Molecular analysis of the fructose transporter gene (GLUT5) in isolated fructose malabsorption.
ABSTRACT: Fructose, a naturally occurring monosaccharide, is increasingly used as an added sweetener in processed foods in the form of high fructose corn syrup. Increased fructose intake combined with the identification of children with clinical evidence of isolated fructose malabsorption (IFM) has stimulated interest in possible disorders of fructose absorption. The intestinal absorption of fructose is carried out by the facilitative hexose transporter, which has been designated as GLUT5. Functional properties and tissue distribution of GLUT5 suggest that IFM might be due to mutations in the GLUT5 gene. To test this hypothesis, we screened the GLUT5 gene for mutations in a group of eight patients with IFM and in one subject with global malabsorption, as compared with 15 healthy parents of subjects and up to 6 unrelated controls. No mutations were found in the protein coding region of this gene in any of the subjects. A single G to A substitution in the 5' untranslated region of exon 1 was identified in the subject with global malabsorption. This subject and her healthy mother were heterozygous for the variant sequence, suggesting that it was unlikely to be clinically significant. In addition, sequence analysis of each of the 12 GLUT5 exons was performed in the index case and confirmed the negative single-strand conformation polymorphism findings. These studies demonstrate that IFM does not result from the expression of mutant GLUT5 protein.
Project description:The identity of the transporter responsible for fructose absorption in the intestine in vivo and its potential role in fructose-induced hypertension remain speculative. Here we demonstrate that Glut5 (Slc2a5) deletion reduced fructose absorption by approximately 75% in the jejunum and decreased the concentration of serum fructose by approximately 90% relative to wild-type mice on increased dietary fructose. When fed a control (60% starch) diet, Glut5(-/-) mice had normal blood pressure and displayed normal weight gain. However, whereas Glut5(+/+) mice showed enhanced salt absorption in their jejuna in response to luminal fructose and developed systemic hypertension when fed a high fructose (60% fructose) diet for 14 weeks, Glut5(-/-) mice did not display fructose-stimulated salt absorption in their jejuna, and they experienced a significant impairment of nutrient absorption in their intestine with accompanying hypotension as early as 3-5 days after the start of a high fructose diet. Examination of the intestinal tract of Glut5(-/-) mice fed a high fructose diet revealed massive dilatation of the caecum and colon, consistent with severe malabsorption, along with a unique adaptive up-regulation of ion transporters. In contrast to the malabsorption of fructose, Glut5(-/-) mice did not exhibit an absorption defect when fed a high glucose (60% glucose) diet. We conclude that Glut5 is essential for the absorption of fructose in the intestine and plays a fundamental role in the generation of fructose-induced hypertension. Deletion of Glut5 results in a serious nutrient-absorptive defect and volume depletion only when the animals are fed a high fructose diet and is associated with compensatory adaptive up-regulation of ion-absorbing transporters in the colon.
Project description:Gastrointestinal symptoms and malabsorption following fructose ingestion (fructose intolerance) are common in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The underlying mechanism is unclear, but is hypothesized to be related an abnormality of intestinal fructose transporter proteins.To assess the expression of the main intestinal fructose transporter proteins, glucose transport protein 5 (GLUT5) and 2 (GLUT2), in FGID.The expression of GLUT5 and GLUT2 protein and mRNA in small intestinal biopsy tissue was investigated using real-time reverse-transcription PCR and Western immunoblotting in 11 adults with FGID and fructose intolerance ascertained by breath testing and in 15 controls.Median expression levels of GLUT5 mRNA normalized to beta-actin were 0.18 (interquartile range, IQR, 0.13-0.21) in patients and 0.17 (IQR 0.12-0.19) in controls (p?>?0.05). Respective levels of GLUT2 mRNA were 0.26 (IQR 0.20-0.31) and 0.26 (IQR 0.19-0.31) (p?>?0.05). Median expression levels of GLUT5 protein normalized to alpha-tubulin were 0.95 (IQR 0.52-1.68) in patients and 0.95 (IQR 0.59-1.15) in controls (p?>?0.05). Respective protein expression levels for GLUT2 were 1.56 (IQR 1.06-2.14) and 1.35 (IQR 0.96-1.79) (p?>?0.05).Human fructose intolerance may not be associated with marked changes in GLUT5 and GLUT2 expression. Replication of these results in a larger subject group, including measures of transporter activation and membrane and subcellular localization, is warranted.
