The Risk for Insulin Resistance according to the Degree of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Men.
ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance (IR) plays a significant role in the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the natural course of insulin sensitivity under NAFLD remained unclear. Accordingly, this study was designed to investigate the effect of NAFLD on insulin resistance. A total of 20,628 Korean men without homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR < 2.7) were followed-up for 5 years. They were serially checked for HOMA-IR to monitor the development of IR (HOMA-IR ? 2.7). The incidence rate of IR increased according to the degree of NAFLD (normal: 11.6%, mild: 28.8%, moderate to severe: 40.5%, P < 0.001). Cox proportional hazards model showed that HRs (95% CI) for IR increased proportionally to the degree of NAFLD (mild: 1.19 [1.02-1.39], moderate to severe: 1.32 [1.08-1.57]). IR was more potentially associated with the more progressive NAFLD than normal and milder state. In addition, NAFLD was the independent risk factor of the development of IR. These results suggest the potential availability of NAFLD as a predictor of IR.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging chronic liver disease that may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to determine the association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and NAFLD severity using semi-quantitative ultrasonography (US). A total of 614 participants were recruited from the community. NAFLD was evaluated according to the ultrasonographic Fatty Liver Indicator (US-FLI), which is a semi-quantitative liver ultrasound score. Insulin resistance was estimated with the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). NAFLD and MetS were found in 53.7 and 17.3% of the participants, respectively. Linear relationships were found between the severity of NAFLD and waist circumference, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL-C and blood pressure. After adjusting for confounding factors, i.e., body mass index and HOMA-IR, the odds ratios for MetS were 3.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5-8.83) for those with mild NAFLD and 9.4 (95% CI: 3.54-24.98) for those with moderate-to-severe NAFLD compared to those without NAFLD. The combination of the HOMA-IR and US-FLI scores better differentiated MetS than the HOMA-IR alone. In addition to obesity, the severity of NAFLD and the HOMA-IR both play important roles in MetS. Whether NAFLD is a component of MetS warrants further research.
Project description:Coffee has inverse relationships with both type 2 diabetes and hepatic fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Relationships were explored between coffee intake and insulin resistance (IR) with respect to NAFLD histologic severity.We analyzed data from 782 adults (?18 years) in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) from 2004 to 2008. IR was assessed using the HOMA-IR. We modeled associations between coffee intake and NAFLD histologic severity using multiple logistic regression; and interactions between coffee and IR on NAFLD histology were explored.Among 782 participants, 38% (n = 295) were men, 12% (n = 97) were Latino, mean age (± standard deviation) was 48 ± 12 years. Median BMI was 33.5 kg/m(2) [interquartile range, 29.7-38.3] and median HOMA-IR was 4.3 [2.7-7.2]. Diabetes was present in 24% (n = 189). NASH was present in 79% (n = 616), and 25% (n = 199) had advanced fibrosis. The frequency of coffee intake (cups/day, cpd) was as follows: 0 cpd, n = 230 (29%); <1 cpd, n = 219 (28%); 1 to <2 cpd, n = 116 (15%); ?2 cpd, n = 217 (28%). The effect of coffee on fibrosis varied with degree of IR (interaction P = 0.001). Coffee consumers with less IR, defined as HOMA-IR<4.3, had a lower odds of advanced fibrosis [OR = 0.64; 95% CI, (0.46-0.88), P = 0.001]. There was no protective effect of coffee on advanced fibrosis among individuals with higher HOMA-IR [OR = 1.06, 95% CI (0.87-1.28), P = 0.6].Coffee intake is inversely associated with advanced fibrosis among NAFLD patients with lower HOMA-IR. Our findings warrant further investigation given the worldwide ubiquity of coffee intake.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) promoter (LIPE-60 C > G) polymorphism has been found to be involved in hepatic steatosis, obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia. The precise interactions between these risk factors and genetic susceptibility that may affect non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are still not fully determined. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1056 men. To avoid the confounding effect of plasma glucose, the study population was classified into normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 729) and glucose intolerance (GI, n = 299) groups. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound after ruling out any history of alcohol abuse. A multivariate regression model was used to estimate the impact of these factors on NAFLD. RESULTS: In the NGT group, subjects with NAFLD often have complicated metabolic abnormalities. The coexistence of NAFLD and GI has been demonstrated to have a synergistic effect raising BMI, serum insulin and HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). BMI and adipose-insulin resistance (Adipo-IR), but not HOMA-IR, significantly contributed to a greater risk of developing NAFLD. Serum triglyceride was significantly up-regulated in men with the (CG + GG) genotype of HSL promoter polymorphism, NAFLD and Adiopo-IR in sequence. CONCLUSION: Adipo-IR, rather than HOMA-IR, appears to be a consistent insulin resistance index in the study of NAFLD. G allele of the HSL promoter polymorphism may contribute the greatest impact raising serum triglyceride in a state of glucose intolerance.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease, and yet the natural course remains unclear. Study population included 36,195 individuals who participated in a health-screening program and diagnosed with fatty liver by abdominal ultrasound. Participants were provided written information regarding fatty liver and advised to make lifestyle changes. Ultrasound was repeated after at least 6 months. After a mean follow up of 4.9 years (±3.4), 19.6% resolved their fatty liver. Individuals who resolved were more likely female (22.9% vs. 12.3%), thinner (body mass index [BMI], 25.2 ± 2.7 vs. 26 ± 2.7), and with lower HOMA-IR (1.4 vs. 1.7) (P .70.001). Decrease in BMI predicted resolution of fatty liver with 42% of those in the top quartile of BMI decline resolving compared with 5.7% in the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]) 15.65 (14.13-17.34), P < 0.001)). Baseline HOMA-IR also predicted resolution with those in the top quartile (most insulin resistant) being least likely to resolve (12%) vs. those in the lowest quartile (25%) (OR 0.36 [0.31-0.42], P < 0.001). Fatty liver disease is persistent. Individuals with higher degree of insulin resistance are also the most likely to have persistent steatosis at follow up.
