Interaction mode between catalytic and regulatory subunits in glucosidase II involved in ER glycoprotein quality control.
ABSTRACT: The glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31) ?-glucosidases play vital roles in catabolic and regulated degradation, including the ?-subunit of glucosidase II (GII?), which catalyzes trimming of the terminal glucose residues of N-glycan in glycoprotein processing coupled with quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Among the known GH31 enzymes, only GII? functions with its binding partner, regulatory ?-subunit (GII?), which harbors a lectin domain for substrate recognition. Although the structural data have been reported for GII? and the GII? lectin domain, the interaction mode between GII? and GII? remains unknown. Here, we determined the structure of a complex formed between GII? and the GII?-binding domain of GII?, thereby providing a structural basis underlying the functional extension of this unique GH31 enzyme.
Project description:Here we report for the first time the three-dimensional structure of a mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology (MRH) domain present in a protein with enzymatic activity, glucosidase II (GII). GII is involved in glycoprotein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. GII removes the two innermost glucose residues from the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 transferred to nascent proteins and the glucose added by UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase. GII is composed of a catalytic GIIα subunit and a regulatory GIIβ subunit. GIIβ participates in the endoplasmic reticulum localization of GIIα and mediates in vivo enhancement of N-glycan trimming by GII through its C-terminal MRH domain. We determined the structure of a functional GIIβ MRH domain by NMR spectroscopy. It adopts a β-barrel fold similar to that of other MRH domains, but its binding pocket is the most shallow known to date as it accommodates a single mannose residue. In addition, we identified a conserved residue outside the binding pocket (Trp-409) present in GIIβ but not in other MRHs that influences GII glucose trimming activity.
Project description:Carbohydrate hydrolyzing ?-glucosidases are commonly found in microorganisms present in the human intestine microbiome. We have previously reported crystal structures of an ?-glucosidase from the human gut bacterium Blaubia (Ruminococcus) obeum (Ro-?G1) and its substrate preference/specificity switch. This novel member of the GH31 family is a structural homolog of human intestinal maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) with a highly conserved active site that is predicted to be common in Ro-?G1 homologs among other species that colonize the human gut. In this report, we present structures of Ro-?G1 in complex with the antidiabetic ?-glucosidase inhibitors voglibose, miglitol, and acarbose and supporting binding data. The in vitro binding of these antidiabetic drugs to Ro-?G1 suggests the potential for unintended in vivo crossreaction of the ?-glucosidase inhibitors to bacterial ?-glucosidases that are present in gut microorganism communities. Moreover, analysis of these drug-bound enzyme structures could benefit further antidiabetic drug development.
Project description:N-Glycans are modified as part of a quality control mechanism during glycoprotein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Glucosidase II (GII) plays a critical role by generating monoglucosylated glycans that are recognized by lectin chaperones, calnexin and calreticulin. To understand how the hydrolytic activity of GII? is enhanced by the mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR) homology domain (MRH domain) of its ? subunit, we now report a 1.6 Å resolution crystal structure of the MRH domain of GII? bound to mannose. A comparison of ligand-bound and unbound structures reveals no major difference in their overall fold, but rather a repositioning of side chains throughout the binding pocket, including Y372. Mutation of Y372 inhibits GII activity, demonstrating an important role for Y372 in regulating GII activity. Comparison of the MRH domains of GII?, MPRs, and the ER lectin OS-9 identified conserved residues that are critical for the structural integrity and architecture of the carbohydrate binding pocket. As shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mutations of the primary binding pocket residues and adjacent W409, all of which inhibit the activity of GII both in vitro and in vivo, do not cause a significant change in the overall fold of the GII? MRH domain but impact locally the stability of the binding pocket. W409 does not directly contact mannose; rather, its indole ring is stabilized by binding into a hydrophobic pocket of an adjacent crystallographic neighbor. This suggests that W409 interacts with a hydrophobic region of the GII? or GII? subunit to modulate its effect on GII activity.
