Hmgn5 functions downstream of Hoxa10 to regulate uterine decidualization in mice.
ABSTRACT: Although Hmgn5 is involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation, its physiological function during decidualization is still unknown. Here we showed that Hmgn5 was highly expressed in the decidual cells. Silencing of Hmgn5 expression by specific siRNA reduced the proliferation of uterine stromal cells and expression of Ccnd3 and Cdk4 in the absence or presence of estrogen and progesterone, whereas overexpression of Hmgn5 exhibited the opposite effects. Simultaneously, Hmgn5 might induce the expression of Prl8a2 and Prl3c1 which were 2 well-known differentiation markers for decidualization. In the uterine stromal cells, cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP and progesterone could up-regulate the expression of Hmgn5, but the up-regulation was impeded by H89 and RU486, respectively. Attenuation of Hmgn5 expression could block the differentiation of uterine stromal cells in response to cAMP and progesterone. Further studies found that regulation of cAMP and progesterone on Hmgn5 expression was mediated by Hoxa10. During in vitro decidualization, knockdown of Hmgn5 could abrogate Hoxa10-induced upregulation of Prl8a2 and Prl3c1, while overexpression of Hmgn5 reversed the inhibitory effects of Hoxa10 siRNA on the expression of Prl8a2 and Prl3c1. In the stromal cells undergoing decidualization, Hmgn5 might act downstream of Hoxa10 to regulate the expression of Cox-2, Vegf and Mmp2. Collectively, Hmgn5 may play an important role during mouse decidualization.
Project description:Although Hmgn1 is involved in the regulation of gene expression and cellular differentiation, its physiological roles on the differentiation of uterine stromal cells during decidualization still remain unknown. Here we showed that Hmgn1 mRNA was highly expressed in the decidua on days 6-8 of pregnancy. Simultaneously, increased expression of Hmgn1 was also observed in the artificial and in vitro induced decidualization models. Hmgn1 induced the proliferation of uterine stromal cells and expression of Ccna1, Ccnb1, Ccnb2 and Cdk1 in the absence of estrogen and progesterone. Overexpression of Hmgn1 could enhance the expression of Prl8a2 and Prl3c1 which were 2 well-known differentiation markers for decidualization, whereas inhibition of Hmgn1 with specific siRNA could reduce their expression. Further studies found that Hmgn1 could mediate the effects of C/EBP? on the expression of Prl8a2 and Prl3c1 during in vitro decidualization. In the uterine stromal cells, cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP could stimulate the expression of Hmgn1 via C/EBP?. Moreover, siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Hmgn1 could attenuate the effects of cAMP on the differentiation of uterine stromal cells. During in vitro decidualization, Hmgn1 might act downstream of C/EBP? to regulate the expression of Cox-2, mPGES-1 and Vegf. Progesterone could up-regulate the expression of Hmgn1 in the ovariectomized mouse uterus, uterine epithelial cells and stromal cells. Knockdown of C/EBP? with siRNA alleviated the up-regulation of progesterone on Hmgn1 expression. Collectively, Hmgn1 may play an important role during mouse decidualization.
