The N-terminal region of the murine coronavirus spike glycoprotein is associated with the extended host range of viruses from persistently infected murine cells.
ABSTRACT: Although murine coronaviruses naturally infect only mice, several virus variants derived from persistently infected murine cell cultures have an extended host range. The mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) variant MHV/BHK can infect hamster, rat, cat, dog, monkey, and human cell lines but not the swine testis (ST) porcine cell line (J. H. Schickli, B. D. Zelus, D. E. Wentworth, S. G. Sawicki, and K. V. Holmes, J. Virol. 71:9499-9507, 1997). The spike (S) gene of MHV/BHK had 63 point mutations and a 21-bp insert that encoded 56 amino acid substitutions and a 7-amino-acid insert compared to the parental MHV strain A59. Recombinant viruses between MHV-A59 and MHV/BHK were selected in hamster cells. All of the recombinants retained 21 amino acid substitutions and a 7-amino-acid insert found in the N-terminal region of S of MHV/BHK, suggesting that these residues were responsible for the extended host range of MHV/BHK. Flow cytometry showed that MHV-A59 bound only to cells that expressed the murine glycoprotein receptor CEACAM1a. In contrast, MHV/BHK and a recombinant virus, k6c, with the 21 amino acid substitutions and 7-amino-acid insert in S bound to hamster (BHK) and ST cells as well as murine cells. Thus, 21 amino acid substitutions and a 7-amino-acid insert in the N-terminal region of the S glycoprotein of MHV/BHK confer the ability to bind and in some cases infect cells of nonmurine species.
Project description:The murine coronavirus [murine hepatitis virus (MHV)] is limited to infection of susceptible mice and murine cell lines by the specificity of the spike glycoprotein (S) for its receptor, murine carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1a (mCEACAM1a). We have recently shown that 21 aa substitutions and a 7-aa insert in the N-terminal region of S are associated with the extended host range of a virus variant derived from murine cells persistently infected with the A59 strain of MHV (MHV-A59). We used targeted RNA recombination (TRR) to generate isogenic viruses that differ from MHV-A59 by the 21 aa substitutions or the 7-aa insert in S. Only viruses with both the 21 aa substitutions and the 7-aa insert in S infected hamster, feline, and monkey cells. These viruses also infected murine cells in the presence of blocking anti-mCEACAM1a antibodies. Thus, relatively few changes in the N-terminal region of S1 are sufficient to permit MHV-A59 to interact with alternative receptors on murine and non-murine cells.
Project description:The cellular receptor for murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-A59 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family of glycoproteins in the immunoglobulin superfamily. We isolated a cDNA clone (MHVR1) encoding the MHV receptor. The sequence of this clone predicts a 424-amino-acid glycoprotein with four immunoglobulinlike domains, a transmembrane domain, and a short intracytoplasmic tail, MHVR1 is closely related to the murine CEA-related clone mmCGM1 (Mus musculus carcinoembryonic antigen gene family member). Western blot (immunoblot) analysis performed with antireceptor antibodies detected a glycoprotein of 120 kDa in BHK cells stably transfected with MHVR1. This corresponds to the size of the MHV receptor expressed in mouse intestine and liver. Human and hamster fibroblasts transfected with MHVR1 became susceptible to infection with MHV-A59. Like MHV-susceptible mouse fibroblasts, the MHVR1-transfected human and hamster cells were protected from MHV infection by pretreatment with monoclonal antireceptor antibody CC1. Thus, the 110- to 120-kDa CEA-related glycoprotein encoded by MHVR1 is a functional receptor for murine coronavirus MHV-A59.
