Intake of 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone During Juvenile and Adolescent Stages Prevents Onset of Psychosis in Adult Offspring After Maternal Immune Activation.
ABSTRACT: Prenatal infection and subsequent abnormal neurodevelopment of offspring is involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high affinity receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling plays a key role in the neurodevelopment. Pregnant mice exposed to polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] causes schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities in their offspring at adulthood. Here we found that the juvenile offspring of poly(I:C)-treated mice showed cognitive deficits, as well as reduced BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Furthermore, the adult offspring of poly(I:C)-treated mice showed cognitive deficits, prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits, reduced BDNF-TrkB signaling, immunoreactivity of parvalbumin (PV) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) in the prelimbic (PrL) of medial PFC and CA1 of hippocampus. Supplementation of a TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (1?mg/mL in drinking water) during juvenile and adolescent stages could prevent these behavioral abnormalities, reduced BDNF-TrkB signaling in PFC and CA1, and immunoreactivity of PV and PGC-1? in the PrL of medial PFC and CA1 in the adult offspring from poly(I:C)-treated mice. These findings suggest that early intervention by a TrkB agonist in subjects with ultra-high risk for psychosis may reduce the risk of subsequent transition to schizophrenia.
Project description:Dysfunction of inhibitory neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), represented by decreased expression of GABA-related genes such as the 67 kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) and parvalbumin (PV), appears to contribute to cognitive deficits in subjects with schizophrenia. We investigated the involvement of signaling mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB in producing the altered GABA-related gene expression in schizophrenia. In 15 pairs of subjects with schizophrenia and matched control subjects, both BDNF and TrkB mRNA levels, as assessed by in situ hybridization, were significantly decreased in the PFC of the subjects with schizophrenia, whereas the levels of mRNA encoding the receptor tyrosine kinase for neurotrophin-3, TrkC, were unchanged. In this cohort, within-pair changes in TrkB mRNA levels were significantly correlated with those in both GAD67 and PV mRNA levels. Decreased BDNF, TrkB, and GAD67 mRNA levels were replicated in a second cohort of 12 subject pairs. In the combined cohorts, the correlation between within-pair changes in TrkB and GAD67 mRNA levels was significantly stronger than the correlation between the changes in BDNF and GAD67 mRNA levels. Neither BDNF nor TrkB mRNA levels were changed in the PFC of monkeys after a long-term exposure to haloperidol. Genetically introduced decreases in TrkB expression, but not in BDNF expression, also resulted in decreased GAD67 and PV mRNA levels in the PFC of adult mice; in addition, the cellular pattern of altered GAD67 mRNA expression paralleled that present in schizophrenia. Decreased TrkB signaling appears to underlie the dysfunction of inhibitory neurons in the PFC of subjects with schizophrenia.
Project description:Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), regulate long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus, although the sites of BDNF-TrkB receptors in this process are controversial. We used a viral-mediated approach to delete BDNF or TrkB specifically in CA1 and CA3 regions of the Schaffer collateral pathway. Deletion of BDNF in CA3 or CA1 revealed that presynaptic BDNF is involved in LTP induction, while postsynaptic BDNF contributes to LTP maintenance. Similarly, loss of presynaptic or postsynaptic TrkB receptors leads to distinct LTP deficits, with presynaptic TrkB required to maintain LTP, while postsynaptic TrkB is essential for LTP formation. In addition, loss of TrkB in CA3 significantly diminishes release probability, uncovering a role for presynaptic TrkB receptors in basal neurotransmission. Taken together, this direct comparison of presynaptic and postsynaptic BDNF-TrkB reveals insight into BDNF release and TrkB activation sites in hippocampal LTP.
