IL-17 Promotes Angiogenic Factors IL-6, IL-8, and Vegf Production via Stat1 in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Inflammation and angiogenesis are two hallmarks of carcinoma. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) facilitates angiogenesis in lung cancer; however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, tumour microvessel density (MVD) was positively associated with IL-17, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and it was increased in tumour tissues of A549-IL-17 cell-bearing nude mice. Importantly, positive correlations were also detected between IL-17 expression and IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF production, as well as STAT1 phosphorylation, were increased in tumour tissues of A549-IL-17 cell-bearing nude mice in vivo and in A549 and H292 cells following IL-17 stimulation in vitro. In addition, STAT1 knockdown using an inhibitor and siRNA attenuated the IL-17-mediated increases in IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF expression in A549 and H292 cells. In conclusion, IL-17 may promote the production of the angiogenic inducers IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF via STAT1 signalling in lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Here we describe increased expression of IL6R in the tumoural region of lung tissue from patients affected by lung adenocarcinoma as compared to squamous cell lung carcinoma. Moreover, here we found increased IL6R in the tumour free part of the lung. By using a murine model of lung adenocarcinoma, we discovered that few lung tumour cells expressed IL-6R and CD4+CD25+Foxp-3+ T regulatory cells down-regulated IL-6R in the tumour bearing lungs. Downstream of IL-6R, the Th17 lineage-specification factors: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), Basic leucine zipper transcription factor, BATF and a protein encoded by the RORC in human (RAR-related orphan receptor C) (ROR?T), were also found induced in the tumoural region of lung tissue from patients affected by lung adenocarcinoma as compared to those carrying squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, pSTAT3 protein was found phosphorylated and auto-phosphorylated in the tumoural region of patients with adeno cell carcinoma of the lung as compared to the tumoural region of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Intranasal application of anti-IL-6R antibodies in a murine model of lung adenocarcinoma, induced T regulatory cell markers such as Foxp3, Ctla4, Icos, Il10, Il21, Folr4 and Lag3 and inhibited Rorc in lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:As an inflammatory factor, IL-25 has been studied in variouscancers, but it is rarely reported in cancer chemotherapy resistance. Major vault protein (MVP), as a gene associated with lung multidrug resistance, is associated with multiple chemotherapy resistances of lung cancer. However, the relationship between IL-25 and MVP in lung cancer cells has not been studied. In this study, we found that both IL-25 and MVP were elevated expressed in cisplatin-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549/CDDP). Silencing of IL-25 resulted in down-regulation of MVP expression and reduced cisplatin tolerance of A549/CDDP cells. Overexpression of IL-25 resulted in increase of MVP expression and the cisplatin tolerance in A549 cells. In addition, we found that the extracellular IL-25 could stimulate the expression of MVP and activate the NF-κB signaling pathway. Further, animal models also confirmed that IL-25 reduced the sensitivity of xenografts to chemotherapy. Taken together, we believe that the up-regulation of IL-25 induces MVP expression contributing to chemotherapy resistances of lung cancer cells. Our findings suggest that interference the expression of IL-25 might be potential treatment strategies for the clinical reversing the chemotherapy resistance.
Project description:Inhibition of protein synthesis may result in superinduction of short-lived transcripts and has been attributed variably to stabilization of transcripts and/or increased gene transcription. Little is known about the kinetics of these processes and relevant transcriptional elements have not been identified. In this study, we describe superinduction of interleukin 8 (IL-8) mRNA, an important inflammatory mediator, in lung epithelial-like H292 cells and identify the underlying molecular mechanisms and their kinetics. Cycloheximide (CHI, 10 microg/ml), an inhibitor of protein synthesis, maximally increased IL-8 mRNA levels 30-fold in H292 cells. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which induced IL-8 mRNA 3-fold, synergized with CHI causing a 150-fold increase at 6 h. CHI early on increased the stability of IL-8 mRNA (from 40 min in cells cultured with medium to more than 4 h with CHI). CHI also increased transcription as shown by transfection with IL-8 promoter constructs. Truncated and mutated constructs identified NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding sites as primary cis-acting elements in IL-8 gene transcription and IL-8 mRNA superinduction. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that CHI increased NF-kappaB and prolonged AP-1 DNA-binding activities and that the synergism of TNF-alpha and CHI on IL-8 mRNA expression was paralleled by a further increase of AP-1 DNA-binding activity. This synergism was still noticed when 4 h elapsed between the addition of CHI and that of TNF-alpha. Taken together, our results indicate that CHI interferes with both post-transcriptional and transcriptional repressive mechanisms of IL-8 mRNA expression.
