Recent advances in simultaneous analysis of bisphenol A and its conjugates in human matrices: Exposure biomarker perspectives.
ABSTRACT: Human exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) has attained considerable global health attention and represents one of the leading environmental contaminants with potential adverse health effects including endocrine disruption. Current practice of measuring of exposure to BPA includes the measurement of unconjugated BPA (aglycone) and total (both conjugated and unconjugated) BPA; the difference between the two measurements leads to estimation of conjugated forms. However, the measurement of BPA as the end analyte leads to inaccurate estimates from potential interferences from background sources during sample collection and analysis. BPA glucuronides (BPAG) and sulfates (BPAS) represent better candidates for biomarkers of BPA exposure, since they require in vivo metabolism and are not prone to external contamination. In this work, the primary focus was to review the current state of the art in analytical methods available to quantitate BPA conjugates. The entire analytical procedure for the simultaneous extraction and detection of aglycone BPA and conjugates is covered, from sample pre-treatment, extraction, separation, ionization, and detection. Solid phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatograph and tandem mass spectrometer analysis provides the most sensitive detection and quantification of BPA conjugates. Discussed herein are the applications of BPA conjugates analysis in human exposure assessment studies. Measuring these potential biomarkers of BPA exposure has only recently become analytically feasible and there are limitations and challenges to overcome in biomonitoring studies.
Project description:Bisphenol A (BPA) risk assessment is hampered by the difficulty of determining the extent of internal exposure in the human fetus and uncertainties regarding BPA toxicokinetics (TK) in the maternal-fetal unit. A feto-maternal TK model describing BPA and BPA glucuronide (BPAG) disposition in sheep was humanized, using human TK data obtained after d6-BPA administration on a cookie, to predict BPA and BPAG kinetics in the human mother-fetus unit. Validation of the model predictions included the assessed dose proportionality of BPA and BPAG disposition and the similarity between the simulated and measured time courses of BPA and BPAG in fetal rhesus monkeys after BPA maternal dosing. The model predicted fluctuations in fetal BPA concentrations associated with typical maternal exposure to BPA through the diet, with similar trough (0.011?ng/L vs 0.014?ng/L) and lower peak BPA concentrations (0.023?ng/L vs 0.14?ng/L) in fetal than in maternal plasma. BPAG concentrations in fetal plasma were predicted to increase over time to reach a steady value (29?ng/L) reflecting the cumulative BPA dose received by the fetus. Model-predicted BPAG concentrations in fetal plasma are consistent with reported levels in human cord blood that may be considered as relevant markers of the BPA dose entering blood throughout fetal life.
Project description:Bisphenol A (BPA) was administered by gavage (2.5-300,000 ?g/kg body weight (bw)/day) to pregnant Sprague Dawley dams, newborn pups, and continuing into adulthood. Aglycone (i.e., unconjugated and active) and conjugated (i.e., inactive) BPA were evaluated by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES/MS/MS) in serum to better interpret toxicological endpoints measured in the study. Ethinyl estradiol (EE2, 0.5 and 5 ?g/kg bw/day) and the endogenous hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) and testosterone, were similarly evaluated. Mean BPA aglycone levels in vehicle and naïve control rat serum (0.02-0.5 ng/ml) indicated sample processing artifact, consistent with literature reports of a propensity for postexposure blood contamination by BPA. Direct measurements of BPA-glucuronide in vehicle and naïve control serum (2-10nM) indicated unintentional exposure and metabolism at levels similar to those produced by 2.5 ?g/kg bw/day BPA (7-10nM), despite careful attention to potential BPA inputs (diet, drinking water, vehicle, cages, bedding, and dust) and rigorous dosing solution certification and delivery. The source of this exposure could not be identified, but interpretation of the toxicological effects, observed only at the highest BPA doses, was not compromised. Internal exposures to BPA and EE2 aglycones were highest in young rats. When maximal serum concentrations from the two highest BPA doses and both EE2 doses were compared with concurrent levels of endogenous E2, the ER? binding equivalents were similar to or above those of endogenous E2 in male and female rats of all ages tested. Such evaluations of estrogenic internal dosimetry and comprehensive evaluation of contamination impact should aid in extrapolating risks from human BPA exposures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) are widespread. The current study addresses