Project description:HB-EGF is essential for uterine decidualization, but its antioxidant function remains largely unclear. Here, we found that HB-EGF promoted the proliferation of stromal cells followed by the accelerated transition of the cell cycle from G1 to S phase and enhanced the expression or activity of Prl8a2, Prl3c1, and ALP which were well-established markers for uterine stromal cell differentiation during decidualization. Under oxidative stress, stromal cell differentiation was impaired, but this impairment was abrogated by rHB-EGF accompanied with the reduced levels of ROS and MDA which were regarded as the biomarkers for oxidative stress, indicating an antioxidant role of HB-EGF. Further analysis revealed that HB-EGF enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GPX, where addition of GPX inhibitor MS attenuated the induction of rHB-EGF on Prl8a2, Prl3c1, and ALP. Meanwhile, HB-EGF rescued the content of GSH and restored the ratio of GSH/GSSG after exposure to H2O2 but did not alter NOX activity. Along with a decline for mitochondrial superoxide, exogenous rHB-EGF improved the damage of oxidative stress on mtDNA copy number, ATP level, mitochondrial membrane potential, and activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I and III whose blockage by ROT and AA led to a failure of rHB-EGF in protecting stromal cell differentiation against injury. Moreover, HB-EGF prevented stromal cell apoptosis by inhibiting Caspase-3 activity and Bax expression and recovering the level of Bcl-2 mRNA. Collectively, HB-EGF might ameliorate oxidative stress-mediated uterine decidualization damage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Luman is a member of CREB3 (cAMP responsive element-binding) subfamily of the basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. It may play an important regulatory role during the decidualization process since Luman was highly expressed in the decidual cells. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of how Luman regulating decidualization is unknown. RESULTS:Using an in vitro model, we prove that Luman knockdown significantly affects the decidualization process of mice endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) as the expression of two decidual markers PRL8a2 and PRL3c1 were repressed. We employed massively parallel RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to understand the changes in the transcriptional landscape associated with knockdown of Luman in ESCs during in vitro decidualization. We found significant dysregulation of genes related to protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Several genes involved in decidualization including bone morphogenetic proteins (e.g. BMP1, BMP4, BMP8A, BMP2, and BMP8B), growth factor-related genes (e.g. VEGFB, FGF10, and FGFR2), and transcription factors (IF4E, IF4A2, WNT4, WNT9A, ETS1, NOTCH1, IRX1, IDB1, IDB2, and IDB3), show altered expression. We also found that the knockdown of Luman is associated with increased expression of cell cycle-related genes including cycA1, cycB1, cycB2, CDK1, CDK2, and PLPK1, which resulted in an increased proportion of ESCs in the G1 phase. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were highly enriched on ECM-receptor interaction signaling, endoplasmic reticulum protein processing, focal adhesion, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS:Luman knockdown results in widespread gene dysregulation during decidualization of ESCs. Genes involved in protein processing in ER, bone morphogenetic protein, growth factor, and cell cycle progression were identified as particularly important for explaining the decidual deficiency observed in this in vitro model. Therefore, this study provides clues as to the underlying mechanisms that may expand our understanding of gene regulation during decidualization.
Project description:Homeobox (HOX) A10 is essential for fertility as demonstrated in transgenic mice, specifically affecting implantation and decidualization. Its role in human decidualization, however, remains unknown. In this study, we used gene silencing followed by microarray analysis to decipher the role of HOXA10 during decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). HOXA10 was knocked down using siRNA oligonucleotide transfection and cells were treated with estradiol, medroxyprogesterone acetate and dibutyryl cAMP (H + cAMP) to induce decidualization. Genes significantly regulated were identified using the Affymetrix microarray chip. With this method, 2361 transcripts were significantly altered by 1.5-fold or higher (P < 0.05) with H + cAMP treatment only. Of these genes, 258 were significantly up-regulated by HOXA10 knockdown and 236 transcripts were significantly down-regulated by more than 1.5-fold, totaling 494 genes that were regulated by HOXA10 during decidualization. Data analysis using the Ingenuity System revealed that many of the genes regulated by HOXA10 knockdown during H + cAMP treatment were associated with cell cycle. Real-time PCR was used to confirm that HOXA10 knockdown decreased expression of the cell cycle genes CDC2 and CCNB2. In addition, a higher percentage of cells were arrested in the G2/M phase. Next, we observed that cell proliferation as measured by BrdU incorporation was decreased upon HOXA10 knockdown and H + cAMP treatment. Apoptosis, on the other hand, as measured by Annexin V staining was not influenced by siHOXA10 in decidualizing cells. Together, these data demonstrate that during decidualization of HESC, HOXA10 is actively involved in promoting cell proliferation through the regulation of hundreds of genes.
