Aberrant IgA1 Glycosylation in IgA Nephropathy: A Systematic Review.
ABSTRACT: Galactose-deficient IgA1 was evaluated in patients with IgA nephropathy(IgAN) and controls in order to determine the predictive value of galactose-deficient IgA1 in cases of IgA nephropathy.PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, CNKI, CBM disc, and VIP database were searched to identify eligible studies that evaluated a difference in aberrant IgA1 glycosylation in IgAN patients compared with controls. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of galactose-deficient IgA1(Gd-IgA1) levels in different groups.A total of 22 studies (n = 1657) met inclusion criteria. The mean Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) score was 7.2 and ranged from 6 to 8. The standard mean difference(SMD) in the meta-analysis of 20 studies of the level of Gd-IgA1 in the serum and/or supernatant of cultured cells was higher in the IgAN group compared with healthy controls as well as in those with other renal diseases (SMD = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.18-2.34, P<0.00001; SMD = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.05-2.04, P = 0.04). The data synthesis suggested that IgAN patients had similar levels of serum Gd-IgA1, with no significant differences, compared with first-degree relatives and Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) patients (MD = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.00-0.08, P = 0.05; MD = -46.03, 95% CI = -217.70-125.64, P = 0.60). In addition, the combined MD of 5 studies indicated that there were no significant differences in Gd-IgA1 levels among patients with varying severities of IgAN (MD = 0.02, 95% CI = -0.02-0.05, P = 0.28).The pooled evidence suggests that the level of Gd-IgA1 in the serum or supernatant of cultured cells from peripheral blood or tonsils may be a useful biomarker for predicting IgA nephropathy, though the level of Gd-IgA1 was not significantly associated with disease severity.
Project description:This study was aimed at investigating the clinical significance of serum galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) levels measured by a novel lectin-independent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using an anti-Gd-IgA1 monoclonal antibody (KM55) as a disease-specific biomarker for IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in children. Thirty-three children with IgAN, 40 with non-IgA glomerular diseases, and 38 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Serum Gd-IgA1 levels were quantified by ELISA using KM55. Results were statistically compared with clinical features and pathological findings of IgAN. Serum Gd-IgA1 levels were significantly elevated in children with IgAN compared with children with non-IgA glomerular diseases and HCs. Serum Gd-IgA1 levels in children with IgAN were positively correlated with serum total IgA levels. However, the serum Gd-IgA1/total IgA ratio (Gd-IgA1/IgA) was also significantly elevated in children with IgAN. Serum Gd-IgA1 levels in children with IgAN increased in an age-dependent manner. The cutoff value of serum Gd-IgA1 levels for differentiating IgAN from non-IgA glomerular diseases was 3236 in children < 12?years and 5284 in children ? 12?years, respectively. In contrast, serum Gd-IgA1/IgA was age-independent. The cutoff value of serum Gd-IgA1/IgA for differentiating IgAN from non-IgA glomerular diseases was 0.2401. Serum Gd-IgA1 levels were negatively correlated with eGFR and positively correlated with mesangial IgA deposition. In contrast, serum Gd-IgA1/IgA levels were not correlated with any clinical parameters of IgAN. In conclusion, serum Gd-IgA1 levels were significantly elevated in children with IgAN. However, those levels were age-dependent; therefore, serum Gd-IgA1 levels classified by age and/or serum Gd-IgA1/IgA might have diagnostic values in children with IgAN.
Project description:Introduction:Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) and related IgA/IgG immune complexes have been identified as the key drivers in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, their roles in the development of secondary IgAN are still unknown. Methods:In this study, we measured the plasma Gd-IgA1 level, IgA/IgG complex, and Gd-IgA1 glomerular deposits in 100 patients with various kinds of secondary IgAN. Plasma Gd-IgA1 was measured using a lectin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Gd-IgA1 in glomerular deposits was examined by double immunofluorescent staining using its specific monoclonal antibody KM55. Results:Patients with secondary IgAN presented with higher plasma Gd-IgA1 levels compared to healthy controls (median, 354.61 U/ml; interquartile range [IQR], 323.93, 395.57 U/ml vs. median, 303.17 U/ml; IQR, 282.24, 337.92 U/ml, P < 0.001) or patients with other kidney diseases (median, 314.61 U/ml; IQR, 278.97, 343.55 U/ml, P < 0.001). A similar trend was observed in plasma IgA/IgG immune complexes or IgA1. There were no differences between secondary and primary IgAN in plasma Gd-IgA1 levels (median, 378.54 U/ml; IQR, 315.96, 398.33 U/ml, P = 0.700) and IgA1-IgG complex levels (median, 18.76 U/ml; IQR, 14.51, 22.83 U/ml vs. median, 19.11 U/ml; IQR, 13.21, 22.37 U/ml, P = 0.888). Co-localized IgA1 and Gd-IgA1 of both secondary and primary IgAN indicated that they both share the feature of Gd-IgA1 deposits on the glomerular mesangium. Conclusion:Our study strongly suggests that secondary IgAN shares a similar galactose-deficient IgA1-oriented pathogenesis with primary IgAN.