Project description:Interleukin-27 signaling is mediated by the JAK-STAT pathway via activation of STAT1 and STAT3, which have tumor suppressive and oncogenic activities, respectively. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis are key processes in carcinogenesis. Although IL-27 has been shown to have potent anti-tumor activity in various cancer models, the role of IL-27 in EMT and angiogenesis is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-27 in regulating EMT and angiogenesis through modulation of the STAT pathways in human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells.STAT activation following IL-27 exposure was measured in human NSCLC cell lines. Expression of epithelial (E-cadherin, ?-catenin) and mesenchymal (N-cadherin, vimentin) markers were assessed by Western blot analysis. Production of pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF, IL-8/CXCL8, CXCL5) were examined by ELISA. Cell motility was examined by an in vitro scratch and transwell migration assays. Selective inhibitors of STAT1 (STAT1 siRNAs) and STAT3 (Stattic) were used to determine whether both STAT1 and STAT3 are required for IL-27 mediated inhibition of EMT and secretion of angiogenic factors.Our results demonstrate that IL-27 stimulation in NSCLC resulted in 1) STAT1 and STAT3 activation in a JAK-dependent manner, 2) development of epithelial phenotypes, including a decrease in the expression of a transcriptional repressor for E-cadherin (SNAIL), and mesenchymal marker (vimentin) with a reciprocal increase in the expression of epithelial markers, 3) inhibition of cell migration, and 4) reduced production of pro-angiogenic factors. STAT1 inhibition in IL-27-treated cells reversed the IL-27 effect with resultant increased expression of Snail, vimentin and the pro-angiogenic factors. The inhibition of STAT3 activation had no effect on the development of the epithelial phenotype.IL-27 induces mesenchymal to epithelial transition and inhibits the production of pro-angiogenic factors in a STAT1-dominant pathway. These findings highlight the importance of STAT1 in repressing lung carcinogenesis and describe a new anti-tumor mechanism of IL-27.
Project description:Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) plays an important role in lung cancer progression. Here, we examined the therapeutic efficacy of CEACAM6 gene silencing using an siRNA delivery platform targeting the acidic tumour microenvironment in a lung adenocarcinoma xenograft mouse model. An siRNA delivery vector was constructed by tethering the peptide nucleic acid form of an siRNA targeting CEACAM6 (siCEACAM6) to a peptide with a low pH-induced transmembrane structure (pHLIP) to transport siRNAs across the plasma membrane. Specific binding of the pHLIP-siCEACAM6 conjugate to A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells at low pH was demonstrated by flow cytometry. A549 cells incubated with pHLIP-siCEACAM6 at an acidic pH showed downregulated expression of endogenous CEACAM6 protein and reduced cell viability. The in vivo tumour-suppressing effects of pHLIP-siCEACAM6 in lung adenocarcinoma were assessed in a xenograft model generated by injecting BALB/c nude mice with A549 cells. pHLIP-siCEACAM6 treatment alone resulted in tumour growth inhibition of up to 35.5%. When combined with cisplatin treatment, pHLIP-siCEACAM6 markedly enhanced tumour growth inhibition by up to 47%. In conclusion, the delivery of siCEACAM6 to lung adenocarcinoma using the pHLIP peptide has therapeutic potential as a unique cancer treatment approach.