Project description:Embryo implantation into the maternal uterus is a crucial step for the successful establishment of mammalian pregnancy. Following the attachment of embryo to the uterine luminal epithelium, uterine stromal cells undergo steroid hormone-dependent decidualization, which is characterized by stromal cell proliferation and differentiation. The mechanisms underlying steroid hormone-induced stromal cell proliferation and differentiation during decidualization are still poorly understood. Ribonucleotide reductase, consisting of two subunits (RRM1 and RRM2), is a rate-limiting enzyme in deoxynucleotide production for DNA synthesis and plays an important role in cell proliferation and tumorgenicity. Based on our microarray analysis, Rrm2 expression was significantly higher at implantation sites compared with interimplantation sites in mouse uterus. However, the expression, regulation, and function of RRM2 in mouse uterus during embryo implantation and decidualization are still unknown. Here we show that although both RRM1 and RRM2 expression are markedly induced in mouse uterine stromal cells undergoing decidualization, only RRM2 is regulated by progesterone, a key regulator of decidualization. Further studies showed that the induction of progesterone on RRM2 expression in stromal cells is mediated by the AKT/c-MYC pathway. RRM2 can also be induced by replication stress and DNA damage during decidualization through the ATR/ATM-CHK1-E2F1 pathway. The weight of implantation sites and deciduoma was effectively reduced by specific inhibitors for RRM2. The expression of decidual/trophoblast prolactin-related protein (Dtprp), a reliable marker for decidualization in mice, was significantly reduced in deciduoma and steroid-induced decidual cells after HU treatment. Therefore, RRM2 may be an important effector of progesterone signaling to induce cell proliferation and decidualization in mouse uterus.
Project description:Although GPR64 has an important role for male fertility, its physiological roles in the female reproductive system are still unknown. In the present study, immunohistochemical analysis reveals a spatiotemporal expression of GPR64 in the uterus during early pregnancy. Observation of remarkable induction of GPR64 expression in uterine decidual cells points to its potential physiological significance on decidualization. The decidualization of uterine stromal cells is a key event in implantation. Progesterone (P4) signaling is crucial for the decidualization of the endometrial stromal cells for successful pregnancy. Therefore, we examined ovarian steroid hormone regulation of GPR64 expression in the murine uterus. P4 induced GPR64 expression in the epithelial and stromal cells of the uterus in ovariectomized wild-type mice, but not in PRKO mice. ChIP analysis confirmed that PGR proteins were recruited on progesterone response element of Gpr64 gene in the uteri of wild-type mice treated with P4. Furthermore, the expression of GPR64 was increased in human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) during in vitro decidualization. Interestingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of GPR64 in hESCs remarkably reduced decidualization. These results suggest that Gpr64 has a crucial role in the decidualization of endometrial stromal cells.
Project description:Successful implantation and maintenance of pregnancy require the transformation of uterine endometrial stromal cells into distinct decidualized cells. Although estrogen and progesterone (P4) receptors are known to be essential for decidualization, the roles of steroid receptor coregulators in this process remain largely unknown. In this study, we have established a key role for the coregulator, repressor of estrogen receptor activity (REA), in the decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) in vitro and of the mouse uterus in vivo. Our studies revealed that the level of REA normally decreases to half as hESC decidualization proceeds and that uterine reduction of REA in transgenic heterozygous knockout mice or small interfering RNA knockdown of REA in hESC temporally accelerated and strongly enhanced the differentiation process, as indicated by changes in cell morphology and increased expression of biomarkers of decidualization, including P4 receptor. Findings in hESC cultured in vitro with estradiol, P4, and 8-bromo-cAMP over a 10-day period mirrored observations of enhanced decidualization response in transgenic mice with heterozygous deletion of REA. Importantly, gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses revealed changes in multiple components of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway, including marked up-regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and IL-11, master regulators of decidualization, and the down-regulation of several suppressor of cytokine signaling family members, upon reduction of REA. The findings highlight that REA physiologically restrains endometrial stromal cell decidualization, controlling the timing and magnitude of decidualization to enable proper coordination of uterine differentiation with concurrent embryo development that is essential for implantation and optimal fertility.
