Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus Is a Risk Factor for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A 1:2 Matched Case-Control Study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Diabetes has been identified as an adverse prognostic variable which associated with an increased mortality in various cancers, including colorectal, lung, and breast cancers. However, previous studies provided inconsistent results on the association between diabetes and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between diabetes mellitus and the survival of NPC patients. METHODS:This study was designed as a 1:2 matched case-control study. Cases were patients who met the criteria for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM) below. Controls, matched 1:2, were patients who were normoglycemic (NDM). The survival rates were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the survival curves were compared using a log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS:Both locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the NDM group were higher than that in the DM group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.033). Additionally, subset analyses revealed that the differences in OS, LRRFS, and DFS were all significant between the two groups in the N0-N1 subset (p = 0.007, p =.000 and p = 0.002). The LRRFS was higher in the NDM group in the III-IV, T3-T4 and N0-N1 subsets (p = 0.004, p = 0.002 and p =.000). In T3-T4 subset, the NDM group experienced higher DFS than the DM group (p = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, T stage and N stage were found to be independent predictors for OS, DMFS and DFS; chemotherapy was a significant prognostic factor for DMFS and DFS, age for OS, and diabetes for LRRFS and DFS. CONCLUSIONS:Type 2 diabetic mellitus is associated with poorer prognosis among patients with NPC.
Project description:The prognostic value of diabetes remains unknown in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 1489 patients with non-metastatic, histologically-proven NPC treated using IMRT. 81/1489 (5.4%) patients were diabetic, 168/1489 (11.3%) were prediabetic, and 1240/1489 (83.3%) were normoglycemic. The 4-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 77.1% vs. 82.4% (P = 0.358), 85.8% vs. 91.0% (P = 0.123), 90.9% vs. 91.7% (P = 0.884), and 85.5% vs. 89.2% (P = 0.445) for diabetic vs. normoglycemic patients, and 82.4% vs. 82.4% (P = 0.993), 88.7% vs. 91.0% (P = 0.285), 90.6% vs. 91.7% (P = 0.832) and 91.5% vs. 89.2% (P = 0.594) for preidabetic vs. normoglycemic patients. Multivariate analysis did not established diabetes as poor prognostic factors in NPC patients treated with IMRT (P = 0.332 for DFS, P = 0.944 for OS, P = 0.977 for LRRFS, P = 0.157 for DMFS), however, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, diabetes does not appear to be a prognostic factor in NPC patients treated with IMRT, and attention should be paid to hyperglycemia-associated hyperlipaemia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an endemic neoplasm in southern China. Although NPC sufferers are sensitive to radiotherapy, 20-30% of patients finally progress with recurrence and metastases. Elevated lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) has been reported to be associated with favorable prognosis in some hematology malignancies, but has not been studied in NPC. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LMR could predict the prognosis of NPC patients. METHODS:A retrospective cohort of 1,547 non-metastatic NPC patients was recruited between January 2005 and June 2008. The counts for peripheral lymphocyte and monocyte were retrieved, and the LMR was calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, univariate and multivariate COX proportional hazards analyses were applied to evaluate the associations of LMR with overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), respectively. RESULTS:Univariate analysis revealed that higher LMR level (? 5.220) was significantly associated with superior OS, DFS and DMFS (P values <0.001). The higher lymphocyte count (? 2.145 × 10(9)/L) was significantly associated with better OS (P = 0.002) and DMFS (P = 0.031), respectively, while the lower monocyte count (<0.475 × 10(9)/L) was associated with better OS (P = 0.012), DFS (P = 0.011) and DMFS (P = 0.003), respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that higher LMR level was a significantly independent predictor for superior OS (hazard ratio or HR = 0.558, 95% confidence interval or 95% CI = 0.417-0.748; P<0.001), DFS (HR = 0.669, 95% CI = 0.535-0.838; P<0.001) and DMFS (HR = 0.543, 95% CI = 0.403-0.732; P<0.001), respectively. The advanced T and N stages were also independent indicators for worse OS, DFS, and DMFS, except that T stage showed borderline statistical significance for DFS (P = 0.053) and DMFS (P = 0.080). CONCLUSIONS:The elevated pretreatment peripheral LMR level was a significant favorable factor for NPC prognosis and this easily accessed variable may serve as a potent marker to predict the outcomes of NPC patients.
Project description:The prognostic value of plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA remains unknown in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 584 newly diagnosed patients with nonmetastatic and biopsy-proven NPC treated using IMRT. Plasma EBV DNA concentration was measured before therapy (pre-DNA) and within 1 month of completing therapy (post-DNA) using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to identify pre-DNA and post-DNA cut-off values. Prognostic value was assessed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model .Three-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and distant metastasis-free (DMFS) for pre-DNA >2010 vs.?2010 were 78.1% vs. 93.6% (P?<?0.001), 92.3% vs. 98.9% (P?<?0.001), 90.9% vs. 96.6% (P?=?0.004) and 85.5% vs. 96.6% (P?<?0.001), respectively. Three-year DFS, OS, LRRFS and DMFS for post-DNA >0 vs.?=?0 were 49.9% vs. 88.5% (P?<?0.001), 72.1% vs. 97.5% (P?<?0.001), 86.6% vs. 94.3% (P?=?0.019), and 60.5% vs. 93.3% (P?<?0.001), respectively. Plasma EBV DNA remains a prognostic factor in IMRT era and should be incorporated into TNM staging to guide individualized treatment strategies in NPC.
