Effects of Individual, Spousal, and Offspring Socioeconomic Status on Mortality Among Elderly People in China.
ABSTRACT: The relationship between socio-economic status and health among elderly people has been well studied, but less is known about how spousal or offspring's education affects mortality, especially in non-Western countries. We investigated these associations using a large sample of Chinese elderly.The data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) from the years 2005 to 2011 (n = 15 355, aged 65-105 years at baseline; 5046 died in 2008, and 2224 died in 2011). Educational attainment, occupational status, and household income per capita were used as indicators of socio-economic status. Spousal and offspring's education were added into the final models. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to study mortality risk by gender.Adjusted for age, highly educated males and females had, on average, 29% and 37% lower mortality risk, respectively, than those with a lower education. Particularly among men, this effect was observed among those whose children had intermediate education only. A higher household income was also associated with lower mortality risk among the elderly. Male elderly living with a well-educated spouse (HR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.99) had a lower mortality risk than those living with a low-educated spouse.Both the socio-economic status of the individual and the educational level of a co-resident spouse or child are associated with mortality risk in elderly people. The socio-economic position of family members plays an important role in producing health inequality among elderly people.
Project description:AIMS:We tested whether parental alcohol use disorder (AUD) predicted adult offspring's likelihood of marriage and marriage to an AUD-affected spouse; whether effects differed as a function of the sex or number of affected parents; and whether they were robust to confounders. DESIGN:Sex-stratified Cox and logistic regression models. SETTING:Sweden. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1?171?070 individuals (51.40% male) born 1965-75. MEASUREMENTS:Obtained from legal, medical and pharmacy registries. Predictor was parent AUD. Outcomes were marriage and spouse AUD. Adjustments included offspring birth year and AUD; and parental education, marriage, divorce, criminal behavior and drug abuse. FINDINGS:Male and female offspring of AUD-affected parents were more likely to marry at younger ages (< 25), illustrative unadjusted hazard ratio (HR)age 20 = 1.22 (1.17, 1.28) and 1.34 (1.20, 1.39) and were less likely to marry at older ages (> 25), HRage 30 = 0.79 (0.78, 0.81) and 0.82 (0.81, 0.84). Parental AUD was associated with higher odds of having an affected spouse for males and females, odds ratio (OR) = 1.47 (1.38, 1.57) and 1.63 (1.56, 1.70). Effects were more pronounced for those with two versus one AUD-affected parent and adjustments attenuated effects negligibly. Daughters of affected mothers (versus fathers) were more likely to have AUD-affected husbands, OR = 1.68 (1.54, 1.84) versus 1.56 (1.48, 1.64), while there was no difference in sons. CONCLUSIONS:In Sweden, parental alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with a higher probability of marriage at younger ages, a lower probability of marriage at older ages and a higher likelihood of marriage to an affected spouse compared with no parental AUD. Most of these effects become stronger when the number of AUD-affected parents increases from one to two, and most effects hold after controlling for parents' socio-economic status, marital history, other externalizing disorders and offspring's own AUD status. Daughters of affected mothers are more likely to have an affected spouse.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We examined whether the role of maternal education in children's unhealthy snacking diet is moderated by other socio-economic indicators. METHODS:Participants were selected from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort, a large ongoing community-based birth cohort. Validated Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) (n = 2782) were filled in by mothers of children aged 5.7±0.5yrs. Based on these FFQs, a snacking dietary pattern was derived using Principal Component Analysis. Socio-economic indicators were: maternal and paternal education (low, middle, high; based on the highest education completed) household finance (low, high; based on ability to save money) and neighbourhood SES (composite score including educational level, household income and employment status of residents per postal code). Cross-sectional multivariable linear regression analysis was used to assess the association and possible moderation of maternal education and other socio-economic indicators on the snacking pattern score. Analyses were adjusted for children's age, sex and ethnicity. RESULTS:Low maternal education (B 0.95, 95% CI 0.83;1.06), low paternal education (B 0.36, 95% CI 0.20;0.52), lower household finance (B 0.18, 95% CI 0.11;0.26) and neighbourhood SES (B -0.09, 95% CI -0.11;-0.06) were independently associated with higher snacking pattern scores (p<0.001). The association between maternal education and the snacking pattern score was somewhat moderated by household finance (p = 0.089) but remained strong. Children from middle-high educated mothers (B 0.44, 95% CI 0.35;0.52) had higher snacking pattern scores when household finance was low (B 0.49, 95% CI 0.33;0.65). CONCLUSIONS:All socio-economic indicators were associated with increased risk of unhealthy dietary patterns in young children, with low maternal education conferring the highest risk. Yet, within the group of middle-high educated mothers, lower household finance was an extra risk factor for unhealthy dietary patterns. Intervention strategies should therefore focus on lower educated mothers and middle-high educated mothers with insufficient levels of household finance.