Project description:In patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), circulatory IgA1 and IgA1 in mesangial deposits contain elevated amounts of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1). We hypothesized that a fraction of Gd-IgA1 from the glomerular deposits and/or circulation may be excreted into the urine and thus represent a disease-specific biomarker. Levels of urinary IgA and Gd-IgA1 were determined in 207 patients with IgAN, 205 patients with other renal diseases, and 57 healthy controls, recruited in USA, Japan, and Italy. Urinary IgA was similarly elevated in patients with IgAN and renal-disease controls compared with healthy controls. However, urinary Gd-IgA1 levels were higher in patients with IgAN (IgAN, 28.0 ± 17.9; disease controls, 20.6 ± 17.4 units/mg urinary creatinine; P < 0.0001). Lectin western blotting data confirmed these results. In IgAN patients, levels of urinary Gd-IgA1 correlated with proteinuria (P < 0.001). When we purified IgA from serum and urine of an IgAN patient, the relative proportion of Gd-IgA1 to total IgA1 was higher in the urine compared with serum, suggesting selective excretion of Gd-IgA1 in IgAN. In summary, urinary excretion of Gd-IgA1 was elevated in patients with IgAN and the urinary Gd-IgA1 levels correlated with proteinuria. Urinary Gd-IgA1 may thus represent a disease-specific biomarker of IgAN.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) is a critical pathogenic factor for IgA nephropathy (IgAN), but its value as a disease-specific biomarker remains controversial. We aimed to clarify the clinical significance of Gd-IgA1 in patients with IgAN. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed 111 patients who were diagnosed with IgAN based on the findings of renal biopsies (RB) at Showa University Hospital since 2007. Serum Gd-IgA1 (s-Gd-IgA1) at the time of RB was compared among 111 IgAN patients, 18 Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) patients, 29 lupus nephritis (LN) patients, 28 ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients, and 13 minimal change disease (MCD) patients using ELISA with an anti-human Gd-IgA1-specific monoclonal antibody (KM55). We also immunohistochemically stained paraffin-embedded sections for mesangial Gd-IgA1 (m-Gd-IgA1) deposition using KM55. RESULTS:Although levels of s-Gd-IgA1 were comparable among IgAN and HSPN, s-Gd-IgA1 levels were significantly elevated in patients with IgAN compared with LN, AAV and MCD (IgAN vs. HSPN, LN, AAV, and MCD: 16.2 ± 9.1 vs. 14.2 ± 10.8, p = 0.263; 12.7 ± 9.4, p = 0.008; 13.1 ± 7.3, p = 0.059; and 8.2 ± 4.8 ?g/mL, p<0.001, respectively). Mesangial-Gd-IgA1 deposition was specifically detected in IgAN or HSPN. The increase in s-Gd-IgA1 significantly correlated with m-Gd-IgA1 positivity in patients with IgAN, and s-Gd-IgA1 elevation and m-Gd-IgA1 deposition were evident in patients with histopathologically advanced IgAN. Moreover, s-Gd-IgA1 levels were significantly higher in IgAN patients with glomerular sclerosis and tubulo-interstitial lesions. Mesangial-Gd-IgA1 intensity negatively correlated with eGFR in IgAN. Multivariate analysis selected s-Gd-IgA1 elevation as a significant risk factor for a 30%-reduction in eGFR in IgAN (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.02-1.89; p = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS:Although IgAN and HSPN remain difficult to differentiate, s-Gd-IgA1 elevation and m-Gd-IgA1 deposition are reliable diagnostic factors that reflect IgAN severity. Serum-Gd-IgA1 could serve as a predictor of renal outcomes in IgAN. Thus, Gd-IgA1 could be significant biomarker for patients with IgAN.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>There is increasing evidence that galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) and Gd-IgA1-containing immune complexes are important for the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). In the present study, we assessed a novel noninvasive multi-biomarker approach in the diagnostic test for IgAN.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We compared serum levels of IgA, IgG, Gd-IgA1, Gd-IgA1-specific IgG and Gd-IgA1-specific IgA in 135 IgAN patients, 79 patients with non-IgAN chronic kidney disease (CKD) controls and 106 healthy controls. Serum was collected at the time of kidney biopsy from all IgAN and CKD patients.<h4>Results</h4>Each serum marker was significantly elevated in IgAN patients compared to CKD (P<0.001) and healthy controls (P<0.001). While 41% of IgAN patients had elevated serum Gd-IgA1 levels, 91% of these patients exhibited Gd-IgA1-specific IgG levels above the 90th percentile for healthy controls (sensitivity 89%, specificity 92%). Although up to 25% of CKD controls, particularly those with immune-mediated glomerular diseases including lupus nephritis, also had elevated serum levels of Gd-IgA1-specific IgG, most IgAN patients had elevated levels of Gd-IgA1-specific antibody of both isotypes. Serum levels of Gd-IgA1-specific IgG were associated with renal histological grading. Furthermore, there was a trend toward higher serum levels of Gd-IgA1-specific IgG in IgAN patients with at least moderate proteinuria (?1.0 g/g), compared to patients with less proteinuria.