Project description:Murine coronaviruses such as mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infect mouse cells via cellular receptors that are isoforms of biliary glycoprotein (Bgp) of the carcinoembryonic antigen gene family (G. S. Dveksler, C. W. Dieffenbach, C. B. Cardellichio, K. McCuaig, M. N. Pensiero, G.-S. Jiang, N. Beauchemin, and K. V. Holmes, J. Virol. 67:1-8, 1993). The Bgp isoforms are generated through alternative splicing of the mouse Bgp1 gene that has two allelic forms called MHVR (or mmCGM1), expressed in MHV-susceptible mouse strains, and mmCGM2, expressed in SJL/J mice, which are resistant to MHV. We here report the cloning and characterization of a new Bgp-related gene designated Bgp2. The Bgp2 cDNA allowed the prediction of a 271-amino-acid glycoprotein with two immunoglobulin domains, a transmembrane, and a putative cytoplasmic tail. There is considerable divergence in the amino acid sequences of the N-terminal domains of the proteins coded by the Bgp1 gene from that of the Bgp2-encoded protein. RNase protection assays and RNA PCR showed that Bgp2 was expressed in BALB/c kidney, colon, and brain tissue, in SJL/J colon and liver tissue, in BALB/c and CD1 spleen tissue, in C3H macrophages, and in mouse rectal carcinoma CMT-93 cells. When Bgp2-transfected hamster cells were challenged with MHV-A59, MHV-JHM, or MHV-3, the Bgp2-encoded protein served as a functional MHV receptor, although with a lower efficiency than that of the MHVR glycoprotein. The Bgp2-mediated virus infection could not be inhibited by monoclonal antibody CC1 that is specific for the N-terminal domain of MHVR. Although CMT-93 cells express both MHVR and Bgp2, infection with the three strains of MHV was blocked by pretreatment with monoclonal antibody CC1, suggesting that MHVR was the only functional receptor in these cells. Thus, a novel murine Bgp gene has been identified that can be coexpressed in inbred mice with the Bgp1 glycoproteins and that can serve as a receptor for MHV strains when expressed in transfected hamster cells.
Project description:The host range of the murine coronavirus (MHV) is limited to susceptible mice and murine cell lines by interactions of the spike glycoprotein (S) with its receptor, mCEACAM1a. We identified five residues in S (S33, L79, T82, Y162 and K183) that are conserved in the receptor-binding domain of MHV strains, but not in related coronaviruses. We used targeted RNA recombination to generate isogenic viruses that differ from MHV-A59 by amino acid substitutions in S. Viruses with S33R and K183R substitutions had wild type growth, while L79A/T82A viruses formed small plaques. Viruses with S33G, L79M/T82M or K183G substitutions could only be recovered from cells that over-expressed a mutant mCEACAM1a. Viruses with Y162H or Y162Q substitutions were never recovered, while Y162A viruses formed minute plaques. However, viruses with Y162F substitutions had wild type growth, suggesting that Y162 may comprise part of a hydrophobic domain that contacts the MHV-binding site of mCEACAM1a.
Project description:Recently, we showed that a murine member of the carcinoembryonic antigen family of glycoproteins serves as a cellular receptor (MHVR) for the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus A59 (MHV-A59) (G. S. Dveksler, M. N. Pensiero, C. B. Cardellichio, R. K. Williams, G.-S. Jiang, K. V. Holmes, and C. W. Dieffenbach, J. Virol. 65:6881-6891, 1991; R. K. Williams, G.-S. Jiang, and K. V. Holmes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:5533-5536, 1991). To examine the role of posttranscriptional modification of MHVR on virus-receptor interactions, a vaccinia virus-based expression system was employed. Expression from the vaccinia virus recombinant (Vac-MHVR) in BHK-21 cells resulted in high levels of MHVR glycoprotein on the cell surface and made these cells susceptible to MHV-A59 infection. Nonglycosylated core MHVR proteins were made in Vac-MHVR-infected BHK-21 cells in the presence of tunicamycin by in vitro translation of MHVR mRNA in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system in the absence of microsomal membranes and by expression of an N-terminal deletion clone of MHVR lacking its signal peptide. These three nonglycosylated MHVR proteins were recognized by polyclonal antibody against affinity-purified receptor but did not bind antireceptor monoclonal antibody (MAb) CC1 or MHV-A59 virions. Partial glycosylation of MHVR, either expressed in Vac-MHVR-infected cells treated with monensin or synthesized by in vitro translation with microsomal membranes, restored both the MAb CC1- and the virus-binding activities of the MHVR glycoprotein. Deletion of 26 amino acids at the carboxyl terminus of MHVR resulted in a secreted protein which was able to bind MAb CC1 and MHV-A59. These results suggest that either a carbohydrate moiety is an element of the MHVR-binding site(s) for virus and MAb CC1 or a posttranslational membrane-associated process is required for functional conformation of the receptor glycoprotein.
