Chromium(III) and chromium(VI) release from leather during 8 months of simulated use.
ABSTRACT: Chromium (Cr) release from Cr-tanned leather articles is a major cause of Cr contact dermatitis. It has been suggested that Cr(VI) release from leather is not necessarily an intrinsic property of the leather, but is strongly dependent on environmental conditions.To test this hypothesis for long-term (8?months) simulated use.The release of total Cr and Cr(VI) from Cr-tanned, unfinished leather was analysed in subsequent phosphate buffer (pH?8.0) immersions for a period of 7.5?months. The effect of combined ultraviolet treatment and alkaline solution (pH?12.1) was tested. Dry storage [20% relative humidity (RH)] was maintained between immersions. Atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and diphenylcarbazide tests were used.Cr(VI) release was dependent on previous dry storage or alkaline treatment, but not on duration or number of previous immersions. Cr(III) release decreased with time. Fifty-two percent of the total Cr released during the last immersion period was Cr(VI). Cr(VI) release exceeded 9?mg/kg in all immersion periods except in the first 10-day immersion (2.6?mg/kg).Cr(VI) release is primarily determined by environmental factors (RH prior to immersion, solution pH, and antioxidant content). The RH should be kept low prior to testing Cr(VI) release from leather.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chromium (Cr) is a common skin sensitizer. The use of Cr(VI) in leather is restricted in the EU, but that of Cr(III) is not. OBJECTIVES:To assess whether prolonged exposure to Cr-tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release may elicit allergic contact dermatitis in Cr-allergic individuals. METHOD:Ten Cr-allergic subjects and 22 controls were patch tested with serial dilutions of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and with leather samples. They then conducted a use test with a Cr-tanned and a Cr-free leather bracelet over a period of 3?weeks, for 12?h per day. Cr deposited on the skin from the bracelets was measured in the controls, and the diphenylcarbazide test for Cr(VI) and extraction tests for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were conducted for the different leathers. RESULTS:Four of 10 Cr-allergic subjects developed positive reactions to the Cr-tanned bracelet within 7-21?days, whereas only 1 of 10 had a positive patch test reaction to this leather. Cr released from the Cr-tanned leather was most probably entirely Cr(III), with a quantifiable amount being deposited on the skin. CONCLUSIONS:This study strongly suggests that prolonged and repeated exposure to Cr-tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release is capable of eliciting allergic contact dermatitis in Cr-allergic individuals.
Project description:Approximately 1-3% of the adult population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). A new restriction in REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) based on the ISO 17075 standard has recently been adopted in the EU to limit Cr(VI) in consumer and occupational leather products.The aim of this study was to critically assess key experimental parameters in this standard on the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and their relevance for skin exposure.Four differently tanned, unfinished, leather samples were systematically investigated for their release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in relation to surface area, key exposure parameters, temperature, ultraviolet irradiation, and time.Although the total release of Cr was largely unaffected by all investigated parameters, except exposure duration and temperature, the Cr oxidation state was highly dynamic, with reduced amounts of released Cr(VI) with time, owing to the simultaneous release of reducing agents from the leather. Significantly more Cr(III) than Cr(VI) was released from the Cr-tanned leather for all conditions tested, and it continued to be released in artificial sweat up to at least 1 week of exposure.Several parameters were identified that influenced the outcome of the ISO 17075 test.
