Dynamics and Regulation of Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Islets from Normal Young Children.
ABSTRACT: Insulin secretion has only exceptionally been investigated in pancreatic islets from healthy young children. It remains unclear whether those islets behave like adult islets despite substantial differences in cellular composition and higher ?-cell replication rates. Islets were isolated from 5 infants/toddlers (11-36 month-old) and perifused to characterize their dynamics of insulin secretion when subjected to various stimuli and inhibitors. Their insulin responses were compared to those previously reported for similarly treated adult islets. Qualitatively, infant islets responded like adult islets to stimulation by glucose, tolbutamide, forskolin (to increase cAMP), arginine and the combination of leucine and glutamine, and to inhibition by diazoxide and CaCl2 omission. This similarity included the concentration-dependency and biphasic pattern of glucose-induced insulin secretion, the dynamics of the responses to non-glucose stimuli and metabolic amplification of these responses. The insulin content was not different, but fractional insulin secretion rates were lower in infant than adult islets irrespective of the stimulus. However, the stimulation index was similar because basal secretion rates were also lower in infant islets. In conclusion, human ?-cells are functionally mature by the age of one year, before expansion of their mass is complete. Their responsiveness (stimulation index) to all stimuli is not smaller than that of adult ?-cells. Yet, under basal and stimulated conditions, they secrete smaller proportions of their insulin stores in keeping with smaller in vivo insulin needs during infancy.
Project description:1. A method was devised for the isolation of islets of Langerhans from rabbit pancreas by collagenase digestion in order to study the influx and efflux of K(+) in islets during insulin secretion. 2. Glucose-induced insulin release was accompanied by an increased rate of uptake of (42)K(+) by the islets of Langerhans, though this was not the case for secretion in response to tolbutamide. Ouabain significantly inhibited the uptake of (42)K(+) by islet tissue. 3. No significant increase in the rate of efflux of (42)K(+) was demonstrated during active insulin secretion. 4. Slices of rabbit pancreas were incubated in media of different K(+) content, and rates of insulin release were determined. Alteration of the K(+) concentration of the medium between 3 and 8mm had no effect on the rate of insulin release by pancreas slices. However, decrease of the K(+) concentration to 1mm resulted in inhibition of secretion in response to both glucose and to tolbutamide. Conversely, an increase in K(+) concentration increased rates of insulin release in response to both these stimuli. 5. It is concluded that, though unphysiological concentrations of K(+) may influence the secretion of insulin, fluxes of K(+) in the islets do not appear to be important in the initiation of insulin secretion.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Because insulin is the main regulator of glucose homeostasis, quantitative models describing the dynamics of glucose-induced insulin secretion are of obvious interest. Here, a computational model is introduced that focuses not on organism-level concentrations, but on the quantitative modeling of local, cellular-level glucose-insulin dynamics by incorporating the detailed spatial distribution of the concentrations of interest within isolated avascular pancreatic islets. METHODS: All nutrient consumption and hormone release rates were assumed to follow Hill-type sigmoid dependences on local concentrations. Insulin secretion rates depend on both the glucose concentration and its time-gradient, resulting in second-and first-phase responses, respectively. Since hypoxia may also be an important limiting factor in avascular islets, oxygen and cell viability considerations were also built in by incorporating and extending our previous islet cell oxygen consumption model. A finite element method (FEM) framework is used to combine reactive rates with mass transport by convection and diffusion as well as fluid-mechanics. RESULTS: The model was calibrated using experimental results from dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIR) perifusion studies with isolated islets. Further optimization is still needed, but calculated insulin responses to stepwise increments in the incoming glucose concentration are in good agreement with existing experimental insulin release data characterizing glucose and oxygen dependence. The model makes possible the detailed description of the intraislet spatial distributions of insulin, glucose, and oxygen levels. In agreement with recent observations, modeling also suggests that smaller islets perform better when transplanted and/or encapsulated. CONCLUSIONS: An insulin secretion model was implemented by coupling local consumption and release rates to calculations of the spatial distributions of all species of interest. The resulting glucose-insulin control system fits in the general framework of a sigmoid proportional-integral-derivative controller, a generalized PID controller, more suitable for biological systems, which are always nonlinear due to the maximum response being limited. Because of the general framework of the implementation, simulations can be carried out for arbitrary geometries including cultured, perifused, transplanted, and encapsulated islets.