uncertainties regarding human pharmacokinetics of BPA. OBJECTIVE:To reduce uncertainties about the metabolism and excretion of BPA in humans following oral administration. METHODS:We exposed six men and eight women to 100 ?g/kg bw of deuterated BPA (d6-BPA) by oral administration and conducted blood and urine analysis over a three day period. The use of d6-BPA allowed administered d6-BPA to be distinguished from background native (unlabeled) BPA. We calculated the rate of oral absorption, serum elimination, half-life, area under the curve (AUC), urinary excretion, and metabolism to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. RESULTS:Mean serum total (unconjugated and conjugated) d6-BPA Cmax of 1711 nM (390 ng/ml) was observed at Tmax of 1.1 ± 0.50h. Unconjugated d6-BPA appeared in serum within 5-20 min of dosing with a mean Cmax of 6.5 nM (1.5 ng/ml) observed at Tmax of 1.3 ± 0.52 h. Detectable blood levels of unconjugated or total d6-BPA were observed at 48 h in some subjects at concentrations near the LOD (0.001-0.002 ng/ml). The half-times for terminal elimination of total d6-BPA and unconjugated d6-BPA were 6.4 ± 2.0 h and 6.2 ± 2.6h, respectively. Recovery of total administered d6-BPA in urine was 84-109%. Most subjects (10 of 14) excreted >90% as metabolites within 24h. CONCLUSIONS:Using more sensitive methods, our study expands the findings of other human oral pharmacokinetic studies. Conjugation reactions are rapid and nearly complete with unconjugated BPA comprising less than 1% of the total d6-BPA in blood at all times. Elimination of conjugates into urine largely occurs within 24h.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Bisphenol A (BPA) risk assessment is currently hindered by the rejection of reported higher-than-expected plasma BPA concentrations in humans after oral ingestion. These are deemed incompatible with the almost complete hepatic first-pass metabolism of BPA into its inactive glucurono-conjugated form, BPA glucuronide (BPAG).<h4>Objectives</h4>Using dogs as a valid model, we compared plasma concentrations of BPA over a 24-hr period after intravenous, orogastric, and sublingual administration in order to establish the absolute bioavailability of BPA administered sublingually and to compare it with oral bioavailability.<h4>Methods</h4>Six dogs were sublingually administered BPA at 0.05 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg. We compared the time course of plasma BPA concentrations with that obtained in the same dogs after intravenous administration of the same BPA doses and after a 20-mg/kg BPA dose administrated by orogastric gavage.<h4>Results</h4>The data indicated that the systemic bioavailability of BPA deposited sublingually was high (70-90%) and that BPA transmucosal absorption from the oral cavity led to much higher BPA internal exposure than obtained for BPA absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. The concentration ratio of BPAG to BPA in plasma was approximately 100-fold lower following sublingual administration than after orogastric dosing, distinguishing the two pathways of absorption.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings demonstrate that BPA can be efficiently and very rapidly absorbed through the oral mucosa after sublingual exposure. This efficient systemic entry route of BPA may lead to far higher BPA internal exposures than known for BPA absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.
Project description:PURPOSE:Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure may increase the risk of asthma. Genetic polymorphisms of oxidative stress-related genes, glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTP1), manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase may be related to BPA exposure. The aim is to evaluate whether oxidative stress genes modulates associations of BPA exposure with asthma. METHODS:We conducted a case-control study comprised of 126 asthmatic children and 327 controls. Urine Bisphenol A glucuronide (BPAG) levels were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and genetic variants were analyzed by a TaqMan assay. Information on asthma and environmental exposure was collected. Analyses of variance and logistic regressions were performed to determine the association of genotypes and urine BPAG levels with asthma. RESULTS:BPAG levels were significantly associated with asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.29 per log unit increase in concentration; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.081.55). Compared to the GG genotype, children with a GSTP1 AA genotype had higher urine BPAG concentrations (geometric mean [standard error], 12.72 [4.16] vs 11.42 [2.82]; P=0.036). In children with high BPAG, the GSTP1 AA genotype was related to a higher odds of asthma than the GG genotype (aOR, 4.84; 95% CI, 1.0223.06). CONCLUSIONS:GSTP1 variants are associated with urine BPA metabolite levels. Oxidative stress genes may modulate the effect of BPA exposure on asthma.
