Scavenger receptors of endothelial cells mediate the uptake and cellular proatherogenic effects of carbamylated LDL.
ABSTRACT: Carbamylated LDL (cLDL) has been recently shown to have robust proatherogenic effects on human endothelial cells in vitro, suggesting cLDL may have a significant role in atherosclerosis in uremia. The current study was designed to determine which receptors are used by cLDL and thus cause the proatherogenic effects.In ex vivo or in vitro models as well as in intact animals, administration of cLDL was associated with endothelial internalization of cLDL and subendothelial translocation (transcytosis). In vitro recombinant LOX-1 and SREC-1 receptors showed the greatest cLDL binding. However, pretreatment of the endothelial cells with specific inhibiting antibodies demonstrated that cLDL binds mainly to LOX-1 and CD36 receptors. The transcytosis was dependent on SR-A1, SREC-1, and CD36 receptors whereas LOX-1 receptor was not involved. The cytotoxicity was mediated by several studied scavenger receptors, but cLDL-induced monocyte adhesion depended only on LOX-1. The cLDL-induced synthesis of LOX-1 protein significantly contributed to both cytotoxicity and accelerated monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells.Our data suggest that cLDL uses a unique pattern of scavenger receptors. They show that LOX-1 receptor, and partially CD36, SREC-1, and SR-A1 receptors, are essential for the proatherogenic effects of cLDL on human endothelial cells.
Project description:Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory process characterized by monocyte recruitment into the arterial wall, their differentiation into macrophages, and lipid accumulation. Because integrin ?M?2 (CD11b/CD18) mediates multiple diverse functions of leukocytes, we examined its role in atherogenesis. ?M-/-/ApoE-/- and ApoE-/- mice were fed a control or high fat diet for 3 or 16 wk to induce atherogenesis. Unexpectedly, ?M deficiency accelerated development of atherosclerosis in female but not in male mice. The size of aortic root lesions was 3-4.5-fold larger in female ?M-/-/ApoE-/- than in ApoE-/- mice. Monocyte and macrophage content within the lesions was increased 2.5-fold in female ?M-/-/ApoE-/- mice due to enhanced proliferation. ?M?2 elimination promoted gender-dependent foam cell formation due to enhanced uptake of cholesterol by ?M-/-/ApoE-/- macrophages. This difference was attributed to enhanced expression of lipid uptake receptors, CD36 and scavenger receptor A1 (SR-A1), in female mice. Macrophages from female ?M-/-/ApoE-/- mice showed dramatically reduced expression of FoxM1 transcription factor and estrogen receptors (ER) ? and ?. As their antagonists inhibited the effect of 17?-estradiol (E2), E2 decreased CD36, SR-A1, and foam cell formation in ApoE-/- macrophages in an ER?- and ER?-dependent manner. However, female ?M-/-/ApoE-/- macrophages failed to respond to E2 and maintained elevated CD36, SR-A1, and lipid accumulation. FoxM1 inhibition in ApoE-/- macrophages reduced ERs and enhanced CD36 and SR-A1 expression, whereas FoxM1 overexpression in ?M-/-/ApoE-/- macrophages reversed their proatherogenic phenotype. We demonstrate a new, surprising atheroprotective role of ?M?2 in female ApoE-/- mice. ?M?2 maintains ER expression in macrophages and E2-dependent inhibition of foam cell formation.
Project description:Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors can mediate long-term, high-level transgene expression from transduced hepatocytes with no chronic toxicity. However, a toxic acute response with potentially lethal consequences has hindered their clinical applications. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and Kupffer cells are major barriers to efficient hepatocyte transduction. Understanding the mechanisms of adenoviral vector uptake by non-parenchymal cells may allow the development of strategies aimed at overcoming these important barriers and to achieve preferential hepatocyte gene transfer with reduced toxicity. Scavenger receptors on Kupffer cells bind adenoviral particles and remove them from the circulation, thus preventing hepatocyte transduction. In the present study, we show that HDAd particles interact in vitro and in vivo with scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) and with scavenger receptor expressed on endothelial cells-I (SREC-I) and we exploited this knowledge to increase the efficiency of hepatocyte transduction by HDAd vectors in vivo through blocking of SR-A and SREC-I with specific fragments antigen-binding (Fabs).
Project description:Recent studies showed loss of CD36 or scavenger receptor-AI/II (SR-A) does not ameliorate atherosclerosis in a hyperlipidemic mouse model, suggesting receptors other than CD36 and SR-A may also contribute to atherosclerosis. In this report, we show that apolipoprotein E (apoE)-CD16 double knockout (DKO; apoE-CD16 DKO) mice have reduced atherosclerotic lesions compared with apoE knockout mice. In vivo and in vitro foam cell analyses showed apoE-CD16 DKO macrophages accumulated less neutral lipids. Reduced foam cell formation in apoE-CD16 DKO mice is not due to change in expression of CD36, SR-A, and LOX-1. This led to a hypothesis that CD16 may have scavenger receptor activity. We presented evidence that a soluble form of recombinant mouse CD16 (sCD16) bound to malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDALDL), and this binding is blocked by molar excess of MDA- modified BSA and anti-MDA mAbs, suggesting CD16 specifically recognizes MDA epitopes. Interestingly, sCD16 inhibited MDALDL binding to macrophage cell line, as well as soluble forms of recombinant mouse CD36, SR-A, and LOX-1, indicating CD16 can cross-block MDALDL binding to other scavenger receptors. Anti-CD16 mAb inhibited immune complex binding to sCD16, whereas it partially inhibited MDALDL binding to sCD16, suggesting MDALDL binding site may be in close proximity to the immune complex binding site in CD16. Loss of CD16 expression resulted in reduced levels of MDALDL-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression. Finally, CD16-deficient macrophages showed reduced MDALDL-induced Syk phosphorylation. Collectively, our findings suggest scavenger receptor activity of CD16 may, in part, contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis.