Project description:Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) mediates interferon gamma signaling which activates the expression of various genes related to apoptosis, inflammation, cell cycle and angiogenesis. Several experimental and clinical studies have investigated the role of STAT1 in primary tumor growth in breast cancer; however, its role in tumor metastasis remains to be determined. To determine the role of STAT1 in breast cancer metastasis, we analyzed growth and metastasis in WT or STAT1-/- mice orthotopically implanted with metastatic 4T1.2 cells. Primary tumor development was faster in STAT1-/- mice and these mice developed significantly bigger primary tumors and displayed more lung metastasis compared with WT counterparts. STAT1-/- mice showed elevated Ly6G+CD11b+ granulocytic MDSC infiltration in their primary tumors and spleens with concomitant upregulation of Mmp9 and Cxcl1 expression in tumors compared with WT counterparts. Blockade of IL-17A in primary tumor-bearing STAT1-/- mice suppressed accumulation of Ly6G+CD11b+ cells and markedly reduced lung metastasis. These data show that STAT1 is an important suppressor of primary breast tumor growth and metastasis. Importantly, we found anti-IL-17 treatment can rescue STAT1 deficient animals from developing exacerbated metastasis to the lungs which could be important for immunotherapies for immunocompromised breast cancer patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The human coagulation trigger tissue factor (TF) is overexpressed in several types of cancer and involved in tumor growth, vascularization, and metastasis. To explore the role of TF in biological processes of lung adenocarcinoma, we used RNA interference (RNAi) technology to silence TF in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 with high-level expression of TF and evaluate its antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. METHODS:The specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) designed for targeting human TF was transfected into A549 cells. The expression of TF was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT and clonogenic assays. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The metastatic potential of A549 cells was determined by wound healing, the mobility and Matrigel invasion assays. Expressions of PI3K/Akt, Erk1/2, VEGF and MMP-2/-9 in transfected cells were detected by Western blot. In vivo, the effect of TF-siRNA on the growth of A549 lung adenocarcinoma xenografts in nude mice was investigated. RESULTS:TF -siRNA significantly reduced the expression of TF in the mRNA and protein levels. The down-regulation of TF in A549 cells resulted in the suppression of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis and induced cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. Erk MAPK, PI3K/Akt pathways as well as VEGF and MMP-2/-9 expressions were inhibited in TF-siRNA transfected cells. Moreover, intratumoral injection of siRNA targeting TF suppressed the tumor growth of A549 cells in vivo model of lung adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS:Down-regulation of TF using siRNA could provide a potential approach for gene therapy against lung adenocarcinoma, and the antitumor effects may be associated with inhibition of Erk MAPK, PI3K/Akt pathways.
Project description:Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease (CMCD) may be caused by autosomal dominant (AD) IL-17F deficiency or autosomal recessive (AR) IL-17RA deficiency. Here, using whole-exome sequencing, we identified heterozygous germline mutations in STAT1 in 47 patients from 20 kindreds with AD CMCD. Previously described heterozygous STAT1 mutant alleles are loss-of-function and cause AD predisposition to mycobacterial disease caused by impaired STAT1-dependent cellular responses to IFN-γ. Other loss-of-function STAT1 alleles cause AR predisposition to intracellular bacterial and viral diseases, caused by impaired STAT1-dependent responses to IFN-α/β, IFN-γ, IFN-λ, and IL-27. In contrast, the 12 AD CMCD-inducing STAT1 mutant alleles described here are gain-of-function and increase STAT1-dependent cellular responses to these cytokines, and to cytokines that predominantly activate STAT3, such as IL-6 and IL-21. All of these mutations affect the coiled-coil domain and impair the nuclear dephosphorylation of activated STAT1, accounting for their gain-of-function and dominance. Stronger cellular responses to the STAT1-dependent IL-17 inhibitors IFN-α/β, IFN-γ, and IL-27, and stronger STAT1 activation in response to the STAT3-dependent IL-17 inducers IL-6 and IL-21, hinder the development of T cells producing IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22. Gain-of-function STAT1 alleles therefore cause AD CMCD by impairing IL-17 immunity.