Project description:Receptors for antipsychotics in the hypothalamus contribute to antipsychotics-induced weight gain; however, many of these receptors are also expressed in the intestine. The role of these intestinally-expressed receptors, and their potential modulation of nutrient absorption, have not been investigated in the context of antipsychotics-induced weight gain. Here we tested the effect of dietary fructose and intestinal fructose uptake on clozapine-induced weight gain in mice. Weight gain was determined in wild type mice and mice lacking the GLUT5 fructose transporter that were "orally-administered" 20mg/kg clozapine for 28 days. To assess the role of dietary fructose, clozapine-treated mice were fed controlled diets with different levels of fructose. Effect of clozapine treatment on intestinal fructose transport activity and expression levels of various receptors that bind clozapine, as well as several genes involved in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis were measured using real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. Oral administration of clozapine significantly increased body weight in wild type C57BL/6 mice but not in GLUT5 null mice. The clozapine-induced weight gain was proportional to the percentage of fructose in the diet. Clozapine-treated mice increased intestinal fructose uptake without changing the intestinal expression level of GLUT5. Clozapine-treated mice expressed significantly higher levels of intestinal H1 histamine receptor in the wild type but not GLUT5 null mice. Clozapine also increased the intestinal expression of fructokinase and several genes involved in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Our results suggest that increased intestinal absorption and metabolism of fructose contributes to clozapine-induced weight gain. Eliminating dietary fructose might prevent antipsychotics-induced weight gain.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that the jejunal/kidney-type facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT5) functions as a high-affinity D-fructose transporter. However, its precise role in the small intestine is not clear. In an attempt to identify the fructose transporter in the small intestine, we measured fructose uptake in Xenopus oocytes expressing jejunal mRNA from five species (rat, mouse, rabbit, hamster and guinea-pig). Only jejunal mRNA from the rabbit significantly increased fructose uptake. We also cloned a rabbit GLUT5 cDNA from a jejunal library The predicted amino acid sequence of the 487-residue rabbit GLUT5 showed 72.3 and 67.1% identity with human and rat GLUT5 respectively. Northern-blot analysis revealed GLUT5 transcripts in rabbit duodenum, jejunum and, to a lesser extent, kidney. After separation of rabbit jejunal mRNA on a sucrose density gradient, the fractions that conferred D-fructose transport activity in oocytes also hybridized with rabbit GLUT5 cDNA. Hybrid depletion of jejunal mRNA with a GLUT5 antisense oligonucleotide markedly inhibited the mRNA-induced fructose uptake in oocytes. Immunoblot analysis indicated that GLUT5 (49 kDa) is located in the brush-border membrane of rabbit intestinal epithelial cells. Xenopus oocytes injected with rabbit GLUT5 cRNA exhibited fructose uptake activity with a Km of 11 mM for D-fructose. D-Fructose transport by GLUT5 was significantly inhibited by D-glucose and D-galactose. D-Fructose uptake in brush-border membrane vesicles shows a Km similar to that of GLUT5, but was not inhibited by D-glucose or D-galactose. Finally, cytochalasin B photolabelled a 49 kDa protein in rabbit brush-border-membrane preparations that was immunoprecipitated by antibodies to GLUT5. Our results suggest that GLUT5 functions as a fructose transporter in rabbit small intestine. However, biochemical properties of fructose transport in Xenopus oocytes injected with GLUT5 cRNA differed from those in rabbit jejunal vesicles.
