Greater than X kb: a quantitative assessment of preservation conditions on genomic DNA quality, and a proposed standard for genome-quality DNA.
ABSTRACT: Advances in biodiversity genomic sequencing will increasingly depend on the availability of DNA samples-and their quantifiable metadata-preserved in large institutional biorepositories that are discoverable to the scientific community. Improvements in sequencing technology constantly provide longer reads, such that longer fragment length, higher molecular weight, and overall "genome-quality" DNA (gDNA) will be desirable. Ideally, biorepositories should publish numerical scale measurements of DNA quality useful to the user community. However, the most widely used technique to evaluate DNA quality, the classic agarose gel, has yet to be quantified. Here we propose a simple and economical method using open source image analysis software to make gDNA gel images quantifiable, and propose percentage of gDNA "greater than X kb" as a standard of comparison, where X is a band from any widely used DNA ladder with desirably large band sizes. We employ two metadata standards ("DNA Threshold" and "Percent above Threshold") introduced as part of the Global Genome Biodiversity Network (GGBN) Darwin Core extension. We illustrate the method using the traditionally used HindIII ladder and the 9,416 base-pair (bp) band as a standard. We also present data, for two taxa, a vertebrate (fish) and an invertebrate (crab), on how gDNA quality varies with seven tissue preservation methods, time since death, preservation method (i.e. buffers vs. cold temperatures), and storage temperature of various buffers over time. Our results suggest that putting tissue into a buffer prior to freezing may be better than directly into ultra-cold conditions.
Project description:Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a revolutionary advancement allowing large-scale discovery of functional molecular markers that has many applications, including plant breeding. High-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) is a prerequisite for successful NGS library preparation and sequencing; however, few reliable protocols to obtain such plant gDNA exist. A previously reported nuclear pellet (NP) method enables extraction of high-yielding gDNA from fresh leaf tissue of maize (<i>Zea mays</i> L.), but the quality does not meet the stringent requirements of NGS. In this study, we optimized the NP method for whole-genome sequencing of rice (<i>Oryza sativa</i> L.) through the integration of simple purification steps. The optimized NP method relied on initial nucleus enrichment, cell lysis, extraction, and subsequent gDNA purification buffers. The purification steps used proteinase K, RNase A, phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1), and chloroform/isoamyl alcohol (24:1) treatments for protein digestion and RNA, protein, and phenol removal, respectively. Our data suggest that this optimized NP method allowed extraction of consistently high-yielding and high-quality undegraded gDNA without contamination by protein and RNA. Moreover, the extracted gDNA fulfilled the quality metrics of NGS library preparation for the Illumina HiSeq X Ten platform by the TruSeq DNA PCR-Free Library Prep Kit (Illumina). We provide a reliable step-by-step guide to the extraction of high-quality gDNA from fresh leaf tissues of rice for molecular biologists with limited resources.
Project description:High quality and sufficient quantity of genomic DNA (gDNA) are the primary requisites of several molecular biologic applications, including clinical studies related to genetics, genomics, gene polymorphism, and DNA fingerprinting. Whole blood is the primary source of gDNA in most of the clinical investigations. Currently, commercial kits are primarily used to achieve these goals. However, the use of kits is limited by the cost and involvement of several centrifugal steps. Other methods reported are either laborious or do not produce high quality or quantity of gDNA or both. Here, we present the data on the development of a centrifugation-free, cost-effective, and user-friendly method for the isolation of human gDNA from the buffy coat of human blood that involves limited numbers of steps with about 15 min of hands-on time per sample.
Project description:Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a cost-effective technology capable of screening several genes simultaneously; however, its application in a clinical context requires an established workflow to acquire reliable sequencing results. Here, we report an optimized NGS workflow analyzing 22 lung cancer-related genes to sequence critical samples such as DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks and circulating free DNA (cfDNA). Snap frozen and matched FFPE gDNA from 12 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, whose gDNA fragmentation status was previously evaluated using a multiplex PCR-based quality control, were successfully sequenced with Ion Torrent PGM™. The robust bioinformatic pipeline allowed us to correctly call both Single Nucleotide Variants (SNVs) and indels with a detection limit of 5%, achieving 100% specificity and 96% sensitivity. This workflow was also validated in 13 FFPE NSCLC biopsies. Furthermore, a specific protocol for low input gDNA capable of producing good sequencing data with high coverage, high uniformity, and a low error rate was also optimized. In conclusion, we demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining gDNA from FFPE samples suitable for NGS by performing appropriate quality controls. The optimized workflow, capable of screening low input gDNA, highlights NGS as a potential tool in the detection, disease monitoring, and treatment of NSCLC.