Project description:Little is known about the value of the nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002) scale in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We conducted a large-scale study to address this issue. We employed a big-data intelligence database platform at our center and identified 3232 eligible patients treated between 2009 and 2013. Of the 3232 (12.9% of 24 986) eligible patients, 469 (14.5%), 13 (0.4%), 953 (29.5%), 1762 (54.5%) and 35 (1.1%) had NRS2002 scores of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Survival outcomes were comparable between patients with NRS2002 <3 and ?3 (original scale). However, patients with NRS2002 ?3 vs >3 (regrouping scale) had significantly different 5-year disease-free survival (DFS; 82.7% vs 75.0%, P < .001), overall survival (OS; 88.8% vs 84.1%, P = .001), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; 90.2% vs 85.9%, P = .001) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS; 91.6% vs 87.2%, P = .001). Therefore, we proposed a revised NRS2002 scale, and found that it provides a better risk stratification than the original or regrouping scales for predicting DFS (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.530 vs 0.554 vs 0.577; P < .05), OS (AUC = 0.534 vs 0.563 vs 0.582; P < .05), DMFS (AUC = 0.531 vs 0.567 vs 0.590; P < .05) and LRRFS (AUC = 0.529 vs 0.542 vs 0.564; P < .05 except scale A vs B). Our proposed NRS2002 scale represents a simple, clinically useful tool for nutritional risk screening in NPC.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Geographical disparities have been identified as a specific barrier to cancer screening and a cause of worse outcomes for patients with cancer. In the present study, our aim was to assess the influence of geographical disparities on the survival outcomes of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). DESIGN:Cohort study. SETTING:Guangzhou, China. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1002 adult patients with NPC (724 males and 278 females) who were classified by area of residence (rural or urban) received IMRT from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014, at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Following propensity score matching (PSM), 812 patients remained in the analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:We used PSM to reduce the bias of variables associated with treatment effects and outcome prediction. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression was used to identify independent prognostic factors. RESULTS:In the matched cohort, 812 patients remained in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the rural group was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS, p<0.001), disease-free survival (DFS, p<0.001), locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS, p=0.003) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS, p<0.001). Multivariate Cox regression showed worse OS (HR=3.126; 95% CI 1.902 to 5.138; p<0.001), DFS (HR=2.579; 95%?CI 1.815 to 3.665; p<0.001), LRRFS (HR=2.742; 95%?CI 1.359 to 5.533; p=0.005) and DMFS (HR=2.461; 95%?CI 1.574 to 3.850; p<0.001) for patients residing in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS:The survival outcomes of patients with NPC who received the same standardised treatment were significantly better in urban regions than in rural regions. By analysing the geographic disparities in outcomes for NPC, we can guide the formulation of healthcare policies.
Project description:<b>Purpose:</b> To design an alternative workflow for cancer-risk assessment to predict distant metastasis (DM) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). <b>Methods:</b> We enrolled 234 patients with non-disseminated NPC and a family history of cancer who underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy and concurrent chemo-radiotherapy with/without induction chemotherapy in our primary cohort. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses of the associated prognostic factors, built a nomogram model for distant-metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and confirmed the prognostic value of weight-loss ratio (WTratio). The secondary cohort included 97 patients with available pre-DNA levels who were treated at our cancer center. We performed internal validation with the primary cohort and external validation with the secondary cohort, and compared the new DMFS model with the current 7th TNM staging system. <b>Results:</b> In the primary cohort, 95.9% patients experienced weight loss. The N group (N2-3 vs. N0-1, <i>P</i> = 0.037) and pre-DNA level (<i>P</i> = 0.02) were independent prognostic factors for DMFS in NPC patients. Smoking (<i>P</i> = 0.051) and WTratio (<i>P</i> = 0.052) showed a significant trend for DMFS. WTratio was an independent prognostic factor for DMFS (<i>P</i> = 0.03). Smoking, WTratio, N group, and pre-DNA level were merged to build a risk-score model for DMFS using a nomogram, which could predict survival after internal and external validation. <b>Conclusions:</b> Maintaining body weight during treatment is essential to prevent DM of NPC. Compared with the current 7th TNM staging system, the new DMFS model might better predict DM of NPC. The alternative workflow designed could be applied for prognostic analysis of other cancers.