Project description:Formation of foam cells is a hallmark at the initial stages of atherosclerosis. Monocytes attracted by pro-inflammatory stimuli attach to the inflamed vascular endothelium and penetrate to the arterial intima where they differentiate to macrophages. Intimal macrophages phagocytize oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). Several scavenger receptors (SR), including CD36, SR-A1 and lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), mediate oxLDL uptake. In late endosomes/lysosomes of macrophages, oxLDL are catabolysed. Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) hydrolyses cholesterol esters that are enriched in LDL to free cholesterol and free fatty acids. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT1) in turn catalyses esterification of cholesterol to store cholesterol esters as lipid droplets in the ER of macrophages. Neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolases nCEH and NCEH1 are involved in a secondary hydrolysis of cholesterol esters to liberate free cholesterol that could be then out-flowed from macrophages by cholesterol ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 and SR-BI. In atherosclerosis, disruption of lipid homoeostasis in macrophages leads to cholesterol accumulation and formation of foam cells.
Project description:Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) contributes to the atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression by several mechanisms, including the induction of endothelial cell activation and dysfunction, macrophage foam cell formation, and smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. Vascular wall cells express on their surface several scavenger receptors that mediate the cellular effects of OxLDL. The lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is the main OxLDL receptor of endothelial cells, and it is expressed also in macrophages and smooth muscle cells. LOX-1 is almost undetectable under physiological conditions, but it is upregulated following the exposure to several proinflammatory and proatherogenic stimuli and can be detected in animal and human atherosclerotic lesions. The key contribution of LOX-1 to the atherogenic process has been confirmed in animal models; LOX-1 knockout mice exhibit reduced intima thickness and inflammation and increased expression of protective factors; on the contrary, LOX-1 overexpressing mice present an accelerated atherosclerotic lesion formation which is associated with increased inflammation. In humans, LOX-1 gene polymorphisms were associated with increased susceptibility to myocardial infarction. Inhibition of the LOX-1 receptor with chemicals or antisense nucleotides is currently being investigated and represents an emerging approach for controlling OxLDL-LOX-1 mediated proatherogenic effects.
Project description:Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a bacterial species that causes periodontitis. GroEL from P. gingivalis may possess biological activity and may be involved in the destruction of periodontal tissues. However, it is unclear whether P. gingivalis GroEL enhances the appearance of atherogenic phenomena in endothelial cells and vessels. Here, we constructed recombinant GroEL from P. gingivalis to investigate its effects in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) in vitro and on aortas of high-cholesterol (HC)-fed B57BL/6 and B57BL/6-Tlr4(lps-del) mice in vivo. The results showed that GroEL impaired tube-formation capacity under non-cytotoxic conditions in HCAECs. GroEL increased THP-1 cell/HCAEC adhesion by increasing the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in endothelial cells. Additionally, GroEL increased DiI-oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake, which may be mediated by elevated lectin-like oxLDL receptor (LOX)-1 but not scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells (SREC) and scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1) expression. Furthermore, GroEL interacts with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and plays a causal role in atherogenesis in HCAECs. Human antigen R (HuR), an RNA-binding protein with a high affinity for the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of TLR4 mRNA, contributes to the up-regulation of TLR4 induced by GroEL in HCAECs. In a GroEL animal administration study, GroEL elevated ICAM-1, VCAM-1, LOX-1 and TLR4 expression in the aortas of HC diet-fed wild C57BL/6 but not C57BL/6-Tlr4(lps-del) mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that P. gingivalis GroEL may contribute to cardiovascular disorders by affecting TLR4 expression.
