FBXO10 deficiency and BTK activation upregulate BCL2 expression in mantle cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: Targeting Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) by ibrutinib is an effective treatment for patients with relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). However, both primary and acquired resistance to ibrutinib have developed in a significant number of these patients. A combinatory strategy targeting multiple oncogenic pathways is critical to enhance the efficacy of ibrutinib. Here, we focus on the BCL2 anti-apoptotic pathway. In a tissue microarray of 62 MCL samples, BCL2 expression positively correlated with BTK expression. Increased levels of BCL2 were shown to be due to a defect in protein degradation because of no or little expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXO10, as well as transcriptional upregulation through BTK-mediated canonical nuclear factor-?B activation. RNA-seq analysis confirmed that a set of anti-apoptotic genes (for example, BCL2, BCL-XL and DAD1) was downregulated by BTK short hairpin RNA. The downregulated genes also included those that are critical for B-cell growth and proliferation, such as BCL6, MYC, PIK3CA and BAFF-R. Targeting BCL2 by the specific inhibitor ABT-199 synergized with ibrutinib in inhibiting growth of both ibrutinib-sensitive and -resistant cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest co-targeting of BTK and BCL2 as a new therapeutic strategy in MCL, especially for patients with primary resistance to ibrutinib.
Project description:To determine the global transcriptome changes in mantle cell lymphoma cells following treatment with the BET bromodomain antagonist, JQ1 Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) cells exhibit increased B cell receptor and NFkB activities. The BET protein BRD4 is essential for the transcriptional activity of NFkB. Here, we demonstrate that treatment with the BET protein bromodomain antagonist (BA) JQ1 attenuates MYC and CDK4/6, inhibits the nuclear RelA levels and the expression of NFκB target genes including Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) in MCL cells. While lowering the levels of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 family proteins, BA treatment induces the pro-apoptotic protein BIM and exerts dose-dependent lethality against cultured and primary MCL cells. Co-treatment with BA and the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib synergistically induces apoptosis of MCL cells. Compared to each agent alone, co-treatment with BA and ibrutinib markedly improved the median survival of mice engrafted with the MCL cells. BA treatment also induced apoptosis of the in vitro isolated, ibrutinib-resistant MCL cells which overexpress CDK6, BCL2, Bcl-xL, XIAP and AKT, but lack ibrutinib resistance-conferring BTK mutation. Co-treatment with BA and panobinostat (pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor) or palbociclib (CDK4/6 inhibitor) or ABT-199 (BCL2 antagonist) synergistically induced apoptosis of the ibrutinib-resistant MCL cells. These findings highlight and support further in vivo evaluation of the efficacy of the BA-based combinations with these agents against MCL, including ibrutinib-resistant MCL. MO2058 cells treated with vehicle, 250 nM or 1000 nM JQ1 for 8 hours. Samples were acquired and analyzed in duplicate.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aggressive form of Mantle cell non-hodgkin B cell lymphoma (MCL) has a dismal prognosis. Dual targeting BTK and BCL2 with ibrutinib and venetoclax has improved outcomes in MCL patients who were predicted not to respond to conventional therapy, but it is unlikely to be curative. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR T) cells exhibit very effective function in elimination of relapsed/refractory B-cell lymphoid malignancies, we investigated their use in a patient with relapsed MCL. CASE PRESENTATION:Here, we report a case of a refractory MCL in a patient who had relapsed after conventional chemotherapy and autologous CAR T cell therapy. The patient received multiple molecularly targeted therapies, including targeting BTK and BCL2, and haplo-identical CAR T (haplo-CAR T) cells from her daughter without previous allo-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Haplo-CAR T cells could effectively proliferate in vivo and had a clinically significant antitumor activity without serious side effects. The patient achieved a partial remission, with minimal residual disease. CONCLUSIONS:This case suggests that haplo-CAR T cell therapy can be effective in controlling lymphoma that failed to respond to autologous CAR T cell therapy and overcome limitation of autologous CAR T cells, thus may be one possible regimen before the era of off-the-shelf "universal" CAR T cell therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ChiCTR-OPN-16008526. http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=13798 ; ChiCTR1800019385. http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=32805 ; ChiCTR1800019449. http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=32778 .