Project description:Purpose:Obese subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are more prone to develop additional metabolic disturbances such as systemic insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD is defined by hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and stage of fibrosis, but it is unclear if and which components could contribute to IR. Objective:To assess which histological components of NAFLD associate with IR in subjects with obesity, and if so, to what extent. Methods:This cross-sectional study included 78 obese subjects (mean age 46 ± 11 years; BMI 42.2 ± 4.7 kg/m2). Glucose levels were analysed by hexokinase method and insulin levels with electrochemiluminescence. Homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Liver biopsies were evaluated for histological components of NAFLD. Results:A positive association between overall NAFLD Activity Score and HOMA-IR was found (r s = 0.259, P = 0.022). As per individual components, lobular inflammation and fibrosis stage were positively associated with HOMA-IR, glucose and insulin levels (P < 0.05), and HOMA-IR was higher in patients with more inflammatory foci or higher stage of fibrosis. These findings were independent of age, BMI, triglyceride levels, diabetes status and sex (all P < 0.043). In a combined model, lobular inflammation, but not fibrosis, remained associated with HOMA-IR. Conclusion:In this group of obese subjects, a major contributing histological component of NAFLD to the relation between NAFLD severity and IR seems to be the grade of hepatic lobular inflammation. Although no causal relationship was assessed, preventing or mitigating this inflammatory response in obesity might be of importance in controlling obesity-related metabolic disturbances.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Insulin resistance contributes to the metabolic syndrome, which is associated with the development of kidney disease. However, it is unclear if insulin resistance independently contributes to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression or CKD complications. Additionally, predisposing factors responsible for insulin resistance in the absence of diabetes in CKD are not well described. This study aimed to describe factors associated with insulin resistance and characterize the relationship of insulin resistance to CKD progression, cardiovascular events and death among a cohort of non-diabetics with CKD.<h4>Methods</h4>Data was utilized from Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study participants without diabetes (N?=?1883). Linear regression was used to assess associations with insulin resistance, defined using the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). The relationship of HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and C-peptide with CKD progression, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality was examined with Cox proportional hazards models.<h4>Results</h4>Novel positive associations with HOMA-IR included serum albumin, uric acid, and hemoglobin A1c. After adjustment, HOMA-IR was not associated with CKD progression, cardiovascular events, or all-cause mortality. There was a notable positive association of one standard deviation increase in HbA1c with the cardiovascular endpoint (HR 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00-1.34).<h4>Conclusion</h4>We describe potential determinants of HOMA-IR among a cohort of non-diabetics with mild-moderate CKD. HOMA-IR was not associated with renal or cardiovascular events, or all-cause mortality, which adds to the growing literature describing an inconsistent relationship of insulin resistance with CKD-related outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independent of visceral obesity in Koreans and to examine whether the associations differ according to the presence of diabetes or insulin resistance.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>A total of 1081 adults were enrolled from a population-based cohort in Ansan city. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in all subjects. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Using computed tomography, NAFLD was diagnosed if the liver attenuation index (LAI, the difference between the mean hepatic and splenic attenuation) was <5 Hounsfield Units.<h4>Results</h4>In subjects with diabetes (n?=?282), 25(OH)D levels were negatively associated with waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride levels, and visceral abdominal fat, and were positively associated with LAI after adjusting for age, sex, season, exercise, and vitamin supplementation. In subjects without diabetes, only triglyceride level was negatively associated with 25(OH)D. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for NAFLD increased sequentially across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D in subjects with diabetes even after adjusting for visceral fat [Q1 vs. Q4; OR for NAFLD 2.5 (95% CI:1.0-6.2)]. In contrast, no significant difference in OR was observed in subjects without diabetes. When we classified non-diabetic subjects by HOMA-IR, an increase in the OR for NAFLD across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D was observed in the high HOMA-IR (?2.5) group [n?=?207, Q1 vs. Q4; OR 3.8(1.4-10.3)], but not in the low HOMA-IR (<2.5) group [n?=?592, OR 0.8 (0.3-1.9)].<h4>Conclusions</h4>Low vitamin D status is closely associated with NAFLD, independent of visceral obesity in subjects with diabetes or insulin resistance.