Project description:Approximately 1-3% of the adult population in Europe are allergic to chromium (Cr). A new restriction in Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) based on the ISO 17075 standard has recently been adopted in the EU to limit Cr(VI) in consumer and occupational leather products to < 3 mg/kg.To investigate the influence of storage conditions [relative humidity, temperature, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and duration] on Cr release, and to assess several parameters relevant for occupational exposure (repeated exposure, wear, alkaline solutions, and sequential wet and dry exposures).A leather of relevance for work gloves was investigated for its release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) under these different experimental conditions.Relative humidity (water content in leather) during storage prior to Cr extraction was the single most important parameter. Cr(VI) levels could vary from non-detectable to levels significantly exceeding the restriction limit, depending on the relative humidity. Leather contact with alkaline solution and UV irradiation during storage could increase the Cr(VI) levels in subsequent extractions.The amount of Cr(VI) in leather is not an intrinsic property, but is influenced by environmental conditions of relevance for occupations and skin exposure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], a potential mutagen and carcinogen, is regularly introduced into the environment through diverse anthropogenic activities, including electroplating, leather tanning, and pigment manufacturing. Human exposure to this toxic metal ion not only causes potential human health hazards but also affects other life forms. The World Health Organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Environmental Protection Agency have determined that Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens. The Sukinda valley in Jajpur District, Orissa, is known for its deposit of chromite ore, producing nearly 98% of the chromite ore in India and one of the prime open cast chromite ore mines in the world (CES, Orissa Newsletter). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Our investigation involved microbial remediation of Cr(VI) without producing any byproduct. Bacterial cultures tolerating high concentrations of Cr were isolated from the soil sample collected from the chromite-contaminated sites of Sukinda, and their bioaccumulation properties were investigated. Strains capable of growing at 250 mg/L Cr(VI) were considered as Cr resistant. RESULTS:The experimental investigation showed the maximum specific Cr uptake at pH 7 and temperature 30°C. At about 50 mg/L initial Cr(VI) concentrations, uptake of the selected potential strain exceeded 98% within 12 h of incubation. The bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Brevebacterium casei. CONCLUSION:Results indicated promising approach for microbial remediation of effluents containing elevated levels of Cr(VI).
Project description:The interconversion between Cr(VI), a pulmonary carcinogen, and Cr(III), an essential human nutrient, poses challenges to the measurement of Cr(VI) in airborne particles. Chamber and field tests were conducted to identify the factors affecting Cr(VI)-Cr(III) interconversion in the basic filter medium under typical sampling conditions. In the chamber tests, isotopically enriched (53)Cr(VI) and (50)Cr(III) were spiked on diesel particulate matter (DPM) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that were precollected on a basic MCE filter. The filter samples were then exposed to clean air or the air containing SO2 (50 and 160 ppb), 100 ppb O3, or 150 ppb NO2 for 24 h at 16.7 LPM flow rate at designated temperature (20 and 31 °C) and RH (40% and 70%) conditions. Exposure to 160 ppb SO2 had the greatest effect on (53)Cr(VI) reduction, with (53)Cr(VI) recovery of 31.7 ± 15.8% (DPM) and 42.0 ± 7.9% (SOA). DPM and SOA matrix induced (53)Cr(VI) reduction when exposed to clean air while reactive oxygen species in SOA could promote (50)Cr(III) oxidation. Deliquescence when RH increased from 40% to 70% led to conversion of Cr(III) in SOA, whereas oxidized organics in DPM and SOA enhanced hygroscopicity and thus facilitated Cr(VI) reduction. Field tests showed seasonal variation of Cr(VI)-Cr(III) interconversion during sampling. Correction of the interconversion using USEPA method 6800 is recommended to improve accuracy of ambient Cr(VI) measurements.
Project description:Chromium contamination has been an increasing threat to the environment and to human health. Cr(VI) and Cr(III) are the most common states of chromium. However, compared with Cr(III), Cr(VI) is more toxic and more easily absorbed, therefore, it is more harmful to human beings. Thus, the conversion of toxic Cr(VI) into Cr(III) is an accepted strategy for chromium detoxification. Here, we isolated two Bacillus cereus strains with a high chromium tolerance and reduction ability, named B. cereus D and 332, respectively. Both strains demonstrated a strong pH and temperature adaptability and survival under 8 mM Cr(VI). B. cereus D achieved 87.8% Cr(VI) removal in 24 h with an initial 2 mM Cr(VI). Cu(II) was found to increase the removal rate of Cr(VI) significantly. With the addition of 0.4 mM Cu(II), 99.9% of Cr(VI) in the culture was removed by B. cereus 332 in 24 h. This is the highest removal efficiency in the literature that we have seen to date. The immobilization experiments found that sodium alginate with diatomite was the better method for immobilization and B. cereus 332 was more efficient in immobilized cells. Our research provided valuable information and new, highly effective strains for the bioremediation of chromium pollution.