Project description:The truncated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptors (truncated TrkB [TrkB-TK-] and sarc homology containing TrkB [TrkB-Shc]) are alternative transcripts of the full-length TrkB receptor (TrkB-TK+) that produce isoforms capable of binding to BDNF but not being able to mediate the classic neurotrophic response via tyrosine kinase signaling. We hypothesized that in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of people with schizophrenia, truncated TrkB receptors (TK- and Shc) would be altered and may contribute to deficits in BDNF function. Using a large cohort of controls and schizophrenics (n = 72/72), we measured mRNA expression of the full-length TrkB receptor, TrkB-TK+ and the truncated TrkB receptors, TrkB-TK- and TrkB-Shc, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and protein expression by western blotting. We found highly significant increases in mRNA expression of both truncated TrkB receptor isoforms in people with schizophrenia. When we examined the full-length TrkB-TK+:truncated TrkB ratios, we observed significant decreases in schizophrenia both on the mRNA and protein level. We found a slight reduction in TrkB-TK+ mRNA and a significant reduction in TrkB-TK+ protein expression in schizophrenia, which was evident in females. No gender-specific changes were found for the truncated TrkB receptors. Diagnostic changes in TrkB-TK+ mRNA and protein may be subtle and/or gender-specific, whereas changes in TrkB-TK- and TrkB-Shc expression are robust and may generalize to both males and females with schizophrenia. Increased truncated TrkB receptors may contribute to reduced overall BDNF/tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling and lead to reduced neuronal plasticity in the DLPFC in schizophrenia suggesting that therapies aimed at ameliorating neurotrophin deficits may need to consider blocking excessive truncated TrkB function.
Project description:Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are two signaling molecules that have important regulatory roles in the development and plasticity of neural circuits that are known to be altered in depression. However, the mechanism by which 5-HT regulates BDNF signaling is unknown. In the present study, we found that 5-HT treatment increases BDNF receptor, TrkB (tropomyosin related kinase B), levels in mouse primary cortical neurons via a Rac1 (RAS-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1)-dependent mechanism. Significant increases in the levels of type-2 transglutaminase (TG2, which is implicated in transamidation of 5-HT to Rac1) are observed in the mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC) following chronic exposure to stress. We also found that TG2 levels are increased in the post-mortem PFC of depressed suicide subjects relative to matched controls. Moreover, in mice, neuronal overexpression of TG2 resulted in the atrophy of neurons and reduced levels of TrkB in the PFC as well as a depressive-like phenotype. Overexpression of TG2 in mouse cortical neurons reduced TrkB levels as a result of impaired endocytosis of TrkB. TG2 inhibition by either a viral particle or pharmacological approach attenuated behavioral deficits caused by chronic unpredictable stress. Moreover, the overexpression of TrkB in the mouse PFC ameliorated the depressive-like phenotype of TG2-overexpressed mice. Taken together, these post-mortem and preclinical findings identify TG2 as a critical mediator of the altered TrkB expression and depressive-like behaviors associated with chronic exposure to stress and suggest that TG2 may represent a novel therapeutic target in depression.
Project description:Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring. In rodents, maternal immune activation (MIA) yields offspring with schizophrenia- and ASD-like behavioral abnormalities. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in inflammation associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we found higher levels of sEH in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of juvenile offspring after MIA. Oxylipin analysis showed decreased levels of epoxy fatty acids in the PFC of juvenile offspring after MIA, supporting increased activity of sEH in the PFC of juvenile offspring. Furthermore, expression of sEH (or EPHX2) mRNA in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurospheres from schizophrenia patients with the 22q11.2 deletion was higher than that of healthy controls. Moreover, the expression of EPHX2 mRNA in postmortem brain samples (Brodmann area 9 and 40) from ASD patients was higher than that of controls. Treatment with 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl)urea (TPPU), a potent sEH inhibitor, in juvenile offspring from prenatal day (P) 28 to P56 could prevent cognitive deficits and loss of parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in the medial PFC of adult offspring after MIA. In addition, dosing of TPPU to pregnant mothers from E5 to P21 could prevent cognitive deficits, and social interaction deficits and PV immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex of juvenile offspring after MIA. These findings suggest that increased activity of sEH in the PFC plays a key role in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring after MIA. Therefore, sEH represents a promising prophylactic or therapeutic target for neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring after MIA.
