit complex that directly recognizes promoter elements and recruits TFIIIB and RNA polymerase III. Here we describe the cDNA cloning and characterization of the 90-kDa subunit (hTFIIIC90) that is present within a DNA-binding subcomplex (TFIIIC2) of TFIIIC. hTFIIIC90 has no specific homology to any of the known yeast TFIIIC subunits. Immunodepletion and immunoprecipitation studies indicate that hTFIIIC90 is a bona fide subunit of TFIIIC2 and absolutely required for RNA polymerase III transcription. hTFIIIC90 shows interactions with the hTFIIIC220, hTFIIIC110, and hTFIIIC63 subunits of TFIIIC, the hTFIIIB90 subunit of TFIIIB, and the human RPC39 (hRPC39) and hRPC62 subunits of an initiation-specific subcomplex of RNA polymerase III. These interactions may facilitate both TFIIIB and RNA polymerase III recruitment to the preinitiation complex by TFIIIC. We show that hTFIIIC90 has an intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity with a substrate specificity for histone H3.