Project description:HSV is a large double stranded DNA virus, capable of causing a variety of diseases from the common cold sore to devastating encephalitis. Although DNA within the HSV virion does not contain any histone protein, within 1 h of infecting a cell and entering its nucleus the viral genome acquires some histone protein (nucleosomes). During acute infection, partial micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion does not give the classic ladder band pattern, seen on digestion of cell DNA or latent viral DNA. However, complete digestion does give a mono-nucleosome band, strongly suggesting that there are some nucleosomes present on the viral genome during the acute infection, but that they are not evenly positioned like cell DNA, with a 200bp repeat pattern. Where then are the nucleosomes positioned? Here we perform HSV-1 genome wide nucleosome mapping, at a time when viral replication is strong (6hr PI), using a microarray consisting of 50mer oligonucleotides, covering the whole viral genome (152kb). Arrays were probed with MNase-protected fragments of DNA from infected cells. Cells were not treated with crosslinking agents, thus we are only mapping tightly bound nucleosomes. The data show that nucleosome deposition is not random. The distribution of signal on the arrays suggest that nucleosomes are located at preferred positions on the genome, and that there are some positions that are not occupied (NFR or NDR), or occupied at a low frequency in the population of genomes. Occupancy of only a fraction of the possible sites may explain the lack of a typical MNase partial digestion band ladder pattern for HSV DNA during acute infection. On average, DNA encoding Immediate Early, Early and Late genes appear to have a similar density of nucleosomes. This distribution of nucleosomes is discussed in relation to genome DNA sequence and gene expression. Overall design: In total 18 samples; 12 control files (5 different conditions) with the corresponding 8 RIP samples
Project description:High-throughput preparation of plasmid DNA libraries for next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an important capability for molecular biology laboratories. In particular, it is an essential quality control (QC) check when large numbers of plasmid variants are being generated. Here, we describe the use of the Design of Experiments (DOE) methodology to optimise the miniaturised preparation of plasmid DNA libraries for NGS, using the Illumina® Nextera XT technology and the Labcyte Echo® acoustic liquid dispensing system. Furthermore, we describe methods which can be implemented as a QC check for identifying the presence of genomic DNA (gDNA) in plasmid DNA samples and the subsequent shearing of the gDNA, which otherwise prevents the acoustic transfer of plasmid DNA. This workflow enables the preparation of plasmid DNA libraries which yield high-quality sequencing data.
Project description:Mutations in the rhodopsin gene cause retinal degeneration and clinical phenotypes including retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and congenital stationary night blindness. Effective gene therapies have been difficult to develop, however, because generating precise levels of rhodopsin expression is critical; overexpression causes toxicity, and underexpression would result in incomplete rescue. Current gene delivery strategies routinely use cDNA-based vectors for gene targeting; however, inclusion of noncoding components of genomic DNA (gDNA) such as introns may help promote more endogenous regulation of gene expression. Here we test the hypothesis that inclusion of genomic sequences from the rhodopsin gene can improve the efficacy of rhodopsin gene therapy in the rhodopsin knockout (RKO) mouse model of RP. We utilize our compacted DNA nanoparticles (NPs), which have the ability to transfer larger and more complex genetic constructs, to deliver murine rhodopsin cDNA or gDNA. We show functional and structural improvements in RKO eyes for up to 8 months after NP-mediated gDNA but not cDNA delivery. Importantly, in addition to improvements in rod function, we observe significant preservation of cone function at time points when cones in the RKO model are degenerated. These results suggest that inclusion of native expression elements, such as introns, can significantly enhance gene expression and therapeutic efficacy and may become an essential option in the array of available gene delivery tools.
Project description:Genotyping requires biological sample collection that must be reliable, convenient and acceptable for patients and clinicians. Finding the most optimal procedure of sample collection for premature neonates who have a very limited blood volume is a particular challenge. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the use of umbilical cord (UC) tissue and newborn dried blood spot (DBS)-extracted genomic DNA (gDNA) as an alternative to venous blood-derived gDNA from premature neonates for molecular genetic analysis.All samples were obtained from premature newborn infants between 24-32 weeks of gestation. Paired blood and UC samples were collected from 31 study participants. gDNA was extracted from ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant-treated blood samples (~500 ?l) and newborn DBSs (n?=?723) using QIAamp DNA Micro kit (Qiagen Ltd., Crawley, UK); and from UC using Qiagen DNAeasy Blood and Tissue kit (Qiagen Ltd., Crawley, UK). gDNA was quantified and purity confirmed by measuring the A260:A280 ratio. PCR amplification and pyrosequencing was carried out to determine suitability of the gDNA for molecular genetic analysis. Minor allele frequency of two unrelated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was calculated using the entire cohort.Both whole blood samples and UC tissue provided good quality and yield of gDNA, which was considerably less from newborn DBS. The gDNA purity was also reduced after 3 years of storage of the newborn DBS. PCR amplification of three unrelated genes resulted in clear products in all whole blood and UC samples and 86%-100% of newborn DBS. Genotyping using pyrosequencing showed 100% concordance in the paired UC and whole blood samples. Minor allele frequencies of the two SNPs indicated that no maternal gDNA contamination occurred in the genotyping of the UC samples.gDNAs from all three sources are suitable for standard PCR and pyrosequencing assays. Given that UC provide good quality and quantity gDNA with 100% concordance in the genetic analysis with whole blood, it can replace blood sampling from premature infants. This is likely to reduce the stress and potential side effects associated with invasive sample collection and thus, greatly facilitate participant recruitment for genetic studies.