Project description:Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical used in numerous consumer products, resulting in universal exposure in the United States. Prenatal exposure to BPA is associated with numerous reproductive and developmental effects in animals. However, little is known about human fetal exposure or metabolism of BPA during midgestation. In the present study, we present a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to directly measure concentrations of BPA and two predominant metabolic conjugates-BPA glucuronide and BPA sulfate-in umbilical cord serum collected from elective second trimester pregnancy terminations. We detected at least one form of BPA in all umbilical cord serum samples: BPA (GM 0.16, range <LOD-52.26 ng/mL), BPA glucuronide (GM 0.14, range <LOD-5.41 ng/mL) and BPA sulfate (GM 0.32, range <LOD-12.65 ng/mL). Levels of BPA ranged from less than 1/100th to over 400 times higher than levels of BPA in conjugated form. Although levels of BPA in conjugated form exceeded BPA levels in about 3/4 of the samples, BPA levels were higher in samples with total BPA above the median. Our findings suggest universal fetal exposure to BPA in our study population, with some at relatively high levels, and we provide the first evidence of detectable BPA sulfate in midgestation fetuses.
Project description:Because of its widespread use in the manufacturing of consumer products over several decades, human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been pervasive. Fetuses are particularly sensitive to BPA exposure, with a number of negative developmental and reproductive outcomes observed in rodent perinatal models. Xenobiotic transporters are one mechanism to extrude conjugated and unconjugated BPA from the liver. In this study, the mRNA expression of xenobiotic transporters and relationships with total, conjugated, and free BPA levels were explored utilizing human fetal liver samples. The mRNA expression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance-associated transporter (MRP)4, as well as BCRP and multidrug resistance transporter 1 exhibited the highest degree of correlation, with r(2) values of 0.941 and 0.816 (P < 0.001 for both), respectively. Increasing concentrations of conjugated BPA significantly correlated with high expression of MRP1 (P < 0.001), MRP2 (P < 0.05), and MRP3 (P < 0.05) transporters, in addition to the NF-E2-related factor 2 transcription factor (P < 0.001) and its prototypical target gene, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (P < 0.001). These data demonstrate that xenobiotic transporters may be coordinately expressed in the human fetal liver. This is also the first report of a relationship between environmentally relevant fetal BPA levels and differences in the expression of transporters that can excrete the parent compound and its metabolites.
Project description:Predictions from physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models can help inform human health risk assessment for potentially toxic chemicals in the environment. Bisphenol S (BPS) is the second most abundant bisphenol detected in humans in the United States, after bisphenol A (BPA). We have recently demonstrated that BPS, much like BPA, can cross the placental barrier and disrupt placental function. Differences in physicochemical properties, toxicokinetics, and exposure outcomes between BPA and other bisphenols prevent direct extrapolation of existing BPA PBTK models to BPS. The current study aimed to develop pregnancy-specific PBTK (p-PBTK) models for BPA and BPS, using a common p-PBTK model structure. Novel paired maternal and fetal pregnancy data sets for total, unconjugated, and conjugated BPA and BPS plasma concentrations from three independent studies in pregnant sheep were used for model calibration. The nine-compartment (maternal blood, liver, kidney, fat, placenta and rest of body, and fetal liver, blood and rest of body) models simulated maternal and fetal experimental data for both BPA and BPS within one standard deviation for the majority of the experimental data points, highlighting the robustness of both models. Simulations were run to examine fetal exposure following daily maternal exposure to BPA or BPS at their tolerable daily intake dose over a two-week period. These predictive simulations show fetal accumulation of both bisphenols over time. Interestingly, the steady-state approximation following this dosing strategy achieved a fetal concentration of unconjugated BPA to levels observed in cord blood from human biomonitoring studies. These models advance our understanding of bisphenolic compound toxicokinetics during pregnancy and may be used as a quantitative comparison tool in future p-PBTK models for related chemicals.