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Serum levels of Gd-IgA1-specific antibodies are elevated in most IgAN patients, and their assessment, together with serum levels of Gd-IgA1, improves the specificity of the assays. Our observations suggest that a panel of serum biomarkers may be helpful in differentiating IgAN from other glomerular diseases.
Project description:Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) plays a crucial role in the development of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, the pathogenic mechanisms driving Gd-IgA1 production have not been fully elucidated. Innate-immune activation via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is known to be involved in Gd-IgA1 production. A proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) and IL-6 are also known to enhance Gd-IgA1 synthesis in IgAN. With this as background, we investigated how TLR9 activation in IgA secreting cells results in overproduction of nephritogenic IgA in the IgAN-prone ddY mouse and in human IgA1-secreting cells. Injection of the TLR9 ligand CpG-oligonucleotides increased production of aberrantly glycosylated IgA and IgG-IgA immune complexes in ddY mice that, in turn, exacerbated kidney injury. CpG-oligonucleotide-stimulated mice had elevated serum levels of APRIL that correlated with those of aberrantly glycosylated IgA and IgG-IgA immune complexes. In vitro, TLR9 activation enhanced production of the nephritogenic IgA as well as APRIL and IL-6 in splenocytes of ddY mice and in human IgA1-secreting cells. However, siRNA knock-down of APRIL completely suppressed overproduction of Gd-IgA1 induced by IL-6. Neutralization of IL-6 decreased CpG-oligonucleotide-induced overproduction of Gd-IgA1. Furthermore, APRIL and IL-6 pathways each independently mediated TLR9-induced overproduction of Gd-IgA1. Thus, TLR9 activation enhanced synthesis of aberrantly glycosylated IgA that, in a mouse model of IgAN, further enhanced kidney injury. Hence, APRIL and IL-6 synergistically, as well as independently, enhance synthesis of Gd-IgA1.
Project description:A prognostic biomarker for IgA nephropathy (IgAN) recurrence after renal transplant is lacking. We followed 96 consecutive first renal transplant recipients with native kidney IgAN (79 men; 92 deceased donors; mean age =48.1 years) on calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression over 10 years for death, allograft failure, and clinicopathologic recurrence (CPR; clinically evident and biopsy-proven). Using time-dependent Cox regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves, we assessed prognostic significance of levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1; autoantigen) and Gd-IgA1-specific IgG and IgA autoantibodies in serum obtained at time of transplant or native-kidney IgAN diagnosis (30 patients only). Overall, 13 patients died, 34 kidneys failed (17 due to CPR), and 34 patients developed CPR after a mean interval of 5.8 years. Compared with healthy controls (n=30), patients had significantly elevated serum Gd-IgA1 levels at diagnosis and transplant, but levels did not associate with any outcome. Patients also had significantly elevated levels of normalized (but not total) serum Gd-IgA1-specific IgG autoantibodies at diagnosis and transplant, and the level at transplant associated with higher risk of CPR (relative risk, 2.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 5.71; P=0.01; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.74; P=0.05). Normalized Gd-IgA1-specific IgG autoantibody level remained an independent risk factor for CPR in multivariate analysis. Serum Gd-IgA1-specific IgA autoantibody level did not change between diagnosis and transplant or predict outcome. This study emphasizes post-transplant prognostic value of normalized serum IgG antiglycan autoantibody level in patients with IgAN.