Project description:Implantation is initiated when the embryo attaches to the uterine luminal epithelium during early pregnancy. Following this event, uterine stromal cells undergo steroid hormone-dependent transformation into morphologically and functionally distinct decidual cells in a unique process known as decidualization. An angiogenic network is also formed in the uterine stromal bed, critically supporting the early development of the embryo. The steroid-induced mechanisms that promote stromal differentiation and endothelial proliferation during decidualization are not fully understood. Although the role of ovarian progesterone as a key regulator of decidualization is well established, the requirement of ovarian estrogen (E) during this process remains unresolved. Here we show that the expression of P450 aromatase, a key enzyme that converts androgens to E, is markedly induced in mouse uterine stromal cells undergoing decidualization. The aromatase then acts in conjunction with other steroid biosynthetic enzymes present in the decidual tissue to support de novo synthesis of E. This locally produced E is able to support the advancement of the stromal differentiation program even in the absence ovarian E in an ovariectomized, progesterone-supplemented pregnant mouse model. Administration of letrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, to these mice blocked the stromal differentiation process. Gene expression profiling further revealed that the intrauterine E induces the expression of several stromal factors that promote neovascularization in the decidual tissue. Collectively, these studies identified the decidual uterus as a novel site of E biosynthesis and uncovered E-regulated maternal signaling pathways that critically control uterine differentiation and angiogenesis during early pregnancy.
Project description:Appropriate regulation of regional uterine stromal cell decidualization in implantation, at the mesometrial triangle and secondary decidual zone (SDZ) locations, is critical for successful pregnancy, although the regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this regard, the available animal models that would specifically allow mechanistic analysis of site-specific decidualization are strikingly limited. Our study found that heightened expression of FoxM1, a Forkhead box transcription factor, is regulated during decidualization, and its conditional deletion in mice reveals failure of implantation with regional decidualization defects such as a much smaller mesometrial decidua with enlarged SDZ. Analysis of cell cycle progression during decidualization both in vivo and in vitro demonstrates that the loss of FoxM1 elicits diploid cell deficiency with enhanced arrests prior to mitosis and concomitant upregulation of polyploidy. We further showed that Hoxa10 and cyclin D3, two decidual markers, control transcriptional regulation and intra-nuclear protein translocation of FoxM1 in polyploid cells, respectively. Overall, we suggest that proper regional decidualization and polyploidy development requires FoxM1 signaling downstream of Hoxa10 and cyclin D3.
Project description:Serpinb6b is a novel member of Serpinb family and found in germ and somatic cells of mouse gonads, but its physiological function in uterine decidualization remains unclear. The present study revealed that abundant Serpinb6b was noted in decidual cells, and advanced the proliferation and differentiation of stromal cells, indicating a creative role of Serpinb6b in uterine decidualization. Further analysis found that Serpinb6b modulated the expression of Mmp2 and Mmp9. Meanwhile, Serpinb6b was identified as a target of Bmp2 regulation in stromal differentiation. Treatment with rBmp2 resulted in an accumulation of intracellular cAMP level whose function in this differentiation program was mediated by Serpinb6b. Addition of PKA inhibitor H89 impeded the Bmp2 induction of Serpinb6b, whereas 8-Br-cAMP rescued the defect of Serpinb6b expression elicited by Bmp2 knock-down. Attenuation of Serpinb6b greatly reduced the induction of constitutive Wnt4 activation on stromal cell differentiation. By contrast, overexpression of Serpinb6b prevented this inhibition of differentiation process by Wnt4 siRNA. Moreover, blockage of Wnt4 abrogated the up-regulation of cAMP on Serpinb6b. Collectively, Serpinb6b mediates uterine decidualization via Mmp2/9 in response to Bmp2/cAMP/PKA/Wnt4 pathway.