Project description:Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is intricately involved in anti-apoptotic signaling pathways in cancer and in regulating innate immune response. A number of Btk inhibitors are in development for use in treating B-cell malignancies and certain immunologic diseases. To develop robust companion imaging diagnostics for in vivo use, we set out to explore the effects of red wavelength fluorochrome modifications of two highly potent irreversible Btk inhibitors, Ibrutinib and AVL-292. Surprisingly, we found that subtle chemical differences in the fluorochrome had considerable effects on target localization. Based on iterative designs, we developed a single optimized version with superb in vivo imaging characteristics enabling single cell Btk imaging in vivo. This agent (Ibrutinib-SiR-COOH) is expected to be a valuable chemical tool in deciphering Btk biology in cancer and host cells in vivo.
Project description:Pediatric and adult patients with recurrent/refractory Burkitt lymphoma (BL) continue to have poor outcomes, emphasizing the need for newer therapeutic agents. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is activated following B-cell receptor stimulation and in part regulates normal B-cell development. Ibrutinib, a selective and irreversible BTK inhibitor, has been efficacious in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, and marginal zone lymphoma. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of ibrutinib alone and in selective adjuvant combinations against BL in-vitro and in a human BL xenografted immune-deficient NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) mouse model. Our data demonstrated that phospho-BTK level was significantly reduced in BL cells treated with ibrutinib (p < 0.001). Moreover, we observed a significant decrease in cell proliferation as well as significant decrease in IC50 of ibrutinib in combination with dexamethasone, rituximab, obinutuzumab, carfilzomib, and doxorubicin (p < 0.001). In-vivo studies demonstrated ibrutinib treated mice had a significantly prolonged survival with median survival of mice following ibrutinib treatment (32 days) (24 days) (p < 0.02). In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the significant in-vitro and preclinical in-vivo effects of ibrutinib in BL. Based on our preclinical results in this investigation, there is an on-going clinical trial comparing overall survival in children and adolescents with relapsed/refractory BL treated with chemoimmunotherapy with or without ibrutinib (NCT02703272).
Project description:Targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) with the small molecule BTK inhibitor ibrutinib has significantly improved patient outcomes in several B-cell malignancies, with minimal toxicity. Given the reported expression and constitutive activation of BTK in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, there has been recent interest in investigating the anti-AML activity of ibrutinib. We noted that ibrutinib had limited single-agent toxicity in a panel of AML cell lines and primary AML samples, and therefore sought to identify ibrutinib-sensitizing drugs. Using a high-throughput combination chemical screen, we identified that the poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) inhibitor ethacridine lactate synergized with ibrutinib in TEX and OCI-AML2 leukemia cell lines. The combination of ibrutinib and ethacridine induced a synergistic increase in reactive oxygen species that was functionally important to explain the observed cell death. Interestingly, synergistic cytotoxicity of ibrutinib and ethacridine was independent of the inhibitory effect of ibrutinib against BTK, as knockdown of BTK did not sensitize TEX and OCI-AML2 cells to ethacridine treatment. Thus, our findings indicate that ibrutinib may have a BTK-independent role in AML and that PARG inhibitors may have utility as part of a combination therapy for this disease.
