Risk factors for pulmonary cavitation in tuberculosis patients from China.
ABSTRACT: Pulmonary cavitation is one of the most frequently observed clinical characteristics in tuberculosis (TB). The objective of this study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated with cavitary TB in China. A total of 385 smear-positive patients were enrolled in the study, including 192 (49.9%) patients with cavitation as determined by radiographic findings. Statistical analysis revealed that the distribution of patients with diabetes in the cavitary group was significantly higher than that in the non-cavitary group (adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)):12.08 (5.75-25.35), P<0.001). Similarly, we also found that the proportion of individuals with multidrug-resistant TB in the cavitary group was also higher than that in the non-cavitary group (adjusted OR (95% CI): 2.48 (1.52-4.07), P<0.001). Of the 385 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, 330 strains (85.7%) were classified as the Beijing genotype, which included 260 strains that belonged to the modern Beijing sublineage and 70 to the ancient Beijing sublineage. In addition, there were 80 and 31 strains belonging to large and small clusters, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that cavitary disease was observed more frequently among the large clusters than the small clusters (P=0.037). In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that diabetes and multidrug resistance are risk factors associated with cavitary TB. In addition, there was no significant difference in the cavitary presentation between patients infected with the Beijing genotype strains and those infected with the non-Beijing genotype strains.
Project description:Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (lineage 2) have been associated with drug-resistance and transmission of tuberculosis worldwide. Most of the Beijing strains identified in the Colombian Pacific coast have exhibited a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype. We sought to evaluate the clonality and sublineage of Beijing strains circulating in Southwestern Colombia. Thirty-seven Beijing strains were identified through spoligotyping out of 311 clinical isolates collected in 9 years from 2002-2010. Further analysis by MIRU-VNTR 24 loci was conducted for the Beijing strains. For sublineage classification, deletions of RD105, RD207, and RD131 and point mutations at fbpB, mutT2, and acs were evaluated. Drug-resistance associated mutations to first- and second-line anti-TB drugs were also evaluated. Additionally, two Beijing strains were Illumina-whole genome sequenced (one MDR and one drug-susceptible). Among the 37 Beijing strains characterized, 36 belonged to the SIT190 type from which 28 were MDR, four pre-extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB, and four XDR-TB. The remaining strain was SIT1 and drug susceptible. MIRU-VNTR analysis allowed the identification of three Beijing clusters and two unique strains. Beijing strains were confirmed as "modern" sublineage. The mutations rpoB S531L and katG S315T were the most common among MDR strains. Moreover, the two strains evaluated by whole genome sequencing (WGS) shared most of the genetic features with the sublineage 2.2.1 "modern" Beijing previously characterized from Asian strains. WGS analysis of the MDR strain revealed the presence of eight SNPs previously reported in other MDR "Beijing-like" strains from Colombia. The presence of "modern" Beijing strains in Southwestern Colombia, most of them with MDR phenotype, suggests a different origin of this M. tuberculosis sublineage compared to other Beijing strains found in neighboring South American countries. This work may serve as a genetic baseline to study the evolution and spread of M. tuberculosis Beijing strains in Colombia, which play an important role in the propagation of MDR-TB.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Drug resistant (DR) and multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is increasing worldwide. In some parts of the world 10% or more of new TB cases are MDR. The Beijing genotype is a distinct genetic lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is distributed worldwide, and has caused large outbreaks of MDR-TB. It has been proposed that certain lineages of M. tuberculosis, such as the Beijing lineage, may have specific adaptive advantages. We have investigated the presence and transmission of DR Beijing strains in the Swedish population.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>All DR M. tuberculosis complex isolates between 1994 and 2008 were studied. Isolates that were of Beijing genotype were investigated for specific resistance mutations and phylogenetic markers. Seventy (13%) of 536 DR strains were of Beijing genotype. The majority of the patients with Beijing strains were foreign born, and their country of origin reflects the countries where the Beijing genotype is most prevalent. Multidrug-resistance was significantly more common in Beijing strains than in non-Beijing strains. There was a correlation between the Beijing genotype and specific resistance mutations in the katG gene, the mabA-inhA-promotor and the rpoB gene. By a combined use of RD deletions, spoligotyping, IS1547, mutT gene polymorphism and Rv3135 gene analysis the Beijing strains could be divided into 11 genomic sublineages. Of the patients with Beijing strains 28 (41%) were found in altogether 10 clusters (2-5 per cluster), as defined by RFLP IS6110, while 52% of the patients with non-Beijing strains were in clusters. By 24 loci MIRU-VNTR 31 (45%) of the patients with Beijing strains were found in altogether 7 clusters (2-11 per cluster). Contact tracing established possible epidemiological linkage between only two patients with Beijing strains.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Although extensive outbreaks with non-Beijing TB strains have occurred in Sweden, Beijing strains have not taken hold, in spite of the proximity to high prevalence countries such as Russia and the Baltic countries. The Beijing sublineages so far introduced in Sweden may not be adapted to spread in the Scandinavian population.
Project description:The Beijing genotype is a lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is distributed worldwide and responsible for large epidemics, associated with multidrug-resistance. However, its distribution in Africa is less understood due to the lack of data. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and possible transmission of Beijing strains in Mozambique by a multivariate analysis of genotypic, geographic and demographic data. A total of 543 M. tuberculosis isolates from Mozambique were spoligotyped. Of these, 33 were of the Beijing lineage. The genetic relationship between the Beijing isolates were studied by identification of genomic deletions within some Regions of Difference (RD), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetivie Unit - variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR). Beijing strains from South Africa, representing different sublineages were included as reference strains. The association between Beijing genotype, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) serology and baseline demographic data was investigated. HIV positive serostatus was significantly (p=0.023) more common in patients with Beijing strains than in patients with non-Beijing strains in a multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex and province (14 (10.9%) of the 129 HIV positive patients had Beijing strains while 6/141 (4.3%) of HIV negative patients had Beijing strains). The majority of Beijing strains were found in the South