Project description:Activity-dependent gene transcription, including that of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene, has been implicated in various cognitive functions. We previously demonstrated that mutant mice with selective disruption of activity-dependent BDNF expression (BDNF-KIV mice) exhibit deficits in GABA-mediated inhibition in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we show that disruption of activity-dependent BDNF expression impairs BDNF-dependent late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in CA1, a site of hippocampal output to the PFC. Interestingly, early-phase LTP and conventional L-LTP induced by strong tetanic stimulation were completely normal in BDNF-KIV mice. In parallel, attenuation of activity-dependent BDNF expression significantly impairs spatial memory reversal and contextual memory extinction, two executive functions that require intact hippocampal-PFC circuitry. In contrast, spatial and contextual memory per se were not affected. Thus, activity-dependent BDNF expression in the hippocampus and PFC may contribute to cognitive and behavioral flexibility. These results suggest distinct roles for different forms of L-LTP and provide a link between activity-dependent BDNF expression and behavioral perseverance, a hallmark of several psychiatric disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase receptor (trkB-TK+) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) mRNA levels have previously been found to be reduced in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. To determine whether this reduction extends to other brain regions, we measured the expression levels of BDNF, trkB-TK+ and GAD67 mRNA in regions of the hippocampus, including the dentate gyrus (DG), cornu ammonis subfields (CA1-4), subiculum and entorhinal cortex (EC) of individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and unaffected controls. METHODS: In situ hybridization was performed on postmortem brain tissue obtained from the Stanley Foundation Consortium and analyzed using film-based quantification. RESULTS: Analyses of covariance comparing the expression of mRNA among all groups revealed a significant decrease in BDNF mRNA in CA4 in the bipolar disorder group compared with controls (33%). We found trkB-TK+ mRNA levels to be significantly reduced in CA4 in the schizophrenia group (36%) and in layer II of the EC in the bipolar disorder and major depression groups (28%, 21%, respectively) compared with controls. In addition, GAD67 mRNA levels were reduced in patients with schizophrenia in both the DG (23%) and CA4 (60%) compared with controls. Individuals with major depression also expressed significantly less GAD67 mRNA (44%) compared with controls in CA4 of the hippocampus. LIMITATIONS: It is necessary to account for factors that influence the molecular preservation in postmortem brain tissue, including pH, postmortem interval and tissue storage time. Moreover, there are limitations to the sensitivity of the film-based method of quantification. CONCLUSION: Our findings show abnormal BDNF, trkB-TK+ and GAD67 mRNA expression in the hippocampus of individuals with schizophrenia and mood disorders, indicating that fundamental properties of hippocampal signalling transmission, plasticity and circuitry may be affected in individuals with these major mental illnesses.
Project description:Models of relapse have demonstrated that neuroadaptations in reward circuits following cocaine self-administration (SA) underlie reinstatement of drug-seeking. Dysregulation of the pathway from the prelimbic (PrL) cortex to the nucleus accumbens is implicated in reinstatement. A single BDNF infusion into the PrL cortex following a final cocaine SA session results in attenuation of reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. Inhibiting BDNF's receptor, TrkB, ERK/MAP kinase activation, or NMDA receptors blocks this attenuating effect, indicating that the interaction between glutamate-mediated synaptic activity and TrkB signaling is imperative to BDNF's suppressive effect on drug-seeking. Src family kinases (SFKs) are involved in both NMDA-mediated activation of TrkB- and TrkB-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptors. We hypothesized that infusion of the SFK inhibitor, PP2, into the PrL cortex prior to a BDNF infusion, immediately after the end of the last cocaine SA session, would block BDNF's ability to suppress reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in rats with a cocaine SA history. PP2, but not the negative control, PP3, blocked BDNF's suppressive effect on context-induced relapse after 1 week of abstinence and cue-induced reinstatement after extinction. As previously reported, infusion of BDNF into the PrL cortex blocked cocaine SA-induced dephosphorylation of ERK, GluN2A, and GluN2B-containing receptors. Inhibition of SFKs using PP2 blocked BDNF-mediated phosphorylation of GluN2A, GluN2B, and ERK. These data indicate that SFK activity is necessary for BDNF-mediated suppression of cocaine-seeking and reversal of cocaine-induced dephosphorylation of key phosphoproteins in the prefrontal cortex related to synaptic plasticity.
Project description:Transcription of Bdnf is controlled by multiple promoters, which drive expression of multiple transcripts encoding for the same protein. Promoter IV contributes significantly to activity-dependent brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcription. We have generated promoter IV mutant mice (BDNF-KIV) by inserting a GFP-STOP cassette within the Bdnf exon IV locus. This genetic manipulation results in disruption of promoter IV-mediated Bdnf expression. BDNF-KIV animals exhibited significant deficits in GABAergic interneurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), particularly those expressing parvalbumin, a subtype implicated in executive function and schizophrenia. Moreover, disruption of promoter IV-driven Bdnf transcription impaired inhibitory but not excitatory synaptic transmission recorded from layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC. The attenuation of GABAergic inputs resulted in an aberrant appearance of spike-timing-dependent synaptic potentiation (STDP) in PFC slices derived from BDNF-KIV, but not wild-type littermates. These results demonstrate the importance of promoter IV-dependent Bdnf transcription in GABAergic function and reveal an unexpected regulation of STDP in the PFC by BDNF.
Project description:Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability.