Where does chemotherapy stands in the treatment of ampullary carcinoma? A review of literature.
ABSTRACT: Ampullary carcinoma (AC) is a rare gastrointestinal tumor without clear treatment recommendations. The management of this tumor is usually extrapolated from the treatment of pancreatic, biliary duct and intestinal cancers. Few papers have studied the AC as an independent entity and yet succombs to several limitations. These studies were retrospective single institutional experiences with limited sample sizes recruited over a long period of time. Unlike metastatic ACs where chemotherapy is the only recommended option, localized AC once excised may be approached by either chemotherapy alone or concomitant chemoradiation therapy. In this review, we report the overall survival and recurrence factors of more than 1000 patients from all the studies treating exclusively ACs. We also review the medical treatment of this tumor and conclude to the necessity of multi-institutional randomized controlled studies for AC exclusively.
Project description:Importance:Ampullary adenocarcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises within the duodenal ampullary complex. The role of adjuvant therapy (AT) in the treatment of ampullary adenocarcinoma has not been clearly defined. Objective:To determine if long-term survival after curative-intent resection of ampullary adenocarcinoma may be improved by selection of patients for AT directed by histologic subtype. Design, Setting, and Participants:This multinational, retrospective cohort study was conducted at 12 institutions from April 1, 2000, to July 31, 2017, among 357 patients with resected, nonmetastatic ampullary adenocarcinoma receiving surgery alone or AT. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify covariates associated with overall survival. The surgery alone and AT cohorts were matched 1:1 by propensity scores based on the likelihood of receiving AT or by survival hazard from Cox modeling. Overall survival was compared with Kaplan-Meier estimates. Exposures:Adjuvant chemotherapy (fluorouracil- or gemcitabine-based) with or without radiotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures:Overall survival. Results:A total of 357 patients (156 women and 201 men; median age, 65.8 years [interquartile range, 58-74 years]) underwent curative-intent resection of ampullary adenocarcinoma. Patients with intestinal subtype had a longer median overall survival compared with those with pancreatobiliary subtype (77 vs 54 months; P?=?.05). Histologic subtype was not associated with AT administration (intestinal, 52.9% [101 of 191]; and pancreatobiliary, 59.5% [78 of 131]; P?=?.24). Patients with pancreatobiliary histologic subtype most commonly received gemcitabine-based regimens (71.0% [22 of 31]) or combinations of gemcitabine and fluorouracil (12.9% [4 of 31]), whereas treatment of those with intestinal histologic subtype was more varied (fluorouracil, 50.0% [17 of 34]; gemcitabine, 44.1% [15 of 34]; P?=?.01). In the propensity score-matched cohort, AT was not associated with a survival benefit for either histologic subtype (intestinal: hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.67-2.16; P?=?.53; pancreatobiliary: hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.66-2.76; P?=?.41). Conclusions and Relevance:Adjuvant therapy was more frequently used in patients with poor prognostic factors but was not associated with demonstrable improvements in survival, regardless of tumor histologic subtype. The value of a multimodality regimen remains poorly defined.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIM:There is no standard salvage chemotherapy for metastatic periampullary adenocarcinoma and duodenal adenocarcinoma and the prognosis of those who fail oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and 5FU is dismal. We examined nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) as salvage therapy for these two malignancies. METHODS:Patients who failed oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and 5FU and whose archival tumors stained immunohistochemical (IHC) tumor positive for CK7 or MUC1 received nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine therapy with or without cisplatin. RESULTS:Three patients, 2 with metastatic ampullary adenocarcinoma and 1 with duodenal adenocarcinoma with positive IHC staining for CK7 or MUC1 who failed 2 lines of chemotherapy with oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and 5FU received nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine with or without cisplatin. All achieved excellent tumor response on CT scans with marked falls in tumor markers CA19-9 and CEA as well as ≥1 year of progression-free survival. All 3 have continued to survive 2-3 years since diagnosed with stage 4 metastatic adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS:Nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine with or without cisplatin should be investigated as a standard-of-care chemotherapy regimen for patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma and duodenal adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Purpose:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) originate from monocytes and differentiate into mature macrophages. The interaction between cancer cells and TAMs promotes tumor growth and suppresses immunosurveillance. However, this phenomenon has seldom been observed in ampullary cancer. Patients and Methods:TAMs in ampullary cancer were investigated using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of cancer tissues. Bioinformatic analysis of data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database revealed transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) signaling in ampullary cancer. The complementary DNA microarray of cancer was compared with adjacent normal duodenum and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of serum was used to verify TGF-? signaling in patients. The THP-1 cell line was activated in vitro to imitate M2 TAMs. ClueGo and CluePedia software were operated to simulate TGF-?-related networks in ampullary cancer. Results:The IHC study revealed that the majority of TAMs inside ampullary cancer were cluster of differentiation (CD)163+ cells and that the expression of mature CD68+ macrophages was correlated with advanced cancer stage. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that TGF-? and its downstream signaling were significantly upregulated. To verify our bioinformatics-derived predictions, we performed several experiments and demonstrated that increased TGF-? expression was detected in the cDNA microarray. Higher serum levels of TGF-? were correlated with fewer CD68+ and more inducible nitric oxide synthase macrophages in ampullary cancer. Treatment with TGF-? induced modulation of THP-1-derived macrophages. Conclusion:The present study demonstrates that TGF-? modulates macrophage activity in ampullary cancer. Targeting TGF-? could be an approach to activating immunosurveillance.
Project description:Objective:To evaluate the therapeutic value of primary tumor resection (PTR) in metastatic ampullary cancer at the initial presentation. Patients and methods:Patients with metastatic ampullary cancer were identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to balance the characteristics of our cohort. Kaplan-Meier analyses, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression models were employed to evaluate the therapeutic value of PTR. Results:A total of 346 patients with metastatic ampullary cancer were identified from 2004 to 2014 and 90 patients were screened by PSM. PTR was associated with favorable overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) after PSM (PTR vs no-PTR: 16.0, 95% CI: 9.0-22.0 vs 8.0, 95% CI: 5.0-11.0 for median OS; 22.0, 95% CI: 13.0-33.0 vs 9.0, 95% CI: 5.0-11.0 for median CSS; both log-rank P<0.001). Patients receiving PTR plus chemotherapy showed better survival compared with those receiving only chemotherapy (median OS: 18, 95% CI: 13-27 vs 9.0, 95% CI: 8.0-11.0; median CSS: 23.0, 95% CI: 14.0-36.0 vs 9.0, 95% CI: 8.0-13.0; both log-rank P<0.001). Conclusion:PTR might bring a survival benefit to ampullary cancer patients with distant metastasis at the initial presentation and might provide a more favorable prognosis when combined with chemotherapy.
Project description:AT rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) is one of the most commonly mutated genes in a broad variety of tumors. The mechanisms that involve ARID1A in ampullary cancer progression remains elusive. Here, we evaluated the frequency of ARID1A and KRAS mutations in ampullary adenomas and adenocarcinomas and in duodenal adenocarcinomas from two cohorts of patients from Singapore and Romania, correlated with clinical and pathological tumor features, and assessed the functional role of ARID1A. In the ampullary adenocarcinomas, the frequency of KRAS and ARID1A mutations was 34.7% and 8.2% respectively, with a loss or reduction of ARID1A protein in 17.2% of the cases. ARID1A mutational status was significantly correlated with ARID1A protein expression level (P=0.023). There was a significant difference in frequency of ARID1A mutation between Romania and Singapore (2.7% versus 25%, P=0.04), suggestive of different etiologies. One somatic mutation was detected in the ampullary adenoma group. In vitro studies indicated the tumor suppressive role of ARID1A. Our results warrant further investigation of this chromatin remodeller as a potential early biomarker of the disease, as well as identification of therapeutic targets in ARID1A mutated ampullary cancers.
Project description:Whether carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater should be classified with biliary tract tumors and treated in a similar manner remains unknown. We sought to compare the outcomes of similarly staged periampullary adenocarcinomas (AAs) and analyze the chemotherapy responsiveness of AAs.A total of 905 patients with resected periampullary adenocarcinomas were identified from a prospective surgical registry from 1988 to 2010. A second cohort of 64 metastatic AA patients from 1992 to 2009 who received either front-line fluoropyrimidine-based or gemcitabine-based chemotherapy was also identified.Overall survival (OS) for AAs was similar to survival with duodenal adenocarcinomas, but was significantly different from both extrahepatic biliary and pancreatic adenocarcinomas (P < 0.001 for each comparison). In multivariate analysis, AAs had a significantly improved OS in comparison with extrahepatic biliary adenocarcinomas (HR = 1.97, P = 0.006). Fluoropyrimidine-based as opposed to gemcitabine-based chemotherapy for metastatic AAs resulted in a significant improvement in time to progression (P = 0.001) but only a trend toward benefit for OS (P = 0.07) in multivariate analysis.Differences in the natural history of ampullary and extrahepatic biliary adenocarcinomas exist. Analyses of metastatic ampullary adenocarcinomas suggest that fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy may represent a more appropriate front-line chemotherapy approach.