Project description:HSV is a large double stranded DNA virus, capable of causing a variety of diseases from the common cold sore to devastating encephalitis. Although DNA within the HSV virion does not contain any histone protein, within 1 h of infecting a cell and entering its nucleus the viral genome acquires some histone protein (nucleosomes). During lytic infection, partial micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion does not give the classic ladder band pattern, seen on digestion of cell DNA or latent viral DNA. However, complete digestion does give a mono-nucleosome band, strongly suggesting that there are some nucleosomes present on the viral genome during the lytic infection, but that they are not evenly positioned, with a 200 bp repeat pattern, like cell DNA. Where then are the nucleosomes positioned? Here we perform HSV-1 genome wide nucleosome mapping, at a time when viral replication is in full swing (6 hr PI), using a microarray consisting of 50mer oligonucleotides, covering the whole viral genome (152 kb). Arrays were probed with MNase-protected fragments of DNA from infected cells. Cells were not treated with crosslinking agents, thus we are only mapping tightly bound nucleosomes. The data show that nucleosome deposition is not random. The distribution of signal on the arrays suggest that nucleosomes are located at preferred positions on the genome, and that there are some positions that are not occupied (nucleosome free regions -NFR or Nucleosome depleted regions -NDR), or occupied at frequency below our limit of detection in the population of genomes. Occupancy of only a fraction of the possible sites may explain the lack of a typical MNase partial digestion band ladder pattern for HSV DNA during lytic infection. On average, DNA encoding Immediate Early (IE), Early (E) and Late (L) genes appear to have a similar density of nucleosomes.
Project description:Archived newborn bloodspots are valuable sample collections for genetic and epigenetic disease research. However, they have often been stored for long periods of time, under less than ideal circumstances, and nucleic acid yields can be low, particularly when samples become limiting. We wished to determine whether the quantity and quality of genomic DNA (gDNA) isolated from a single, surgical bloodspot punch (2?mm dia.) was adequate for accurate and reliable DNA methylome profiling on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array.A total of 25-750?ng of archived bloodspot or Jurkat cell gDNA were bisulfite converted and analyzed on the array without any additional DNA amplification steps. Methylation profiles were assessed for call rate, call confidence (detection p-value), and reproducibility.Using 25?ng gDNA from either Jurkat cells or dried bloodspots, array-wide call rates (?99.9%) and detection p-values (99.9% with p?<?5?×?10-6) were excellent. There was good agreement between methylation profiles generated from 25?ng gDNA and those generated from 750?ng (? > 0.98), although a fraction of CpG sites (2-8% depending on experiment) exhibited quantitative differences. Genome-wide methylation levels were strikingly reproducible from 25?ng DNA in both replicate and interindividual samples (? > 0.98).Twenty-five nanograms of gDNA, isolated from a single, surgical punch (2?mm dia.) of an archived newborn bloodspot, generate a genome-wide methylation profile on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array that is robust, reproducible, and suitable for differential methylation studies.
Project description:Large-scale genetic epidemiological studies require high-quality analysis of samples such as blood or saliva from multiple patients, which is challenging at the point of care. To expand these studies' impact, minimal sample storage time and less complex extraction of a substantial quantity and good purity of DNA or RNA for downstream applications are necessary. Here, a simple microfluidics-based system that performs genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction from whole blood was developed. In this system, a mixture of blood lysate, paramagnetic beads, and binding buffer are first placed into the input well. Then, the gDNA-bound paramagnetic beads are pulled using a magnet through a central channel containing a wash buffer to the output well, which contains elution buffer. The gDNA is eluted at 55°C off the chip. The 40-minute microfluidic protocol extracts gDNA from six samples simultaneously and requires an input of 4 ?L of diluted blood and a total reagent volume of 75 ?L per reaction. Techniques including quantitative PCR (qPCR) and spectrofluorimetry were used to test the purity and quantity of gDNA eluted from the chip following extraction. Bead transport and molecular diffusional analysis showed that an input of less than 4 ng of gDNA (?667 white blood cells) is optimal for on-chip extraction. There was no observable transport of inhibitors into the eluate that would greatly affect qPCR, and a sample was successfully prepared for next-generation sequencing (NGS). The microfluidics-based extraction of DNA from whole blood described here is paramount for future work in DNA-based point-of-care diagnostics and NGS library workflows.