Project description:Persistent infection with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain A59 in murine DBT (delayed brain tumor) cells resulted in the emergence of host range variants, designated V51A and V51B, at 210 days postinfection. These host range mutants replicated efficiently in normally nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2), and to a lesser extent in human breast carcinoma (MCF7) cell lines. Little if any replication was noted in baby hamster kidney (BHK), green African monkey kidney (COS-7), feline kidney (CRFK), and swine testicular (ST) cell lines. By fluorescent antibody (FA) staining, persistent viruses V10B and V30B, isolated at days 38 and 119 days postinfection, also demonstrated very low levels of replication in human HepG2 cells. These data suggest that persistence may rapidly select for host range expansion of animal viruses. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with a polyclonal antibody directed against human carcinoembryonic antigens (CEA) or with some monoclonal antibodies (Col-1, Col-4, Col-12, and Col-14) that bind human CEA significantly inhibited V51B infection. Under identical conditions, little or no blockade was evident with other monoclonal antibodies (kat4c or Col-6) which also bind the human CEA glycoproteins. In addition, an antibody (EDDA) directed against irrelevant antigens did not block V51B replication. Pretreatment with the Col-4 and Col-14 antibodies did not block Sindbis virus replication in HepG2 cells or MHV infection in DBT cells, suggesting that one or more CEA glycoproteins likely functioned as receptors for V51B entry into human cell lines. To test this hypothesis, the human biliary glycoprotein (Bgp) and CEA genes were cloned and expressed in normally nonpermissive BHK cell lines by using noncytopathic Sindbis virus replicons (pSinRep19). By growth curves and FA staining, human CEA and to a much lesser extent human Bgp functioned as receptors for V51B entry. Furthermore, V51B replication was blocked with polyclonal antiserum directed against human CEA and Bgp. Under identical conditions, the parental MHV strain A59 failed to replicate in BHK cells expressing human Bgp or CEA. These data suggest that MHV persistence may promote virus cross-species transmissibility by selecting for virus variants that recognize phylogenetic homologues of the normal receptor.
Project description:The Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) strain A59 ns2 protein is a 30-kDa nonstructural protein that is expressed from a subgenomic mRNA in the cytoplasm of virus-infected cells. Its homologs are also encoded in other closely related group 2a coronaviruses and more distantly related toroviruses. Together, these proteins comprise a subset of a large superfamily of 2H phosphoesterase proteins that are distinguished by a pair of conserved His-x-Thr/Ser motifs encompassing catalytically important residues. We have used a vaccinia virus-based reverse genetic system to produce recombinant viruses encoding ns2 proteins with single-amino-acid substitutions in, or adjacent to, these conserved motifs, namely, inf-ns2 H46A, inf-ns2 S48A, inf-ns2-S120A, and inf-ns2-H126R. All of the mutant viruses replicate in mouse 17 clone 1 fibroblast cells and mouse embryonic cells to the same extent as the parental wild-type recombinant virus, inf-MHV-A59. However, compared to inf-MHV-A59, the inf-ns2 H46A and inf-ns2-H126R mutants are highly attenuated for replication in mouse liver following intrahepatic inoculation. Interestingly, none of the mutant viruses were attenuated for replication in mouse brain following intracranial inoculation. These results show that the ns2 protein of MHV-A59 has an important role in virus pathogenicity and that a substitution of the histidine residues of the MHV-A59 ns2 His-x-Thr/Ser motifs is critical for virus virulence in the liver but not in the brain. This novel phenotype suggests a strategy to investigate the function of the MHV-A59 ns2 protein involving the search for organ-specific proteins or RNAs that react differentially to wild-type and mutant ns2 proteins.