Project description:Glucosidase II (GII) sequentially removes the two innermost glucose residues from the glycan (Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)) transferred to proteins. GII also participates in cycles involving the lectin/chaperones calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT) as it removes the single glucose unit added to folding intermediates and misfolded glycoproteins by the UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT). GII is a heterodimer in which the ? subunit (GII?) bears the active site, and the ? subunit (GII?) modulates GII? activity through its C-terminal mannose 6-phosphate receptor homologous (MRH) domain. Here we report that, as already described in cell-free assays, in live Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells a decrease in the number of mannoses in the glycan results in decreased GII activity. Contrary to previously reported cell-free experiments, however, no such effect was observed in vivo for UGGT. We propose that endoplasmic reticulum ?-mannosidase-mediated N-glycan demannosylation of misfolded/slow-folding glycoproteins may favor their interaction with the lectin/chaperone CNX present in S. pombe by prolonging the half-lives of the monoglucosylated glycans (S. pombe lacks CRT). Moreover, we show that even N-glycans bearing five mannoses may interact in vivo with the GII? MRH domain and that the N-terminal GII? G2B domain is involved in the GII?-GII? interaction. Finally, we report that protists that transfer glycans with low mannose content to proteins have nevertheless conserved the possibility of displaying relatively long-lived monoglucosylated glycans by expressing GII? MRH domains with a higher specificity for glycans with high mannose content.
Project description:Glucosidase II (GII) plays a key role in glycoprotein biogenesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is responsible for the sequential removal of the two innermost glucose residues from the glycan (Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)) transferred to Asn residues in proteins. GII participates in the calnexin/calreticulin cycle; it removes the single glucose unit added to folding intermediates and misfolded glycoproteins by the UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase. GII is a heterodimer whose alpha subunit (GIIalpha) bears the glycosyl hydrolase active site, whereas its beta subunit (GIIbeta) role is controversial and has been reported to be involved in GIIalpha ER retention and folding. Here, we report that in the absence of GIIbeta, the catalytic subunit GIIalpha of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (an organism displaying a glycoprotein folding quality control mechanism similar to that occurring in mammalian cells) folds to an active conformation able to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside. However, the heterodimer is required to efficiently deglucosylate the physiological substrates Glc(2)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) (G2M9) and Glc(1)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) (G1M9). The interaction of the mannose 6-phosphate receptor homologous domain present in GIIbeta and mannoses in the B and/or C arms of the glycans mediates glycan hydrolysis enhancement. We present evidence that also in mammalian cells GIIbeta modulates G2M9 and G1M9 trimming.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contains both ?-glucosidases and ?-mannosidases which process the N-linked oligosaccharides of newly synthesized glycoproteins and thereby facilitate polypeptide folding and glycoprotein quality control. By acting as structural mimetics, iminosugars can selectively inhibit these ER localized ?-glycosidases, preventing N-glycan trimming and providing a molecular basis for their therapeutic applications. In this study, we investigate the effects of a panel of nine iminosugars on the actions of ER luminal ?-glucosidase I and ?-glucosidase II. Using ER microsomes to recapitulate authentic protein N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing, we identify five iminosugars that selectively inhibit N-glycan trimming. Comparison of their inhibitory activities in ER microsomes against their effects on purified ER ?-glucosidase II, suggests that 3,7a-diepi-alexine acts as a selective inhibitor of ER ?-glucosidase I. The other active iminosugars all inhibit ?-glucosidase II and, having identified 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB) as the most effective of these compounds, we use in silico modeling to understand the molecular basis for this enhanced activity. Taken together, our work identifies the C-3 substituted pyrrolizidines casuarine and 3,7a-diepi-alexine as promising "second-generation" iminosugar inhibitors.