Project description:Adenocarcinomas of the ampulla of Vater are classified as biliary cancers, though the exact epithelium of origin for these cancers is not known. We sought to molecularly classify ampullary adenocarcinomas in comparison to known adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, bile duct, and duodenum by gene expression analysis.We analyzed 32 fresh-frozen resected, untreated periampullary adenocarcinomas (8 pancreatic, 2 extrahepatic biliary, 8 duodenal, and 14 ampullary) using the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 genome array. Unsupervised and supervised hierarchical clustering identified two subtypes of ampullary carcinomas that were molecularly and histologically characterized.Hierarchical clustering of periampullary carcinomas segregated ampullary carcinomas into two subgroups, which were distinctly different from pancreatic carcinomas. Non-pancreatic periampullary adenocarcinomas were segregated into two subgroups with differing prognoses: 5 year RFS (77% vs. 0%, p?=?0.007) and 5 year OS (100% vs. 35%, p?=?0.005). Unsupervised clustering analysis of the 14 ampullary samples also identified two subgroups: a good prognosis intestinal-like subgroup and a poor prognosis biliary-like subgroup with 5 year OS of 70% vs. 28%, P?=?0.09. Expression of CK7+/CK20- but not CDX-2 correlated with these two subgroups. Activation of the AKT and MAPK pathways were both increased in the poor prognostic biliary-like subgroup. In an independent 80 patient ampullary validation dataset only histological subtype (intestinal vs. pancreaticobiliary) was significantly associated with OS in both univariate (p?=?0.006) and multivariate analysis (P?=?0.04).Gene expression analysis discriminated pancreatic adenocarcinomas from other periampullary carcinomas and identified two prognostically relevant subgroups of ampullary adenocarcinomas. Histological subtype was an independent prognostic factor in ampullary adenocarcinomas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There are limited data on the efficacy of adjuvant therapy in ampullary cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether adjuvant therapy was associated with improved survival for patients with ampullary cancer. METHODS:From the National Cancer Database, we identified ampullary cancer patients who underwent resection between 2004 and 2013. We performed 1:1 propensity score matching, comparing patients who had postoperative observation to patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) or adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (ACRT). RESULTS:We identified 4190 patients who fit our inclusion criteria; 63% had postoperative observation, 21% received ACT, and 16% underwent ACRT. In the matched cohorts, the use of ACT was associated with improved overall survival (HR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.71 to 0.95). The median overall survival was 47.2 months for the ACT group and 35.5 months for the observation group. In a separate matched analysis, ACRT was also associated with improved survival (HR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.72 to 0.98) as compared to observation. The median overall survival was 38.1 months for the ACRT group and 31.0 months for the observation group. The benefit was more pronounced in high-risk patients, such as ones with higher T and N categories. CONCLUSIONS:In this retrospective study, the use of adjuvant therapy in ampullary cancer was associated with significantly improved overall survival. The benefit of adjuvant therapy for this disease should be confirmed in a more rigorous fashion via randomized controlled trials.
Project description:The purpose of radiation therapy for unresectable biliary tract cancer is to prolong survival or prolong stent patency, and to provide palliation of pain. For unresectable bile duct cancer, there are a number of studies showing that radiation therapy is superior to the best supportive care. Although radiation therapy is used in many institutions, no large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been performed to date and the evidence level supporting the superiority of this treatment is low. Because long-term relief of jaundice is difficult without using biliary stenting, a combination of radiation therapy and stent placement is commonly used. As radiation therapy, external-beam radiation therapy is usually performed, but combined use of intraluminal brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy is more useful for making the treatment more effective. There are many reports demonstrating improved response rates as well as extended survival and time to recurrence achieved by this combination therapy. Despite the low level of the evidence, this combination therapy is performed at many institutions. It is expected that multi-institutional RCTs will be carried out. Unresectable gallbladder cancer with a large focus is usually extensive, and normal organs with high radio sensitivity exist contiguously with it. Therefore, only limited anticancer effects are to be expected from external beam radiation therapy for this type of cancer. The number of reports on ampullary cancer is small and the role of radiation therapy in this cancer has not been established. Combination treatment for ampullary cancer consists of either a single use of intraoperative radiation therapy, postoperative external beam radiation therapy or intraluminal brachytherapy, or a combination of two or three of these therapies. Intraoperative radiation therapy is superior in that it enables precise irradiation to the target site, thereby protecting adjacent highly radiosensitive normal tissues from irradiation. There are reports showing extended survival, although not significant, in groups undergoing intraoperative or postoperative radiation therapy compared with groups without radiation therapy. To date, there are no reports of large RCTs focusing on the significance of radiation therapy as a postoperative adjuvant treatment, so its usefulness as a postoperative adjuvant treatment is not proven. An alternative treatment is photodynamic therapy. There is an RCT demonstrating that, in unresectable bile duct cancer, extended survival and improved quality of life (QOL) have been achieved through a combination of photodynamic therapy and biliary stenting, compared with biliary stenting alone. Results from large RCTs are desired.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Racial and ethnic variations have been described in the different malignancies, but no such data exists for ampullary cancer. The aim of this study was to present an updated report on the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and survival of a national cohort of ampullary cancer patients. METHODS:Patients diagnosed with ampullary cancer between 2004 and 2014 were identified in the National Cancer Database. Overall survival was estimated and compared between racial/ethnic groups using the log-rank test. RESULTS:A total of 14?879 patients were identified; 78% of the patients were White, 9% Hispanic, 8% Black, and 5% Asian. We noted significant differences in disease presentation, socioeconomic status, and outcomes. Blacks had the lowest median overall survival at 18.9 months followed by Whites at 23.9 months, Hispanics at 32.7 months, and Asians at 37.4 months. On a multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model, being Black was associated with worse survival compared to being White while being Asian and Hispanic were associated with better survival. CONCLUSIONS:Overall survival of ampullary cancer patients was independently associated with race and ethnicity. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these disparities are primarily due to socioeconomic status or biologic factors.