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Recent studies noted that Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN) share the feature of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1)-oriented pathogenesis, although there are distinct clinical differences. We aimed to clarify the clinicopathologic differences between these 2 diseases. METHODS:We cross-sectionally analyzed adult patients with HSPN (n = 24) or IgAN (n = 56) who underwent renal biopsy (RB) between 2008 and 2018 at Showa University Hospital. Serum Gd-IgA1 (s-Gd-IgA1) levels at the time of RB were compared among study groups using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with anti-human Gd-IgA1-specific monoclonal antibody (KM55). We also immunohistochemically stained paraffin-embedded sections for glomerular Gd-IgA1 (g-Gd-IgA1)-deposition using KM55. Serum inflammatory cytokines were measured using ELISA. RESULTS:Glomerular endothelial injury with subendothelial IgA deposition was significant in patients with HSPN. Serum IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-?, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with HSPN than IgAN. Levels of s-Gd-IgA1 were comparable among patients with HSPN and IgAN, and a similar degree of g-Gd-IgA1-deposition was detected in both diseases. Furthermore, g-Gd-IgA1-deposition was evident in patients with histopathologically advanced HSPN or IgAN. In HSPN, significant positive correlations between s-Gd-IgA1 levels and crescent formation or IL-6 elevation were confirmed, and g-Gd-IgA1 intensity showed a significant positive correlation with MCP-1 and a tendency to positively correlate with IL-8. Meanwhile, patients with IgAN showed no correlation between inflammatory cytokines and both-Gd-IgA1. Moreover, most g-Gd-IgA1-positive areas were not double stained with CD31 in HSPN. CONCLUSIONS:Although assessing both-Gd-IgA1 alone was insufficient to distinguish between HSPN and IgAN, patients with HSPN showed considerable glomerular capillaritis with subendothelial IgA deposition and significant elevation of serum inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, such glomerular subendothelial IgA deposition might not contain Gd-IgA1, and factors associated with Gd-IgA1 were inconsistent among these 2 diseases. Thus, developmental mechanisms for IgAN might not apply to HSPN completely, and these 2 diseases still have different aspects.
Project description:Serum galactose-deficient immunoglobulin A1 (Gd-IgA1) is an inherited risk factor for adult IgA nephropathy (IgAN). In this paper, we determined the heritability of serum Gd-IgA1 levels in children with IgAN and Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN), two disorders with clinical phenotypes sharing common pathogenic mechanisms. Serum Gd-IgA1 concentrations were quantified using a Helix aspersa-lectin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As a group, 34 children with either disorder (20 with HSPN and 14 with IgAN) had significantly higher Gd-IgA1 levels compared with 51 age- and ethnicity-matched pediatric controls. Serum levels of Gd-IgA1 were also elevated in a large fraction of 54 first-degree relatives of pediatric IgAN and HSPN patients compared with 141 unrelated healthy adult controls. A unilineal transmission of the trait was found in 17, bilineal transmission in 1, and sporadic occurrence in 5 of 23 families when both parents and the patient were analyzed. There was a significant age-, gender-, and household-adjusted heritability of serum galactose-deficient IgA1 estimated at 76% in pediatric IgAN and at 64% in HSPN patients. Thus, serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels are highly inherited in pediatric patients with IgAN and HSPN, providing support for another shared pathogenic link between these disorders.
Project description:Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) plays a crucial role in the development of Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), however, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms driving Gd-IgA1 production in B cells are not well understood. In this study, RNA-seq analysis identified 337 down-regulated and 405 up-regulated genes in B cells from 17 patients with IgAN and 6 healthy controls. Among them, ST6Gal1, which was associated with IgAN in a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS), was up-regulated in IgAN and significantly positive correlated with elevated Gd-IgA1. In addition, we identified increased plasma ST6Gal1 levels in 100 patients with IgAN, which were associated with higher levels of proteinuria, plasma IgA, Gd-IgA1 levels, greater degrees of systemic complement activation including C3a, Bb, C4d, MAC and a lower proportion classified as C2 grade (crescent proportion ?25%). Interesting, in vitro, recombinant ST6Gal1 (rST6Gal1) exposure reduced the production of Gd-IgA1 in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from IgAN patients. rST6Gal1 stimuli also increased expression of C1GALT1, which were well-known proportional to the decrease in galactose deficiency of IgA1. In conclusions, we identified increased plasma ST6Gal1 levels and the association of ST6Gal1 with disease severity of IgAN. Additionally, rST6Gal1 administration in vitro increased expression of C1GALT1 and reduced the production of Gd-IgA1.