Project description:Interleukin (IL)-17A producing CD4 T-cells (TH-17 cells) are implicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-6/STAT3 signalling drives TH-17 cell differentiation, and hyperactive gp130/STAT3 signalling in the gp130F/F mouse promotes exacerbated pathology. Conversely, STAT1-activating cytokines (eg, IL-27, IFN-?) inhibit TH-17 commitment. Here, we evaluate the impact of STAT1 ablation on TH-17 cells during experimental arthritis and relate this to IL-17A-associated pathology.Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) was established in wild type (WT), gp130F/F mice displaying hyperactive gp130-mediated STAT signalling and the compound mutants gp130F/F:Stat1-/- and gp130F/F:Il17a-/- mice. Joint pathology and associated peripheral TH-17 responses were compared.Augmented gp130/STAT3 signalling enhanced TH-17 commitment in vitro and exacerbated joint pathology. Ablation of STAT1 in gp130F/F mice (gp130F/F:Stat1-/-) promoted the hyperexpansion of TH-17 cells in vitro and in vivo during AIA. Despite this heightened peripheral TH-17 cell response, disease severity and the number of joint-infiltrating T-cells were comparable with that of WT mice. Thus, gp130-mediated STAT1 activity within the inflamed synovium controls T-cell trafficking and retention. To determine the contribution of IL-17A, we generated gp130F/F:IL-17a-/- mice. Here, loss of IL-17A had no impact on arthritis severity.Exacerbated gp130/STAT-driven disease in AIA is associated with an increase in joint infiltrating T-cells but synovial pathology is IL-17A independent.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been implicated in tumour progression, angiogenesis and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We speculated that inhibition of COX-2 activity might reduce expression of the pro-angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in lung cancer cells. METHODS: The levels of IL-8, VEGF and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured by ELISA. Expression of COX-1 and COX-2 was determined by Western blotting. Inhibition or knockdown of COX-2 was achieved by treating NSCLC cells with specific COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 or COX-2 siRNA, respectively. RESULTS: We found that NSCLC cell lines produced more IL-8 than VEGF (p < 0.001). In contrast, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines produced more VEGF than IL-8 (p < 0.001). COX-1 was expressed in all cell lines, but COX-2 was expressed only in NSCLC cell lines. Consistent with this, PGE2 was significantly higher in NSCLC cell lines than SCLC cell lines (p < 0.001). We tested these cell lines with a potent specific COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 at concentrations of 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20 microM for 24 or 48 h. The COX-2 activity was reduced in a dose-dependent fashion as shown by reduced PGE2 production. VEGF was significantly reduced following the treatment of NS-398 in A549 (by 31%) and MOR/P (by 47%) cells lines which expressing strong COX-2, but not in H460 cell line which expressing very low COX-2. However, IL-8 was not reduced in these cell lines. To confirm these results, we knocked down COX-2 expression with COX-2 siRNA in these cell lines. VEGF was significantly decreased in A549 (by 24%) and in MOR/P (by 53%), but not in H460 whereas IL-8 was not affected in any cell line. CONCLUSION: We conclude that NSCLC cells produce much higher levels of IL-8 than SCLC cells whereas both NSCLC and SCLC cells produce similar levels of VEGF. COX-2 is only expressed in NSCLC cells, but not in SCLC cells. VEGF is produced in both NSCLC and SCLC cells regardless of COX-2 expression. However, VEGF production is, at least partly, COX-2 dependent in NSCLC cells expressing COX-2. In contrast, IL-8 production is COX-2 independent in both NSCLC and SCLC cells. We speculate that combined targeting of COX-2 and IL-8 may be useful in the treatment of patients with NSCLC and targeting VEGF may be useful in the treatment of patients with SCLC.