RNA damage in biological conflicts and the diversity of responding RNA repair systems.
ABSTRACT: RNA is targeted in biological conflicts by enzymatic toxins or effectors. A vast diversity of systems which repair or 'heal' this damage has only recently become apparent. Here, we summarize the known effectors, their modes of action, and RNA targets before surveying the diverse systems which counter this damage from a comparative genomics viewpoint. RNA-repair systems show a modular organization with extensive shuffling and displacement of the constituent domains; however, a general 'syntax' is strongly maintained whereby systems typically contain: a RNA ligase (either ATP-grasp or RtcB superfamilies), nucleotidyltransferases, enzymes modifying RNA-termini for ligation (phosphatases and kinases) or protection (methylases), and scaffold or cofactor proteins. We highlight poorly-understood or previously-uncharacterized repair systems and components, e.g. potential scaffolding cofactors (Rot/TROVE and SPFH/Band-7 modules) with their respective cognate non-coding RNAs (YRNAs and a novel tRNA-like molecule) and a novel nucleotidyltransferase associating with diverse ligases. These systems have been extensively disseminated by lateral transfer between distant prokaryotic and microbial eukaryotic lineages consistent with intense inter-organismal conflict. Components have also often been 'institutionalized' for non-conflict roles, e.g. in RNA-splicing and in RNAi systems (e.g. in kinetoplastids) which combine a distinct family of RNA-acting prim-pol domains with DICER-like proteins.
Project description:RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphate ends play important roles in RNA metabolism as substrates for RNA ligases during tRNA restriction-repair and tRNA splicing. Diverse bacteria from multiple phyla encode a two-component RNA repair cassette, comprising Pnkp (polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase-ligase) and Hen1 (RNA 3'-terminal ribose 2'-O-methyltransferase), that heals and then seals broken tRNAs with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ends. The Pnkp-Hen1 repair operon is absent in the majority of bacterial species, thereby raising the prospect that other RNA repair systems might be extant. A candidate component is RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase, a widely distributed enzyme that transforms RNA 3'-monophosphate termini into 2',3'-cyclic phosphates but cannot seal the ends it produces. Escherichia coli RNA cyclase (RtcA) is encoded in a ?(54)-regulated operon with RtcB, a protein of unknown function. Taking a cue from Pnkp-Hen1, we purified E. coli RtcB and tested it for RNA ligase activity. We report that RtcB per se seals broken tRNA-like stem-loop structures with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ends to form a splice junction with a 2'-OH, 3',5'-phosphodiester. We speculate that: (i) RtcB might afford bacteria a means to recover from stress-induced RNA damage; and (ii) RtcB homologs might catalyze tRNA repair or splicing reactions in archaea and eukarya.
Project description:RtcB enzymes are novel RNA ligases that join 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ends. The phylogenetic distribution of RtcB points to its candidacy as a tRNA splicing/repair enzyme. Here we show that Escherichia coli RtcB is competent and sufficient for tRNA splicing in vivo by virtue of its ability to complement growth of yeast cells that lack the endogenous "healing/sealing-type" tRNA ligase Trl1. RtcB also protects yeast trl1? cells against a fungal ribotoxin that incises the anticodon loop of cellular tRNAs. Moreover, RtcB can replace Trl1 as the catalyst of HAC1 mRNA splicing during the unfolded protein response. Thus, RtcB is a bona fide RNA repair enzyme with broad physiological actions. Biochemical analysis of RtcB highlights the uniqueness of its active site and catalytic mechanism. Our findings draw attention to tRNA ligase as a promising drug target.