Project description:Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma with poor prognosis due to drug resistance. Introduction of the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib has markedly improved MCL therapy outcome, but drug resistance remains a challenge. The selective cell-surface expression of oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) pseudokinase in hematological malignancies has made this receptor a promising candidate for targeted therapy. We sought to identify the molecular mechanism underlying divergent ROR1-mediated apoptotic responses in MCL cell lines and primary samples. We show that targeting ROR1 expression resulted in downregulation of NF-?B p65 levels and that activation of the NF-?B pathway can antagonize ROR1-mediated apoptotic responses. High-throughput drug-sensitivity testing of MCL cells before and after ROR1 targeting revealed synergistic effects between cotargeting of ROR1 and the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) or Bcl-2 family, underlining the high potential for ROR1-targeted therapies in overcoming MCL drug resistance. However, inhibition of the BCR pathway by targeted drugs such as ibrutinib can impair ROR1 expression and consequently ROR1-targeted treatments, underscoring the importance of inhibiting both pathways to augment cancer cell killing. Considering the central role of NF-?B pathway activation in B-cell malignancies, this study highlights key factors that can modulate ROR1-targeted treatments in hematological cancers.
Project description:Small molecule inhibitors targeting dysregulated pathways (RAS/RAF/MEK, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, JAK/STAT) have significantly improved clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Recently Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a crucial terminal kinase enzyme in the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling pathway, has emerged as an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in human malignancies and autoimmune disorders. Ibrutinib, a novel first-in-human BTK-inhibitor, has demonstrated clinical effectiveness and tolerability in early clinical trials and has progressed into phase III trials. However, additional research is necessary to identify the optimal dosing schedule, as well as patients most likely to benefit from BTK inhibition. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical development of ibrutinib and other novel BTK inhibitors (GDC-0834, CGI-560, CGI-1746, HM-71224, CC-292, and ONO-4059, CNX-774, LFM-A13) in the treatment of B-cell malignancies and autoimmune disorders.
Project description:Mantle cell lymphoma (mcl) is a rare subtype of aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that remains incurable with standard therapy. Patients typically require multiple lines of therapy, and those with relapsed or refractory (r/r) disease have a very poor prognosis. The Bruton tyrosine kinase (btk) inhibitor ibrutinib has proven to be an effective agent for patients with r/r mcl. Although usually well tolerated, ibrutinib can be associated with unique toxicities, requiring discontinuation in some patients. Effective and well-tolerated alternatives to ibrutinib for patients with r/r mcl are therefore needed. Novel btk inhibitors such as acalabrutinib, zanubrutinib, and tirabrutinib are designed to improve on the safety and efficacy of first-generation btk inhibitors such as ibrutinib. Data from single-arm clinical trials suggest that, compared with ibrutinib, second-generation btk inhibitors have comparable efficacy and might have a more favourable toxicity profile. Those newer btk inhibitors might therefore provide a viable treatment option for patients with r/r mcl.
Project description:Recent data suggest that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is an emerging therapeutic target in IgE receptor (IgER)-cross-linked basophils.We examined the effects of four BTK inhibitors (ibrutinib, dasatinib, AVL-292, and CNX-774) on IgE-dependent activation and histamine release in blood basophils obtained from allergic patients (n=11) and nonallergic donors (n=5). In addition, we examined the effects of these drugs on the growth of the human basophil cell line KU812 and the human mast cell line HMC-1.All four BTK blockers were found to inhibit anti-IgE-induced histamine release from basophils in nonallergic subjects and allergen-induced histamine liberation from basophils in allergic donors. Drug effects on allergen-induced histamine release were dose dependent, with IC50 values ranging between 0.001 and 0.5 ?mol/L, and the following rank order of potency: ibrutinib>AVL-292>dasatinib>CNX-774. The basophil-targeting effect of ibrutinib was confirmed by demonstrating that IgE-dependent histamine release in ex vivo blood basophils is largely suppressed in a leukemia patient treated with ibrutinib. Dasatinib and ibrutinib were also found to counteract anti-IgE-induced and allergen-induced upregulation of CD13, CD63, CD164, and CD203c on basophils, whereas AVL-292 and CNX-774 showed no significant effects. Whereas dasatinib and CNX-774 were found to inhibit the growth of HMC-1 cells and KU812 cells, no substantial effects were seen with ibrutinib or AVL-292.BTK-targeting drugs are potent inhibitors of IgE-dependent histamine release in human basophils. The clinical value of BTK inhibition in the context of allergic diseases remains to be determined.