Project description:Observing different kinetics of nutrient-induced insulin secretion in fresh and cultured islets under the same condition we compared parameters of stimulus secretion coupling in freshly isolated and 22-h-cultured NMRI mouse islets. Stimulation of fresh islets with 30 mM glucose after perifusion without nutrient gave a continuously ascending secretion rate. In 22-h-cultured islets the same protocol produced a brisk first phase followed by a moderately elevated plateau, a pattern regarded to be typical for mouse islets. This was also the response of cultured islets to the nutrient secretagogue alpha-ketoisocaproic acid, whereas the secretion of fresh islets increased similarly fast but remained strongly elevated. The responses of fresh and cultured islets to purely depolarizing stimuli (tolbutamide or KCl), however, were closely similar. Signs of apoptosis and necrosis were rare in both preparations. In cultured islets, the glucose-induced rise of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration started from a lower value and was larger as was the increase of the ATP/ADP ratio. The prestimulatory level of mitochondrial reducing equivalents, expressed as the NAD(P)H/FAD fluorescence ratio, was lower in cultured islets, but increased more strongly than in fresh islets. When culture conditions were modified by replacing RPMI with Krebs-Ringer medium and FCS with BSA, the amount of released insulin varied widely, but the kinetics always showed a predominant first phase. In conclusion, the secretion kinetics of fresh mouse islets is more responsive to variations of nutrient stimulation than cultured islets. The more uniform kinetics of the latter may be caused by a different use of endogenous metabolites.
Project description:Addition of pyruvate to rat islets perifused in the presence of 5 mM-glucose elicited an immediate pronounced biphasic stimulation of insulin secretion. At lower concentrations of glucose (2.5 mM), only the initial, transient, phase of secretion was observed. Pyruvate inhibited 45Ca2+ efflux from islets at 2.5 mM-glucose and stimulated efflux at 5 mM-glucose. Pyruvate also decreased the rate of efflux of 86Rb+ from perifused islets. A marked stimulation of insulin secretion and 45Ca2+ efflux rate was observed in response to 3-fluoropyruvate and 3-bromopyruvate, compounds which inhibited oxidative metabolism of [14C]glucose and [14C]pyruvate in islets. The stimulatory effects of 3-fluoro- and 3-bromo-pyruvate were associated with enhanced 86Rb+ efflux. Withdrawal of pyruvate or halogenated analogues from the perfusate resulted in a secondary stimulation of insulin release, 45Ca2+ efflux and, to some extent, 86Rb+ efflux rates. Pyruvate, 3-fluoropyruvate and 3-bromopyruvate were all effective in promoting intracellular acidification and a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, as judged from fluorescence measurements in HIT-T15 cells loaded with 2',7'-biscarboxyethyl-5'(6')-carboxyfluorescein and Quin 2 respectively. It is proposed that oxidative metabolism of pyruvate is not a prerequisite for its stimulatory actions on pancreatic beta-cells. An alternative mechanism of activation by pyruvate and its halogenated derivatives is proposed, based on the possible electrogenic flux of these anions across the cell membrane.