Project description:Catalysis of NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosylation of proteins, nucleic acids, or small molecules has evolved in at least three structurally unrelated superfamilies of enzymes, namely ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART), the Sirtuins, and probably TM1506. Of these, the ART superfamily is the most diverse in terms of structure, active site residues, and targets that they modify. The primary diversification of the ART superfamily occurred in the context of diverse bacterial conflict systems, wherein ARTs play both offensive and defensive roles. These include toxin-antitoxin systems, virus-host interactions, intraspecific antagonism (polymorphic toxins), symbiont/parasite effectors/toxins, resistance to antibiotics, and repair of RNAs cleaved in conflicts. ARTs evolving in these systems have been repeatedly acquired by lateral transfer throughout eukaryotic evolution, starting from the PARP family, which was acquired prior to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. They were incorporated into eukaryotic regulatory/epigenetic control systems (e.g., PARP family and NEURL4), and also used as defensive (e.g., pierisin and CARP-1 families) or immunity-related proteins (e.g., Gig2-like ARTs). The ADP-ribosylation system also includes other domains, such as the Macro, ADP-ribosyl glycohydrolase, NADAR, and ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which appear to have initially diversified in bacterial conflict-related systems. Unlike ARTs, sirtuins appear to have a much smaller presence in conflict-related systems.
Project description:Escherichia coli RtcB is a founding member of a family of manganese-dependent RNA repair enzymes that join RNA 2?,3?-cyclic phosphate (RNA>p) or RNA 3?-phosphate (RNAp) ends to 5?-OH RNA (HORNA) ends in a multistep pathway whereby RtcB (i) hydrolyzes RNA>p to RNAp, (ii) transfers GMP from GTP to RNAp to form to RNAppG, and (iii) directs the attack of 5?-OH on RNAppG to form a 3?-5? phosphodiester splice junction. The crystal structure of the homologous archaeal RtcB enzyme revealed an active site with two closely spaced manganese ions, Mn1 and Mn2, that interact with the GTP phosphates. By studying the reactions of wild-type E. coli RtcB and RtcB alanine mutants with 3?-phosphate-, 2?,3?-cyclic phosphate-, and 3?-ppG-terminated substrates, we found that enzymic constituents of the two metal coordination complexes (Cys78, His185, and His281 for Mn1 and Asp75, Cys78, and His168 for Mn2 in E. coli RtcB) play distinct catalytic roles. For example, whereas the C78A mutation abolished all steps assayed, the D75A mutation allowed cyclic phosphodiester hydrolysis but crippled 3?-phosphate guanylylation, and the H281A mutant was impaired in overall HORNAp and HORNA>p ligation but was able to seal a preguanylylated substrate. The archaeal counterpart of E. coli RtcB Arg189 coordinates a sulfate anion construed to mimic the position of an RNA phosphate. We propose that Arg189 coordinates a phosphodiester at the 5?-OH end, based on our findings that the R189A mutation slowed the step of RNAppG/HORNA sealing by a factor of 200 compared to that with wild-type RtcB while decreasing the rate of RNAppG formation by only 3-fold.RtcB enzymes comprise a widely distributed family of manganese- and GTP-dependent RNA repair enzymes that ligate 2?,3?-cyclic phosphate ends to 5?-OH ends via RNA 3?-phosphate and RNA(3?)pp(5?)G intermediates. The RtcB active site includes two adjacent manganese ions that engage the GTP phosphates. Alanine scanning of Escherichia coli RtcB reveals distinct contributions of metal-binding residues Cys78, Asp75, and His281 at different steps of the RtcB pathway. The RNA contacts of RtcB are uncharted. Mutagenesis implicates Arg189 in engaging the 5?-OH RNA end.