Project description:1. A simple, rapid solvent partition method is described for isolation of conjugated bilirubin, free of unconjugated bilirubin, bile salts, phospholipids and cholesterol, from rat bile. Yields are 40-58%. The product is a phosphate-buffered solution containing approx. 0.4mg of bilirubin/ml, principally as mono- and di-glucuronide conjugates. The method may be modified for isolation of conjugates from human bile with 15-22% yield, and for preparation of unconjugated bilirubin from rat or human bile with yields of 55-62%. 2. The conjugated pigment has red-brown fluorescence and an absorption maximum at 450nm with in(mM) 59.8cm(-1). Diazotization by the Malloy-Evelyn method gives a direct Van den Bergh reaction (in water) 12% greater than the total reaction (in methanol), with in(total) 28.4x10(3)lmol(-1)cm(-1) at 550nm. After desalting by elution from Sephadex LH-20 in 50% (v/v) ethanol, the product gave water-soluble mustard-yellow crystalline needles. Such desalted conjugates were precipitated by Pb(2+) but not by Ba(2+), Ca(2+) or Zn(2+). 3. At pH7.0 and 37 degrees C the conjugated bilirubin was oxidized at a rate of 1%/h without hydrolysis, whereas 84% was hydrolysed by beta-glucuronidase or aqueous alkali. 4. Mono- and di-glucuronides were separated by elution from Sephadex LH-20 in 95% (v/v) ethanol or by extraction with chloroform at pH3.2-3.4. The monoconjugated bilirubin did not become labelled during incubation with unconjugated [(14)C]bilirubin, and chromatographed as a single spot without dissociating into unconjugated bilirubin and diglucuronide as would be expected of a complex. 5. After intravenous injection of mono- or di-conjugated [(14)C]bilirubin into normal or Gunn rats, 79-91% was excreted in bile and 2-7% in urine over 2h. In these experiments injected diglucuronide was not hydrolysed whereas 30-41% of injected monoglucuronide was converted into diglucuronide by the normal but not by the Gunn rats. The evidence favours the existence of a true bilirubin mono-glucuronide that is not a complex.
Project description:Environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) affects mammary gland development in rodents and primates. Prenatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of BPA increased the number of intraductal hyperplasias and ductal carcinomas in situ by 50 days of age in Wistar-Furth rats.We aimed to determine whether BPA exposure of dams during gestation only or throughout lactation affects the incidence of mammary gland neoplasia in female offspring.We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with BPA at 0, 0.25, 2.5, 25, or 250 ?g BPA/kg BW/day from gestational day (GD) 9 to birth and from GD9 to postnatal day (PND) 21. Mammary glands from BPA-exposed offspring were examined at four time points for preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. To assess circulating BPA levels, we exposed pregnant rats to vehicle or 250 ?g BPA/kg BW/day during gestation only or during gestation/lactation and analyzed sera from dams, fetuses, and nursing pups for total and unconjugated BPA.Total and unconjugated BPA were detected in sera from 100% of dams and fetuses and 33% of pups exposed to 250 ?g BPA/kg BW/day. Unconjugated BPA levels in exposed dams and fetuses (gestational) and in exposed dams and pups (gestational/lactational) were within levels found in humans. Preneoplastic lesions developed in BPA-exposed female offspring across all doses as early as PND50. Unexpectedly, mammary gland adenocarcinomas developed in BPA-exposed offspring by PND90.Our findings suggest that developmental exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BPA during gestation and lactation induces mammary gland neoplasms in the absence of any additional carcinogenic treatment. Thus, BPA may act as a complete mammary gland carcinogen.