Project description:Fructose has become a major constituent of our modern diet and is implicated as an underlying cause in the development of metabolic diseases. The fructose transporter GLUT5 (SLC2A5) is required for intestinal fructose absorption. GLUT5 expression is induced in the intestine and skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and in certain cancers that are dependent on fructose metabolism, indicating that modulation of GLUT5 levels could have potential in the treatment of these diseases. Using an unbiased screen for transcriptional control of the human GLUT5 promoter we identified a strong and specific regulation by liver X receptor α (LXRα, NR1H3). Using promoter truncations and site-directed mutagenesis we identified a functional LXR response element (LXRE) in the human GLUT5 promoter, located at -385 bp relative to the transcriptional start site (TSS). Finally, mice treated with LXR agonist T0901317 showed an increase in Glut5 mRNA and protein levels in duodenum and adipose tissue, underscoring the in vivo relevance of its regulation by LXR. Together, our findings show that LXRα regulates GLUT5 in mice and humans. As a ligand-activated transcription factor, LXRα might provide novel pharmacologic strategies for the selective modulation of GLUT5 activity in the treatment of metabolic disease as well as cancer.
Project description:Adipose tissue is an important metabolic organ that is crucial for whole-body insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis. Highly refined fructose intake increases visceral adiposity although the mechanism(s) remain unclear. Differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes is a highly regulated process that is associated with characteristic sequential changes in adipocyte gene expression. We demonstrate that fructose treatment of murine 3T3-L1 cells incubated in standard differentiation medium increases adipogenesis and adipocyte-related gene expression. We further show that the key fructose transporter, GluT5, is expressed in early-stage adipocyte differentiation but is not expressed in mature adipocytes. GluT5 overexpression or knockdown increased and decreased adipocyte differentiation, respectively, and treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with a specific GluT5 inhibitor decreased adipocyte differentiation. Epidymal white adipose tissue was reduced in GluT5-/- mice compared with wild-type mice, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from GluT5-/- mice exhibited impaired adipocyte differentiation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fructose and GluT5 play an important role in regulating adipose differentiation.
Project description:The effect of glucose and fructose and fetal bovine serum on the expression of the fructose transporter GLUT5 was studied in clone PD7 of the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2, which has been characterized previously [Chantret, Rodoloswe, Barbat et al. (1994) J. Cell Sci. 107, 213-225; Mahraoui, Rodolosse, Barbat et al. (1994) Biochem. J. 298, 629-633]. Culture of the cells in dialysed serum and hexose-free media, down-regulated the expression of GLUT5, which was below detection within 3-4 days. This effect was reversed by fructose and glucose feeding of the cells. Fructose feeding yielded a 3-fold higher abundance of GLUT5 protein and mRNA as compared with that expressed in glucose-fed cells. Cells fed normal serum exhibited an inverse hierarchy of expression, with glucose being a better inducer than fructose for the expression of GLUT5. The GLUT5 mRNA and protein abundances obtained in fructose-fed cells did not depend on the type of serum. A linear relationship between cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and GLUT5 mRNA abundance was found in cells fed dialysed serum, whereas in cells fed normal serum, mRNA abundances were not correlated to cAMP levels. These results indicate that glucose and fructose, together with serum-related factors and cAMP, have combined effects on the expression of GLUT5 in Caco-2 cells.
Project description:The altered activity of the fructose transporter GLUT5, an isoform of the facilitated-diffusion glucose transporter family, has been linked to disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. GLUT5 is also overexpressed in certain tumour cells, and inhibitors are potential drugs for these conditions. Here we describe the crystal structures of GLUT5 from Rattus norvegicus and Bos taurus in open outward- and open inward-facing conformations, respectively. GLUT5 has a major facilitator superfamily fold like other homologous monosaccharide transporters. On the basis of a comparison of the inward-facing structures of GLUT5 and human GLUT1, a ubiquitous glucose transporter, we show that a single point mutation is enough to switch the substrate-binding preference of GLUT5 from fructose to glucose. A comparison of the substrate-free structures of GLUT5 with occluded substrate-bound structures of Escherichia coli XylE suggests that, in addition to global rocker-switch-like re-orientation of the bundles, local asymmetric rearrangements of carboxy-terminal transmembrane bundle helices TM7 and TM10 underlie a 'gated-pore' transport mechanism in such monosaccharide transporters.
Project description:Intestinal fructose uptake is mainly mediated by glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5/SLC2A5). Its closest relative, GLUT7, is also expressed in the intestine but does not transport fructose. For rat Glut5, a change of glutamine to glutamic acid at codon 166 (p.Q166E) has been reported to alter the substrate-binding specificity by shifting Glut5-mediated transport from fructose to glucose. Using chimeric proteins of GLUT5 and GLUT7, here we identified amino acid residues of GLUT5 that define its substrate specificity. The proteins were expressed in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, and their activities were determined by fructose radiotracer flux. We divided the human GLUT5 sequence into 26 fragments and then replaced each fragment with the corresponding region in GLUT7. All fragments that yielded reduced fructose uptake were analyzed further by assessing the role of individual amino acid residues. Various positions in the first extracellular loop, in the fifth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth transmembrane domains (TMDs), and in the regions between the ninth and tenth TMDs and tenth and 11th TMDs were identified as being important for proper fructose uptake. Although the p.Q167E change did not render the human protein into a glucose transporter, molecular dynamics simulations revealed a drastic change in the dynamics and a movement of the intracellular loop connecting the sixth and seventh TMDs, which covers the exit of the ligand. Finally, we generated a GLUT7-GLUT5 chimera consisting of the N-terminal part of GLUT7 and the C-terminal part of GLUT5. Although this chimera was inactive, we demonstrate fructose transport after introduction of four amino acids derived from GLUT5.
Project description:Previous work has demonstrated that human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue both express the GLUT5 fructose transporter, but to date the issue of whether this protein is also expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of rodents has remained unresolved. In the present study we have used a combination of biochemical and molecular approaches to ascertain whether rat skeletal muscle expresses GLUT5 protein and, if so, whether it possesses the capacity to transport fructose. An isoform-specific antibody against rat GLUT5 reacted positively with crude membranes prepared from rat skeletal muscle. A single immunoreactive band of approx. 50 kDa was visualized on immunoblots which was lost when using anti-(rat GLUT5) serum that had been pre-adsorbed with the antigenic peptide. Subcellular fractionation of skeletal muscle localized this immunoreactivity to a single membrane fraction that was enriched with sarcolemma. Plasma membranes, but not low-density microsomes, from rat adipose tissue also displayed a single protein band of equivalent molecular mass to that seen in muscle. Reverse transcription-PCR analyses, using rat-specific GLUT5 primers, of muscle and jejunal RNA revealed a single PCR fragment of the expected size in jejunum and in four different skeletal muscle types. Sarcolemmal vesicles from rat muscle displayed fructose and glucose uptake. Vesicular uptake of glucose was inhibited by nearly 90% in the presence of cytochalasin B, whereas that of fructose was unaffected. To determine whether fructose could regulate GLUT5 expression in skeletal muscle, rats were maintained on a fructose-enriched diet for 4 days. This procedure increased jejunal and renal GLUT5 protein expression by approx. 4- and 2-fold respectively, but had no detectable effects on the abundance of GLUT5 protein in skeletal muscle or on fructose uptake in rat adipocytes. The present results show that GLUT5 is expressed in the sarcolemma of rat skeletal muscle and that it is likely to mediate fructose uptake in this tissue. Furthermore, unlike the situation in absorptive and re-absorptive epithelia, GLUT5 expression in insulin-sensitive tissues is not regulated by increased substrate supply.