Project description:Escherichia coli RtcB exemplifies a family of GTP-dependent RNA repair/splicing enzymes that join 3'-PO4 ends to 5'-OH ends via stable RtcB-(histidinyl-N)-GMP and transient RNA3'pp5'G intermediates. E. coli RtcB also transfers GMP to a DNA 3'-PO4 end to form a stable "capped" product, DNA3'pp5'G. RtcB homologs are found in a multitude of bacterial proteomes, and many bacteria have genes encoding two or more RtcB paralogs; an extreme example is Myxococcus xanthus, which has six RtcBs. In this study, we purified, characterized, and compared the biochemical activities of three M. xanthus RtcB paralogs. We found that M. xanthus RtcB1 resembles E. coli RtcB in its ability to perform intra- and intermolecular sealing of a HORNAp substrate and capping of a DNA 3'-PO4 end. M. xanthus RtcB2 can splice HORNAp but has 5-fold-lower RNA ligase specific activity than RtcB1. In contrast, M. xanthus RtcB3 is distinctively feeble at ligating the HORNAp substrate, although it readily caps a DNA 3'-PO4 end. The novelty of M. xanthus RtcB3 is its capacity to cap DNA and RNA 5'-PO4 ends to form GppDNA and GppRNA products, respectively. As such, RtcB3 joins a growing list of enzymes (including RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase RtcA and thermophilic ATP-dependent RNA ligases) that can cap either end of a polynucleotide substrate. GppDNA formed by RtcB3 can be decapped to pDNA by the DNA repair enzyme aprataxin.RtcB enzymes comprise a widely distributed family of RNA 3'-PO4 ligases distinguished by their formation of 3'-GMP-capped RNAppG and/or DNAppG polynucleotides. The mechanism and biochemical repertoire of E. coli RtcB are well studied, but it is unclear whether its properties apply to the many bacteria that have genes encoding multiple RtcB paralogs. A comparison of the biochemical activities of three M. xanthus paralogs, RtcB1, RtcB2, and RtcB3, shows that not all RtcBs are created equal. The standout findings concern RtcB3, which is (i) inactive as an RNA 3'-PO4 ligase but adept at capping a DNA 3'-PO4 end and (ii) able to cap DNA and RNA 5'-PO4 ends to form GppDNA and GppRNA, respectively. The GppDNA and GppRNA capping reactions are novel nucleic acid modifications.
Project description:The ?54 regulon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium includes a predicted RNA repair operon encoding homologs of the metazoan Ro60 protein (Rsr), Y RNAs (YrlBA), RNA ligase (RtcB), and RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase (RtcA). Transcription from ?54-dependent promoters requires that a cognate bacterial enhancer binding protein (bEBP) be activated by a specific environmental or cellular signal; the cognate bEBP for the ?54-dependent promoter of the rsr-yrlBA-rtcBA operon is RtcR. To identify conditions that generate the signal for RtcR activation in S Typhimurium, transcription of the RNA repair operon was assayed under multiple stress conditions that result in nucleic acid damage. RtcR-dependent transcription was highly induced by the nucleic acid cross-linking agents mitomycin C (MMC) and cisplatin, and this activation was dependent on RecA. Deletion of rtcR or rtcB resulted in decreased cell viability relative to that of the wild type following treatment with MMC. Oxidative stress from peroxide exposure also induced RtcR-dependent transcription of the operon. Nitrogen limitation resulted in RtcR-independent increased expression of the operon; the effect of nitrogen limitation required NtrC. The adjacent toxin-antitoxin module, dinJ-yafQ, was cotranscribed with the RNA repair operon but was not required for RtcR activation, although YafQ endoribonuclease activated RtcR-dependent transcription. Stress conditions shown to induce expression the RNA repair operon of Escherichia coli (rtcBA) did not stimulate expression of the S Typhimurium RNA repair operon. Similarly, MMC did not induce expression of the E. coli rtcBA operon, although when expressed in S Typhimurium, E. coli RtcR responds effectively to the unknown signal(s) generated there by MMC exposure.IMPORTANCE Homologs of the metazoan RNA repair enzymes RtcB and RtcA occur widely in eubacteria, suggesting a selective advantage. Although the enzymatic activities of the eubacterial RtcB and RtcA have been well characterized, the physiological roles remain largely unresolved. Here we report stress responses that activate expression of the ?54-dependent RNA repair operon (rsr-yrlBA-rtcBA) of S Typhimurium and demonstrate that expression of the operon impacts cell survival under MMC-induced stress. Characterization of the requirements for activation of this tightly regulated operon provides clues to the possible functions of operon components in vivo, enhancing our understanding of how this human pathogen copes with environmental stressors.