Project description:The prognostic value of the tumour response to induction chemotherapy (IC) for long-term survival outcomes after intensity-modulated radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unknown. We retrospectively reviewed 1811 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed NPC treated using IMRT, and 399 eligible patients with pre- and post-induction chemotherapy magnetic resonance images were recruited. The clinicopathological features of patients with different tumour responses were compared using the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Prognostic value was assessed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. After IC, 101/399 (25.3%) patients had a complete tumour response overall (CR), 262 (65.7%) had a partial response (PR) and 36 (9.0%) had stable disease (SD). The 4-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) rates for CR vs. PR vs. SD were 90.0% vs. 79.0% vs. 58.2% (CR vs. PR: P1 = 0.007; CR vs. SD: P2 < 0.001; PR vs. SD: P3 = 0.004), 95.7% vs. 88.7% vs. 70.2% (P1 = 0.017, P2 < 0.001, P3 = 0.005), 92.0% vs. 87.4% vs. 74.3% (P1 = 0.162, P2 = 0.005, P3 = 0.029) and 95.9% vs. 88.8% vs. 81.8% (P1 = 0.024, P2 = 0.006, P3 = 0.268), respectively. Multivariate analysis identified that the tumour response to IC was an independent prognostic factor for DFS, OS and LRRFS.
Project description:The main aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic differences in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who are positive and negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).Of the 1106 patients, 248 (22.4%) had undetectable pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA levels. The total distant metastasis rate for EBV-negative group vs. EBV-positive group were 3.6% (9/248) vs. 15.0% (128/858) (P < 0.001). The estimated 4-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) for EBV-negative group vs. EBV-positive group were 88.9% vs. 76.9% (P < 0.001), 93.6% vs. 85.9% (P = 0.001), 96.7% vs. 84.8% (P < 0.001) and 94.1% vs. 90.0% (P = 0.1), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the EBV status was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR, 1.813; 95% CI, 1.219-2.695; P = 0.003), OS (HR, 1.828; 95% CI, 1.075-3.107; P = 0.026) and DMFS (HR, 3.678; 95% CI, 1.859-7.277; P <0.001), and overall stage still remained the most important prognostic factor in patients with stage III-IVB NPC.Data on 1106 patients with non-metastatic, histologically proven advanced-stage (III-IVB) NPC who underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were retrospectively reviewed. Patient survival between different EBV status groups were compared.EBV status was an independent prognostic factor for patients with stage III-IVB NPC. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) should be better treatment regimen for EBV-positive patients since distant metastasis was the main failure pattern, and CCRT may be enough for EBV-negative patients.
Project description:Background: To explore the value of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) compared to radiotherapy (RT) alone which includes two-dimensional radiotherapy (2D-RT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: All topic-related comparative articles were identified by a comprehensive search of public databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and CBMdisc). The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS), loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Secondary outcomes were grade 3-4 acute toxicity events. We performed subgroup analysis of CRT versus 2D-RT/IMRT alone to investigate the optimal modality. Sensitivity analysis focused on CRT versus IMRT alone was used to assess stability of the study results. Results: Eleven comparative studies (2138 patients) were eligible. CRT had significantly higher OS (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45-0.98, P = 0.04) and LRRFS (HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.46-0.80, P = 0.0003) than RT alone, but no significant difference was observed in DMFS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.52-1.31, P = 0.41). Meanwhile, CRT was associated with higher frequencies of grade 3-4 leukopenia, mucositis and nausea (P = 0.005, 0.03, < 0.0001, respectively). Subgroup analysis showed that IMRT alone could achieve equivalent OS, LRRFS and DMFS compared to CRT (P = 0.14, 0.06, 0.89, respectively). Significant value was only observed in LRRFS for CRT compared to 2D-RT alone (P = 0.01). Sensitivity analysis for the comparison of CRT and IMRT alone demonstrated generally stable outcomes, in support of the final conclusions. Conclusions: In the treatment of patients with stage II NPC, CRT was better than 2D-RT alone with significant benefit in LRRFS. IMRT alone was superior to CRT with equivalent survival outcomes and fewer grade 3-4 acute toxicities.
Project description:The Dutch guidelines advise to start radiation therapy (RT) within 5 weeks following breast-conserving surgery (BCS). However, much controversy exists regarding timing of RT. This study investigated its effect on 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) in a Dutch population-based cohort.All women diagnosed with primary invasive stage I-IIIA breast cancer in 2003 treated with BCS+RT were included. Two populations were studied. Population 1 excluded patients receiving chemotherapy before RT. Analyses were stratified for use of adjuvant systemic therapy (AST). Population 2 included patients treated with chemotherapy, and compared chemotherapy before (BCS-chemotherapy-RT) and after RT (BCS-RT-chemotherapy). DFS was estimated using multivariable Cox regression. Locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS) were secondary outcomes.Population 1 (n=2759) showed better DFS and DMFS for a time interval of >55 than a time interval of <42 days. Patients treated with AST showed higher DFS for >55 days (hazards ratio (HR) 0.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.94)) and 42-55 days (HR 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45-0.91)) than <42 days. Results were similar for DMFS, while timing did not affect LRRFS and OS. For patients without AST, timing was not associated with DFS, DMFS and LLRFS, but 10-year OS was significantly lower for 42-55 and >55 days compared to <42 days. In population 2 (n=1120), timing did not affect survival in BCS-chemotherapy-RT. In BCS-RT-chemotherapy, DMFS was higher for >55 than <42 days.Starting RT shortly after BCS seems not to be associated with a better long-term outcome. The common position that RT should start as soon as possible following surgery in order to increase treatment efficacy can be questioned.