Project description:Hexavalent chromium-resistant Ochrobactrum intermedium BCR400 was isolated from chromium contaminated soil collected from Vadodara, Gujarat. It reduced 100 mg Cr(VI)/L completely in 52 h with initial Cr(VI) reduction rate of 1.98 mg/L/h. The Cr(VI) reduction rate decreased with increase in Cr(VI) concentration from 100 to 500 mg/L. The addition of anthraquinone-2-sulphonic acid (AQS) to culture O. intermedium BCR400 significantly enhanced its chromium reduction rate. The activation energy of AQS-mediated Cr(VI) reduction (120.69 KJ/mol) was 1.1-fold lower than non-mediated Cr(VI) reduction. An increase in the activities of quinone reductase and chromate reductase in cells grown in presence of AQS/AQS + Cr(VI) suggests their role in reduction of Cr(VI) by O. intermedium. Both chromate reductase and quinone reductase activities were FAD independent, required NADH as reductant, displayed maximum activity at pH (7.0) and temperature (30 °C). Thus Cr(VI) bioremediation potential of O. intermedium can be enhanced by augmentation of system with AQS as redox mediator.
Project description:Chromium is a potentially toxic metal occurring in water and groundwater as a result of natural and anthropogenic sources. Microbial interaction with mafic and ultramafic rocks together with geogenic processes release Cr (VI) in natural environment by chromite oxidation. Moreover, Cr (VI) pollution is largely related to several Cr (VI) industrial applications in the field of energy production, manufacturing of metals and chemicals, and subsequent waste and wastewater management. Chromium discharge in European Union (EU) waters is subjected to nationwide recommendations, which vary depending on the type of industry and receiving water body. Once in water, chromium mainly occurs in two oxidation states Cr (III) and Cr (VI) and related ion forms depending on pH values, redox potential, and presence of natural reducing agents. Public concerns with chromium are primarily related to hexavalent compounds owing to their toxic effects on humans, animals, plants, and microorganisms. Risks for human health range from skin irritation to DNA damages and cancer development, depending on dose, exposure level, and duration. Remediation strategies commonly used for Cr (VI) removal include physico-chemical and biological methods. This work critically presents their advantages and disadvantages, suggesting a site-specific and accurate evaluation for choosing the best available recovering technology.
Project description:Extensive use of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr had on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities. Soils from three spatially isolated tanning facilities in the Punjab province of Pakistan were analyzed. The structure, diversity and abundance of microbial 16S rRNA genes were highly influenced by the concentration and presence of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and arsenic. When compared to control soils, contaminated soils were dominated by Proteobacteria while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria (which are generally abundant in pristine soils) were minor components of the bacterial community. Shifts in community composition were significant and revealed that Cr (VI)-containing soils were more similar to each other than to As contaminated soils lacking Cr (VI). Diversity of the arsenic resistance genes, arsB and ACR3 were also determined. Results showed that ACR3 becomes less diverse as arsenic concentrations increase with a single OTU dominating at the highest concentration. Chronic exposure to either Cr or As not only alters the composition of the soil bacterial community in general, but affects the arsenic resistant individuals in different ways.
Project description:A method for grafting ethylenediamine to a magnetic graphene oxide composite (EDA-GO@Fe3O4) was developed for Cr(VI) decontamination. The physicochemical properties of EDA-GO@Fe3O4 were characterized using HRTEM, EDS, FT-IR, TG-DSC, and XPS. The effects of pH, sorbent dose, foreign anions, time, Cr(VI) concentration, and temperature on decontamination process were studied. The solution pH can largely affect the decontamination process. The pseudo-second-order model is suitable for being applied to fit the adsorption processes of Cr(VI) with GO@Fe3O4 and EDA-GO@Fe3O4. The intra-particle diffusion is not the rate-controlling step. Isotherm experimental data can be described using the Freundlich model. The effects of multiple factors on the Cr(VI) decontamination was investigated by a 25-1 fractional factorial design (FFD). The adsorption process can significantly be affected by the main effects of A (pH), B (Cr(VI) concentration), and E (Adsorbent dose). The combined factors of AB (pH × Cr(VI) concentration), AE (pH × Adsorbent dose), and BC (Cr(VI) concentration × Temperature) had larger effects than other factors on Cr(VI) removal. These results indicated that EDA-GO@Fe3O4 is a potential and suitable candidate for treatment of heavy metal wastewater.