Project description:RtcB enzymes are a newly discovered family of RNA ligases, implicated in tRNA splicing and other RNA repair reactions, that seal broken RNAs with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ends. Parsimony and energetics would suggest a one-step mechanism for RtcB sealing via attack by the O5' nucleophile on the cyclic phosphate, with expulsion of the ribose O2' and generation of a 3',5'-phosphodiester at the splice junction. Yet we find that RtcB violates Occam's razor, insofar as (i) it is adept at ligating 3'-monophosphate and 5'-OH ends; (ii) it has an intrinsic 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiesterase activity. The 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiesterase and ligase reactions both require manganese and are abolished by mutation of the RtcB active site. Thus, RtcB executes a unique two-step pathway of strand joining whereby the 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiester end is hydrolyzed to a 3'-monophosphate, which is then linked to the 5'-OH end to form the splice junction. The energy for the 3'-phosphate ligase activity is provided by GTP, which reacts with RtcB in the presence of manganese to form a covalent RtcB-guanylate adduct. This adduct is sensitive to acid and hydroxylamine but resistant to alkali, consistent with a phosphoramidate bond.
Project description:Cells utilise specialized polymerases from the Primase-Polymerase (Prim-Pol) superfamily to maintain genome stability. Prim-Pol's function in genome maintenance pathways including replication, repair and damage tolerance. Mycobacteria contain multiple Prim-Pols required for lesion repair, including Prim-PolC that performs short gap repair synthesis during excision repair. To understand the molecular basis of Prim-PolC's gap recognition and synthesis activities, we elucidated crystal structures of pre- and post-catalytic complexes bound to gapped DNA substrates. These intermediates explain its binding preference for short gaps and reveal a distinctive modus operandi called Synthesis-dependent Template Displacement (STD). This mechanism enables Prim-PolC to couple primer extension with template base dislocation, ensuring that the unpaired templating bases in the gap are ushered into the active site in an ordered manner. Insights provided by these structures establishes the molecular basis of Prim-PolC's gap recognition and extension activities, while also illuminating the mechanisms of primer extension utilised by closely related Prim-Pols.
Project description:There are many biological contexts in which DNA damage generates "dirty" breaks with 3'-PO4 (or cyclic-PO4) and 5'-OH ends that cannot be sealed by DNA ligases. Here we show that the Escherichia coli RNA ligase RtcB can splice these dirty DNA ends via a unique chemical mechanism. RtcB transfers GMP from a covalent RtcB-GMP intermediate to a DNA 3'-PO4 to form a "capped" 3' end structure, DNA3'pp5'G. When a suitable DNA 5'-OH end is available, RtcB catalyzes attack of the 5'-OH on DNA3'pp5'G to form a 3'-5' phosphodiester splice junction. Our findings unveil an enzymatic capacity for DNA 3' capping and the sealing of DNA breaks with 3'-PO4 and 5'-OH termini, with implications for DNA repair and DNA rearrangements.
Project description:RNA ligases have essential roles in many cellular processes in eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria, including in RNA repair and stress-induced splicing of messenger RNA. In archaea and eukaryotes, RNA ligases also have a role in transfer RNA splicing to generate functional tRNAs required for protein synthesis. We recently identified the human tRNA splicing ligase, a multimeric protein complex with RTCB (also known as HSPC117, C22orf28, FAAP and D10Wsu52e) as the essential subunit. The functions of the additional complex components ASW (also known as C2orf49), CGI-99 (also known as C14orf166), FAM98B and the DEAD-box helicase DDX1 in the context of RNA ligation have remained unclear. Taking advantage of clusters of eukaryotic orthologous groups, here we find that archease (ARCH; also known as ZBTB8OS), a protein of unknown function, is required for full activity of the human tRNA ligase complex and, in cooperation with DDX1, facilitates the formation of an RTCB-guanylate intermediate central to mammalian RNA ligation. Our findings define a role for DDX1 in the context of the human tRNA ligase complex and suggest that the widespread co-occurrence of archease and RtcB proteins implies evolutionary conservation of their functional interplay.