Project description:Although most inbred mouse strains are highly susceptible to mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection, the inbred SJL line of mice is highly resistant to its infection. The principal receptor for MHV is murine CEACAM1 (mCEACAM1). Susceptible strains of mice are homozygous for the 1a allele of mCeacam1, while SJL mice are homozygous for the 1b allele. mCEACAM1a (1a) has a 10- to 100-fold-higher receptor activity than does mCEACAM1b (1b). To explore the hypothesis that MHV susceptibility is due to the different MHV receptor activities of 1a and 1b, we established a chimeric C57BL/6 mouse (cB61ba) in which a part of the N-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of the mCeacam1a (1a) gene, which is responsible for MHV receptor function, is replaced by the corresponding region of mCeacam1b (1b). We compared the MHV susceptibility of these chimeric mice to that of SJL and B6 mice. B6 mice that are homozygous for 1a are highly susceptible to MHV-A59 infection, with a 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) of 10(2.5) PFU, while chimeric cB61ba mice and SJL mice homozygous for 1ba and 1b, respectively, survived following inoculation with 10(5) PFU. Unexpectedly, cB61ba mice were more resistant to MHV-A59 infection than SJL mice as measured by virus replication in target organs, including liver and brain. No infectious virus or viral RNA was detected in the organs of cB61ba mice, while viral RNA and infectious virus were detected in target organs of SJL mice. Furthermore, SJL mice produced antiviral antibodies after MHV-A59 inoculation with 10(5) PFU, but cB61ba mice did not. Thus, cB61ba mice are apparently completely resistant to MHV-A59 infection, while SJL mice permit low levels of MHV-A59 virus replication during self-limited, asymptomatic infection. When expressed on cultured BHK cells, the mCEACAM1b and mCEACAM1ba proteins had similar levels of MHV-A59 receptor activity. These results strongly support the hypothesis that although alleles of mCEACAM1 are the principal determinants of mouse susceptibility to MHV-A59, other as-yet-unidentified murine genes may also play a role in susceptibility to MHV.
Project description:Murine hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59) was shown to induce pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis of infected cells, especially in the murine macrophages. However, whether ferroptosis, a recently identified form of lytic cell death, was involved in the pathogenicity of MHV-A59 is unknown. We utilized murine macrophages and a C57BL/6 mice intranasal infection model to address this. In primary macrophages, the ferroptosis inhibitor inhibited viral propagation, inflammatory cytokines released, and cell syncytia formed after MHV-A59 infection. In the mouse model, we found that in vivo administration of liproxstatin-1 ameliorated lung inflammation and tissue injuries caused by MHV-A59 infection. To find how MHV-A59 infection influenced the expression of ferroptosis-related genes, we performed RNA-seq in primary macrophages and found that MHV-A59 infection upregulates the expression of the acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a novel ferroptosis inducer. Using ferroptosis inhibitors and a TLR4 inhibitor, we showed that MHV-A59 resulted in the NF-kB-dependent, TLR4-independent ACSL1 upregulation. Accordingly, ACSL1 inhibitor Triacsin C suppressed MHV-A59-infection-induced syncytia formation and viral propagation in primary macrophages. Collectively, our study indicates that ferroptosis inhibition protects hosts from MHV-A59 infection. Targeting ferroptosis may serve as a potential treatment approach for dealing with hyper-inflammation induced by coronavirus infection.
Project description:With persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in BHK-21 cells, there is coevolution of the cells and the resident virus; the virulence of the virus for the parental BHK-21 cells is gradually increased, and the cells become partially resistant to FMDV. Here we report that variants of FMDV C3Arg/85 were selected in a single infection of partially resistant BHK-21 cells (termed BHK-Rb cells). Indirect immunofluorescence showed that the BHK-Rb cell population was heterogeneous with regard to susceptibility to C3Arg/85 infection. Infection of BHK-Rb cells with C3Arg/85 resulted in an early phase of partial cytopathology which was followed at 6 to 10 days postinfection by the shedding of mutant FMDVs, termed C3-Rb. The selected C3-Rb variants showed increased virulence for BHK-21 cells, were able to overcome the resistance of modified BHK-21 cells to infection, and had acquired the ability to bind heparin and to infect wild-type Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. A comparison of the genomic sequences of the parental and modified viruses revealed only two amino acid differences, located at the surface of the particle, at the fivefold axis of the viral capsid (Asp-9-->Ala in VP3 and either Gly-110-->Arg or His-108-->Arg in VP1). The same phenotypic and genotypic modifications occurred in a highly reproducible manner; they were seen in a number of independent infections of BHK-Rb cells with viral preparation C3Arg/85 or with clones derived from it. Neither amino acid substitutions in other structural or nonstructural proteins nor nucleotide substitutions in regulatory regions were found. These results prove that infection of partially permissive cells can promote the rapid selection of virus variants that show alterations in cell tropism and are highly virulent for the same cells.