Project description:Our understanding of the transcription factors that control the development and function of rodent islet beta cells is advancing rapidly, yet less is known of the role they play in similar processes in human islets.To characterise the abundance and regulation of key proteins involved in glucose-regulated insulin secretion in human islets, we examined the expression of MAFA, MAFB, GLUT2 (also known as SLC2A2), ?GK (also known as GCK) and PDX1 in isolated, highly purified human islets with an intact insulin secretory pattern. We also assessed these features in islets from two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and FVB).Compared with mouse islets, human islets secreted more insulin at baseline glucose (5.6 mmol/l), but less upon stimulation with high glucose (16.7 mmol/l) or high glucose plus 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine. Human islets had relatively more MAFB than PDX1 mRNA, while mouse islets had relatively more Pdx1 than Mafb mRNA. However, v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue (MAF) B protein was found in human islet alpha and beta cells. This is unusual as this regulator is only produced in islet alpha cells in adult mice. The expression of insulin, MAFA, ?GK and PDX1 was not glucose-regulated in human islets with an intact insulin secretory pattern.Our results suggest that human islets have a distinctive distribution and function of key regulators of the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion pathway, emphasising the urgent need to understand the processes that regulate human islet beta cell function.
Project description:The rate of insulin secretion from isolated rat islets of Langerhans was affected by a number of dihydropyridine derivatives known to interact with voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels in excitable cells. The channel antagonists nifedipine and nitrendipine were potent inhibitors of glucose-induced insulin secretion in response to both 8 mM- and 20 mM-glucose, although they did not lower the basal secretion rate observed in the presence of 4 mM-glucose. The Ca2+-channel agonist, CGP 28392, also failed to alter the basal rate of insulin secretion. In the presence of 8 mM-glucose, however, 1 microM-CGP 28392 enhanced the insulin-secretion rate to a value approximately double that with 8 mM-glucose alone. This effect was dose-dependent, with half the maximal response elicited by 0.1 microM-CGP 28392, and full enhancement at 10 microM. The response was rapid in onset, with an increase in insulin secretion evident within 2 min of CGP 28392 infusion in perifused islets. Stimulation of insulin secretion by CGP 28392 was correlated with a rapid enhancement of glucose-stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake into islets cells, and with a transiently increased rate of 45Ca2+ efflux from pre-loaded islets. Stimulation of insulin secretion by CGP 28392 was abolished in the presence of noradrenaline, although under these conditions the rapid stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx induced by CGP 28392 was only partially inhibited. In contrast with these results, when islets were incubated in the presence of 20 mM-glucose, CGP 28392 caused a dose-dependent inhibition of insulin secretion. Half-maximal inhibition required approx. 0.2 microM-CGP 28392, with maximal effects observed at 10 microM. Under these conditions, however, the extent of insulin secretion was still only decreased by about 50%, to a value which was similar to that seen in the presence of 8 mM-glucose and CGP 28392. These results suggest that dihydropyridine derivatives can alter the activity of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in islet cells, and are consistent with the possibility that gating of these channels plays an important role in regulating the rate of insulin secretion after glucose stimulation.
Project description:In pancreatic ?-cells, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) modulates insulin secretion, although its function regarding specific secretagogues is unclear. This study investigated the role of GDH using a ?-cell-specific GDH knockout mouse model, called ?Glud1(-/-). The absence of GDH in islets isolated from ?Glud1(-/-) mice resulted in abrogation of insulin release evoked by glutamine combined with 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid or l-leucine. Reintroduction of GDH in ?Glud1(-/-) islets fully restored the secretory response. Regarding glucose stimulation, insulin secretion in islets isolated from ?Glud1(-/-) mice exhibited half of the response measured in control islets. The amplifying pathway, tested at stimulatory glucose concentrations in the presence of KCl and diazoxide, was markedly inhibited in ?Glud1(-/-) islets. On glucose stimulation, net synthesis of glutamate from ?-ketoglutarate was impaired in GDH-deficient islets. Accordingly, glucose-induced elevation of glutamate levels observed in control islets was absent in ?Glud1(-/-) islets. Parallel biochemical pathways, namely alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, could not compensate for the lack of GDH. However, the secretory response to glucose was fully restored by the provision of cellular glutamate when ?Glud1(-/-) islets were exposed to dimethyl glutamate. This shows that permissive levels of glutamate are required for the full development of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and that GDH plays an indispensable role in this process.