Project description:Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) is an important barrier hindering full immunisation coverage among eligible children. Though factors responsible for MOV are well documented in literature, little attention has been paid to the role of inequalities. The aim of this study is to examine the association between structural or compositional factors and education inequalities in MOV. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to explain the factors contributing to the average gap in missed opportunities for vaccination between uneducated and educated mothers in sub-Saharan Africa using DHS survey data from 35 sub Saharan African countries collected between 2007 and 2016. The sample contained 69,657 children aged 12 to 23 months. We observed a wide variation and inter-country differences in the prevalence of missed opportunity for vaccination across populations and geographical locations. Our results show that the prevalence of MOV in Zimbabwe among uneducated and educated mothers was 9% and 21% respectively while in Gabon corresponding numbers were 85% and 89% respectively. In 15 countries, MOV was significantly prevalent among children born to uneducated mothers (pro-illiterate inequality) while in 5 countries MOV was significantly prevalent among educated mothers (pro-educated inequality). Our results suggest that education-related inequalities in missed opportunities for vaccination are explained by compositional and structural characteristics; and that neighbourhood socio-economic status was the most important contributor to education-related inequalities across countries followed by either the presence of under-five children, media access or household wealth index. The results showed that differential effects such as neighbourhood socio-economic status, presence of under-five children, media access and household wealth index, primarily explained education-related inequality in MOV. Interventions to reduce gaps in education-related inequality in MOV should focus on social determinants of health.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Despite growing awareness that children's education benefits the health of older parents, the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are not well-understood. We investigated (a) the associations between children's education and biological functioning of parents, (b) psychosocial and behavioral factors that explain the associations, and (c) gendered patterns in the associations.<h4>Methods</h4>Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of older Taiwanese, we performed mediation analysis of the association between adult children's education and physiological dysregulation of their parents.<h4>Results</h4>Offspring's schooling is inversely associated with parental inflammation after controlling for parental socioeconomic status and baseline health. Parents who have well-educated children report higher social standing and life satisfaction, experience fewer stressful events, and are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors related to smoking and diet. These factors moderately attenuate the associations between children's education and parental inflammation. There is no conclusive evidence that mothers and fathers benefit differently from having well-educated children.<h4>Discussion</h4>Parents who devote family and personal resources to their offspring's schooling may have better biological profiles in later life. Well-educated children may promote their parents' wellbeing by strengthening perceived social status, reducing exposure to stressors, and encouraging a healthy lifestyle.
Project description:The changing demographic structure in India and worldwide accompanies with it a gamut of problems and opportunities. According to the Census of India, the proportion of elderly in the overall population rose from 5.6 per cent in 1961 to 8.6 per cent in 2011 and is expected to rise to 20 per cent in 2050. Considering the consequent growing challenges in healthcare the main aim of the study is to find essential determinants contributing to untreated morbidity among the elderly. Also, the paper examines treatment-seeking behaviour for infectious and chronic diseases among the elderly in India. Data from the 60th and 71st round of National Sample Survey Organization was used for the analysis. Relative differences were calculated along with logistic regression to study the objectives and the heckprobit model was used to carve out the treatment-seeking behaviour among the elderly in India. It was found that the overall decrease in relative decadal difference was 41% for untreated morbidity. In both the rounds, the elderly living below the poverty line had 42% and 50% more likelihood of untreated morbidities respectively in comparison to elderly not living below the poverty line. The study indicates that elderly who were living with a spouse in comparison to those living alone had less likelihood to have untreated morbidities. Also, elderly from rural areas and having lower levels of education had higher likelihood of untreated morbidity. Similar inequalities were observed in treatment-seeking behaviour as well, where it was found that elderly belonging to lower socio-economic status were less likely to seek treatment. Linking the results from the heckprobit model this study provides the evidence that social and economic factors play a significant role in affecting both untreated morbidity and treatment-seeking behaviour of elderly in India.