Project description:Adipose tissue-derived hormone leptin plays a functional role in glucose tolerance through its effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity which also represent the risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study explored the gender specific association of serum leptin and insulinemic indices with NAFLD in Bangladeshi prediabetic subjects. Under a cross-sectional analytical design a total of 110 ultrasound examined prediabetic subjects, aged 25-68 years consisting of 57.3% male (55.6% non NAFLD and 44.4% NAFLD) and 42.7% female (57.4% non NAFLD and 42.6% NAFLD), were investigated. Insulin secretory function (HOMA%B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) were calculated from homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Serum leptin showed significant positive correlation with fasting insulin (r = 0.530, P = 0.004), postprandial insulin (r = 0.384, P = 0.042) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.541, P = 0.003) as well as significant negative correlation with HOMA%S (r = -0.388, P = 0.046) and HOMA%B (r = -0.356, P = 0.039) in male prediabetic subjects with NAFLD. In multiple linear regression analysis, log transformed leptin showed significant positive association with HOMA-IR (? = 0.706, P <0.001) after adjusting the effects of body mass index (BMI), triglyceride (TG) and HOMA%B in male subjects with NAFLD. In binary logistic regression analysis, only log leptin [OR 1.29 95% (C.I) (1.11-1.51), P = 0.001] in male subjects as well as HOMA%B [OR 0.94 95% (C.I) (0.89-0.98), P = 0.012], HOMA-IR [OR 3.30 95% (C.I) (0.99-10.95), P = 0.049] and log leptin [OR 1.10 95% (C.I) (1.01-1.20), P = 0.026] in female subjects were found to be independent determinants of NAFLD after adjusting the BMI and TG. Serum leptin seems to have an association with NAFLD both in male and female prediabetic subjects and this association in turn, is mediated by insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance among these subjects.
Project description:Adult nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by absent or mild portal chronic inflammation (CI); in children, portal CI may be predominant. This study correlated clinical features with portal CI. Centrally-graded biopsies and temporally-related clinical parameters from 728 adults and 205 children. From the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) were evaluated. Mild, more than mild and no portal CI were found in 60%, 23% and 16% of adult biopsies and 76%, 14% and 10% of pediatric biopsies. Autoantibodies, and elevated alanine aminotransferase were not associated with portal CI. Clinical features associated with "more than mild" in adults were older age (P < 0.0001), female gender (P = 0.001), higher body mass index (P < 0.0001), elevated insulin levels (P = 0.001), higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (HOMA-IR) (P < 0.0001), and medications used for NAFLD (P = 0.0004), diabetes (P < 0.0001), and hypertension (P < 0.0001). "More than mild" in the pediatric biopsies correlated with younger age (P = 0.01), but not with body mass index, insulin or HOMA-IR. In both groups, lobular and portal inflammation scores had no association, but there was an association with definite steatohepatitis (P < 0.0001). Features associated in the adult biopsies with "more than mild" were steatosis amount (P = 0.01) and location (P < 0.0001), ballooning (P < 0.0001), and advanced fibrosis (P < 0.0001). In the pediatric biopsies, "more than mild" was associated with steatosis location (P = 0.0008) and fibrosis score (P < 0.0001), specifically, the portal/periportal fibrosis or greater fibrosis) (P < 0.01).Increased portal CI is associated with many clinical and pathologic features of progressive NAFLD in both adults and children, but not with ALT, autoantibodies, or lobular inflammation. More than mild portal CI in liver biopsies of untreated NAFLD may be considered a marker of advanced disease.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), a proinflammatory chemokine, plays a crucial role in inflammatory diseases. This cross-sectional pilot study investigated whether circulating IP-10 is associated with the progression of liver disease, and prediabetes in patients with NAFLD. A total of 90 patients with NAFLD alone (n?=?48) or NAFLD with incident diabetes (n?=?42) and 43 controls participated in this study. Fasting plasma was used to assess metabolic parameters, inflammatory factors, endotoxin levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR). IP-10 levels were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD alone (median (interquartile range): 369.44 (309.30-418.97)?pg/mL) and in those with incident diabetes (418.99 (330.73-526.04)?pg/mL) than in controls (293.37 (214.10-331.57)?pg/mL) (P?<?0.001). IP-10 levels were positively correlated with levels of alanine aminotransferase, hs-CRP, MDA, MCP-1, and TNF-? as well as HOMA-IR values. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed IP-10 was an independent risk factor associated with progressive liver injury, insulin resistance and incident diabetes. Circulating IP-10 may be a non-invasive biomarker for disease progression and subsequent diabetes development of NAFLD.