Project description:Loss-of-function mutations of ?-cell KATP channels cause the most severe form of congenital hyperinsulinism (KATPHI). KATPHI is characterized by fasting and protein-induced hypoglycemia that is unresponsive to medical therapy. For a better understanding of the pathophysiology of KATPHI, we examined cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+] i ), insulin secretion, oxygen consumption, and [U-13C]glucose metabolism in islets isolated from the pancreases of children with KATPHI who required pancreatectomy. Basal [Ca2+] i and insulin secretion were higher in KATPHI islets compared with controls. Unlike controls, insulin secretion in KATPHI islets increased in response to amino acids but not to glucose. KATPHI islets have an increased basal rate of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial mass. [U-13C]glucose metabolism showed a twofold increase in alanine levels and sixfold increase in 13C enrichment of alanine in KATPHI islets, suggesting increased rates of glycolysis. KATPHI islets also exhibited increased serine/glycine and glutamine biosynthesis. In contrast, KATPHI islets had low ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and lacked 13C incorporation into GABA in response to glucose stimulation. The expression of key genes involved in these metabolic pathways was significantly different in KATPHI ?-cells compared with control, providing a mechanism for the observed changes. These findings demonstrate that the pathophysiology of KATPHI is complex, and they provide a framework for the identification of new potential therapeutic targets for this devastating condition.
Project description:Pancreatic ? cell function is compromised in diabetes and is typically assessed by measuring insulin secretion during glucose stimulation. Traditionally, measurement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion involves manual liquid handling, heterogeneous stimulus delivery, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays that require large numbers of islets and processing time. Though microfluidic devices have been developed to address some of these limitations, traditional methods for islet testing remain the most common due to the learning curve for adopting microfluidic devices and the incompatibility of most device materials with large-scale manufacturing. We designed and built a thermoplastic, microfluidic-based Islet on a Chip compatible with commercial fabrication methods, that automates islet loading, stimulation, and insulin sensing. Inspired by the perfusion of native islets by designated arterioles and capillaries, the chip delivers synchronized glucose pulses to islets positioned in parallel channels. By flowing suspensions of human cadaveric islets onto the chip, we confirmed automatic capture of islets. Fluorescent glucose tracking demonstrated that stimulus delivery was synchronized within a two-minute window independent of the presence or size of captured islets. Insulin secretion was continuously sensed by an automated, on-chip immunoassay and quantified by fluorescence anisotropy. By integrating scalable manufacturing materials, on-line, continuous insulin measurement, and precise spatiotemporal stimulation into an easy-to-use design, the Islet on a Chip should accelerate efforts to study and develop effective treatments for diabetes.
Project description:How glucose sensing by the nervous system impacts the regulation of ? cell mass and function during postnatal development and throughout adulthood is incompletely understood. Here, we studied mice with inactivation of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) in the nervous system (NG2KO mice). These mice displayed normal energy homeostasis but developed late-onset glucose intolerance due to reduced insulin secretion, which was precipitated by high-fat diet feeding. The ? cell mass of adult NG2KO mice was reduced compared with that of WT mice due to lower ? cell proliferation rates in NG2KO mice during the early postnatal period. The difference in proliferation between NG2KO and control islets was abolished by ganglionic blockade or by weaning the mice on a carbohydrate-free diet. In adult NG2KO mice, first-phase insulin secretion was lost, and these glucose-intolerant mice developed impaired glucagon secretion when fed a high-fat diet. Electrophysiological recordings showed reduced parasympathetic nerve activity in the basal state and no stimulation by glucose. Furthermore, sympathetic activity was also insensitive to glucose. Collectively, our data show that GLUT2-dependent control of parasympathetic activity defines a nervous system/endocrine pancreas axis that is critical for ? cell mass establishment in the postnatal period and for long-term maintenance of ? cell function.