Project description:Past research shows that spousal death results in elevated mortality risk for the surviving spouse. However, most prior studies have inadequately controlled for socioeconomic status (SES), and it is unclear whether this 'widowhood effect' persists over time.Health and Retirement Study participants aged 50+ years and married in 1998 (n = 12 316) were followed through 2008 for widowhood status and mortality (2912 deaths). Discrete-time survival analysis was used to compare mortality for the widowed versus the married.Odds of mortality during the first 3 months post-widowhood were significantly higher than in the continuously married (odds ratio (OR) for men = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.75; OR for women = 1.47, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.24) in models adjusted for age, gender, race and baseline SES (education, household wealth and household income), behavioral risk factors and co-morbidities. Twelve months following bereavement, men experienced borderline elevated mortality (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.35), whereas women did not (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.28), though the gender difference was non-significant.The 'widowhood effect' was not fully explained by adjusting for pre-widowhood SES and particularly elevated within the first few months after widowhood. These associations did not differ by sex.
Project description:Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on daily fruit and vegetable consumption and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), with higher scores indicating better diet quality. Adult and childhood socio-economic measures included occupation/father's occupation, education and household amenities, which combined to create composite scores. Social relationships included social contact, living arrangements and marital status. Both childhood and adult socio-economic factors were independently associated with diet quality. Compared with non-manual social class, men of childhood manual social class were less likely to consume fruit and vegetables daily (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66, 0.97), as were men of adult manual social class (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79), and less likely to be in the top EDI quartile (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61, 0.88), similar to men of adult manual social class (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.79). Diet quality decreased with increasing adverse adult socio-economic scores; however, the association with adverse childhood socio-economic scores diminished with adult social class adjustment. A combined adverse childhood and adulthood socio-economic score was associated with poor diet quality. Diet quality was most favourable in married men and those not living alone, but was not associated with social contact. Diet quality in older men is influenced by childhood and adulthood socio-economic factors, marital status and living arrangements.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Psychological factors associated with low social status have been proposed as one possible explanation for the socio-economic gradient in health. The aim of this study is to explore whether different indicators of psychological distress contribute to socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality.<h4>Methods</h4>The data source is a nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional survey, "Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population" (AVTK). The survey results were linked with socio-economic register data from Statistics Finland (from the years 1979-2002) and mortality follow-up data up to 2006 from the Finnish National Cause of Death Register. The data included 32,451 men and 35,420 women (response rate 73.5%). Self-reported measures of depression, insomnia and stress were used as indicators of psychological distress. Socio-economic factors included education, employment status and household income. Mortality data consisted of unnatural causes of death (suicide, accidents and violence, and alcohol-related mortality) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios were calculated using the Cox regression model.<h4>Results</h4>In unnatural mortality, psychological distress accounted for some of the employment status (11-31%) and income level (4-16%) differences among both men and women, and for the differences related to the educational level (5-12%) among men; the educational level was associated statistically significantly with unnatural mortality only among men. Psychological distress had minor or no contribution to socio-economic differences in CHD mortality.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Psychological distress partly accounted for socio-economic disparities in unnatural mortality. Further studies are needed to explore the role and mechanisms of psychological distress associated with socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality.
Project description:The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1) a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2) behavior observation and mapping and (3) a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups.
Project description:AIMS:It is unclear if the presence of type-2 diabetes in one spouse is associated with the development of diabetes in the other spouse. We studied the concordance of diabetes among black and white participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and summarized existing studies in a meta-analysis. METHODS:We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of ARIC data from 8077 married men and women (mean age 54 years) without diabetes at baseline (1987-1989). Complementary log-log models that accounted for interval censoring was used to model the hazard ratio (HR) for the association of spousal diabetes status with the incidence of diabetes. For the meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for observational studies published through December 2018 that evaluated spousal concordance for diabetes. RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 22 years, 2512 incident cases of diabetes were recorded. In models with adjustment for general adiposity, spousal cardiometabolic factors and other diabetes risk factors, adults who had a spouse with diabetes had elevated risk for incident diabetes compared to those without a spouse diagnosed with diabetes (HR 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.41). This association did not differ by sex or race. Summarized estimates from the 17 studies (489,798 participants from 9 countries) included in the meta-analysis showed a positive association between spousal diabetes status and the development of diabetes (Pooled odds ratio 1.88, 95% CI 1.52-2.33). CONCLUSIONS:Results from this large prospective biracial cohort and meta-analysis provides evidence that spouses of persons with diabetes are a high-risk group for diabetes.