Project description:Dioscin has been shown to affect the regulation of metabolic diseases, including diabetes; however, the mechanism of action is still unclear. Under high glucose (HG) conditions, the expression of scavenger receptors and the uptake of oxidized low?density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are upregulated in dendritic cells (DCs), which are critical steps in atherogenesis and inflammation. In this study, the focus was on the impact of dioscin on the function of DCs. Immature DCs were cultured with: 5.5 mM glucose medium (control group); 30 mM glucose medium (HG group); HG + 10 mM dioscin; HG + 20 mM dioscin; HG + 30 mM dioscin; and HG + 40 mM dioscin. For subsequent experiments, 30 mM dioscin was used as the experimental concentration. Dichlorodihydrofluorescein fluorescence was used to measure the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in DCs. The expression levels of the scavenger receptors, including class A scavenger receptors (SR?A), CD36 and lectin?like oxidized low?density lipoprotein receptor?1 (LOX?1) were determined via quantitative PCR. The protein expression of p38 mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) was determined by western blotting. Furthermore, ELISA was used to detect the levels of interleukin (IL)?6, IL?10 and IL?12. Finally, DCs were incubated with diOlistic (Dil)?labeled oxLDL, and flow cytometry analysis was used to investigate the Dil?oxLDL?incorporated fraction. The incubation of DCs with dioscin inhibited the induction of ROS production, in a dose?dependent manner, under HG conditions. The upregulation of SR?A, CD36 and LOX?1 genes was partially abolished by dioscin, which also partially reversed p38 MAPK protein upregulation. Furthermore, increased secretion of IL?6 and IL?12, and decreased secretion of IL?10 in DCs, induced by HG, was also reversed by dioscin. To conclude, dioscin could attenuate the production of ROS, inflammatory cytokine secretion and oxLDL uptake by DCs in HG conditions by preventing the expression of scavenger receptors and p38 MAPK, thus playing a positive role in preventing atherogenesis.
Project description:Specific oxidized phospholipids (oxPC(CD36)) accumulate in vivo at sites of oxidative stress and serve as high affinity ligands for scavenger receptors class B (CD36 and SR-BI). Recognition of oxPC(CD36) by scavenger receptors plays a role in several pathophysiological processes. The structural basis for the recognition of oxPC(CD36) by CD36 and SR-BI is poorly understood. A characteristic feature of oxPC(CD36) is an sn-2 acyl group that incorporates a terminal gamma-hydroxy (or oxo)-alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl. In the present study, a series of model oxidized phospholipids were designed, synthesized, and tested for their ability to serve as ligands for CD36 and SR-BI. We demonstrated that intact the sn-1 hydrophobic chain, the sn-3 hydrophilic phosphocholine or phosphatidic acid group, and the polar sn-2 tail are absolutely essential for high affinity binding. We further found that a terminal negatively charged carboxylate at the sn-2 position suffices to generate high binding affinity to class B scavenger receptors. In addition, factors such as polarity, rigidity, optimal chain length of sn-2, and sn-3 positions and negative charge at the sn-3 position of phospholipids further modulate the binding affinity. We conclude that all three positions of oxidized phospholipids are essential for the effective recognition by scavenger receptors class B. Furthermore, the structure of residues in these positions controls the affinity of the binding. The present studies suggest that, in addition to oxPC(CD36), other oxidized phospholipids observed in vivo may represent novel ligands for scavenger receptors class B.
Project description:Scavenger receptor associated with endothelial cells I (SREC-I) was shown to be expressed in immune cells and to play a role in the endocytosis of peptides and antigen presentation. As our previous studies indicated that SREC-I required intact Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression for its functions in tumor immunity, we examined potential interactions between these two receptors. We have shown here that SREC-I became associated with TLR4 on binding bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in RAW 264.7 and HEK 293 cells overexpressing these two receptors. The receptors then became internalized together in intracellular endosomes. SREC-I promoted TLR4-induced signal transduction through the NF-kB and MAP kinase pathways, leading to enhanced inflammatory cytokine release. Activation of inflammatory signaling through SREC-I/TLR4 complexes appeared to involve recruitment of the receptors into detergent-insoluble, cholesterol-rich lipid microdomains that contained the small GTPase Cdc42 and the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-src. Under conditions of SREC-I activation by LPS, TLR4 activity required Cdc42 as well as cholesterol and actin polymerization for signaling through NF-kB and MAP kinase pathways in RAW 264.7 cells. SREC-I appeared to respond differently to another ligand, the molecular chaperone Hsp90 that, while triggering SREC-I-TLR4 binding caused only faint activation of the NF-kB pathway. Our experiments therefore indicated that SREC-I could bind LPS and might be involved in innate inflammatory immune responses to extracellular danger signals in RAW 264.7 cells or bone marrow-derived macrophages.
Project description:Scavenger receptors play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but their role in insulin resistance has not been explored. We hypothesized that scavenger receptors are present in human adipose tissue resident macrophages, and their gene expression is regulated by adiponectin and thaizolidinediones.The gene expression of scavenger receptors including scavenger receptor-A (SRA), CD36, and lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) were studied in subcutaneous adipose tissue of nondiabetic subjects and in vitro. Adipose tissue SRA expression was independently associated with insulin resistance. Pioglitazone downregulated SRA gene expression in adipose tissue of subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and decreased LOX-1 mRNA in vitro. Macrophage LOX-1 expression was decreased when macrophages were cocultured with adipocytes or when exposed to adipocyte conditioned medium. Adding adiponectin neutralizing antibody resulted in a 2-fold increase in LOX-1 gene expression demonstrating that adiponectin regulates LOX-1 expression.Adipose tissue scavenger receptors are strongly associated with insulin resistance. Pioglitazone and adiponectin regulate gene expression of SRA and LOX-1, and this may have clinical implications in arresting the untoward sequalae of insulin resistance and diabetes, including accelerated atherosclerosis.