Project description:We report the heterologous expression and molecular characterization of the first extremely halophilic alpha-glucosidase (EC 220.127.116.11) from the archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi. A 2349 bp region (Hqrw_2071) from the Hqr. walsbyi C23 annotated genome was PCR-amplified and the resulting amplicon ligated into plasmid pET28b(+), expressed in E. coli Rosetta cells, and the resulting protein purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein showed an estimated molecular mass of 87 kDa, consistent with the expected value of the annotated protein, and an optimal activity for the hydrolysis of ?-PNPG was detected at 40 °C, and at pH 6.0. Enzyme activity values were the highest in the presence of 3 M NaCl or 3-4 M KCl. However, specific activity values were two-fold higher in the presence of 3-4 M KCl when compared to NaCl suggesting a cytoplasmic localization. Phylogenetic analyses, with respect to other alpha-glucosidases from members of the class Halobacteria, showed that the Hqr. walsbyi MalH was most similar (up to 41%) to alpha-glucosidases and alpha-xylosidases of Halorubrum. Moreover, computational analyses for the detection of functional domains, active and catalytic sites, as well as 3D structural predictions revealed a close relationship with an E. coli YicI-like alpha-xylosidase of the GH31 family. However, the purified enzyme did not show alpha-xylosidase activity. This narrower substrate range indicates a discrepancy with annotations from different databases and the possibility of specific substrate adaptations of halophilic glucosidases due to high salinity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from the halophilic Archaea, which could serve as a new model to gain insights into carbon metabolism in this understudied microbial group.
Project description:?-Glucosidase II (GII), a resident of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and an important enzyme in the folding of nascent glycoproteins, is heterodimeric, consisting of ? (GII?) and ? (GII?) subunits. The catalytic GII? subunit, with the help of mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology domain of GII?, sequentially hydrolyzes two ?1-3-linked glucose residues in the second step of N-linked oligosaccharide-mediated protein folding. The soluble GII? subunit is retained in the ER through its interaction with the HDEL-containing GII? subunit. N-glycosylation and correct protein folding are crucial for protein stability and trafficking and cell surface expression of several proteins in the brain. Alterations in N-glycosylation lead to abnormalities in neuronal migration and mental retardation, various neurodegenerative diseases, and invasion of malignant gliomas. Inhibitors of GII are used to inhibit cell proliferation and migration in a variety of different pathologies, such as viral infection, cancer, and diabetes. Despite the widespread use of GII? inhibitory drugs and the role of GII? in brain function, little is known about its expression in brain and other tissues. Here, we report generation of a highly specific chicken antibody to the GII? subunit and its characterization by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation using cerebral cortical extracts. By using this antibody, we showed that the GII? protein is highly expressed in testis, kidney, and lung, with the lowest amount in heart. GII? polypeptide levels in whole brain were comparable to those in spleen. However, a higher expression of GII? protein was detected in the cerebral cortex, reflecting its continuous requirement in correct folding of cell surface proteins.
Project description:Glycosylation plays a critical role in the biogenesis and function of membrane proteins. Transient receptor potential channel TRPP2 is a nonselective cation channel that is mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. TRPP2 has been shown to be heavily N-glycosylated, but the glycosylation sites and the biological role of N-linked glycosylation have not been investigated. Here we show, using a combination of mass spectrometry and biochemical approaches, that native TRPP2 is glycosylated at five asparagines in the first extracellular loop. Glycosylation is required for the efficient biogenesis of TRPP2 because mutations of the glycosylated asparagines result in strongly decreased protein expression of the ion channel. Wild-type and N-glycosylation-deficient TRPP2 is degraded in lysosomes, as shown by increased TRPP2 protein levels upon chemical inhibition of lysosomal degradation. In addition, using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that glucosidase II (GII) mediates glycan trimming of TRPP2. The non-catalytic ? subunit of glucosidase II (GII?) is encoded by PRKCSH, one of the genes causing autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD). The impaired GII?-dependent glucose trimming of TRPP2 glycosylation in ADPLD may explain the decreased TRPP2 protein expression in Prkcsh(-/-) mice and the genetic interaction observed between TRPP2 and PRKCSH in ADPLD. These results highlight the biological importance of N-linked glycosylation and GII-mediated glycan trimming in the control of biogenesis and stability of TRPP2.
Project description:Glucosidase II, one of the early N-glycan processing enzymes and a major player in the glycoprotein folding quality control, has been described as a soluble heterodimer composed of alpha and beta subunits. Here we present the first characterization of a plant glucosidase II alpha subunit at the molecular level. Expression of the Arabidopsis alpha subunit restored N-glycan maturation capacity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe alpha- or alphabeta-deficient mutants, but with a lower efficiency in the last case. Inactivation of the alpha subunit in a temperature sensitive Arabidopsis mutant blocked N-glycan processing after a first trimming by glucosidase I and strongly affected seedling development.