BAX channel activity mediates lysosomal disruption linked to Parkinson disease.
ABSTRACT: Lysosomal disruption is increasingly regarded as a major pathogenic event in Parkinson disease (PD). A reduced number of intraneuronal lysosomes, decreased levels of lysosomal-associated proteins and accumulation of undegraded autophagosomes (AP) are observed in PD-derived samples, including fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons, and post-mortem brain tissue. Mechanistic studies in toxic and genetic rodent PD models attribute PD-related lysosomal breakdown to abnormal lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PD-linked LMP and subsequent lysosomal defects remain virtually unknown, thereby precluding their potential therapeutic targeting. Here we show that the pro-apoptotic protein BAX (BCL2-associated X protein), which permeabilizes mitochondrial membranes in PD models and is activated in PD patients, translocates and internalizes into lysosomal membranes early following treatment with the parkinsonian neurotoxin MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo, within a time-frame correlating with LMP, lysosomal disruption, and autophagosome accumulation and preceding mitochondrial permeabilization and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Supporting a direct permeabilizing effect of BAX on lysosomal membranes, recombinant BAX is able to induce LMP in purified mouse brain lysosomes and the latter can be prevented by pharmacological blockade of BAX channel activity. Furthermore, pharmacological BAX channel inhibition is able to prevent LMP, restore lysosomal levels, reverse AP accumulation, and attenuate mitochondrial permeabilization and overall nigrostriatal degeneration caused by MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our results reveal that PD-linked lysosomal impairment relies on BAX-induced LMP, and point to small molecules able to block BAX channel activity as potentially beneficial to attenuate both lysosomal defects and neurodegeneration occurring in PD.
Project description:Upon apoptotic stimuli, lysosomal proteases, including cathepsins and chymotrypsin, are released into cytosol due to lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), where they trigger apoptosis via the lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Herein, the mechanism of LMP was investigated. We found that caspase 8-cleaved Bid (tBid) could result in LMP directly. Although Bax or Bak might modestly enhance tBid-triggered LMP, they are not necessary for LMP. To study this further, large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), model membranes mimicking the lipid constitution of lysosomes, were used to reconstitute the membrane permeabilization process in vitro. We found that phosphatidic acid (PA), one of the major acidic phospholipids found in lysosome membrane, is essential for tBid-induced LMP. PA facilitates the insertion of tBid deeply into lipid bilayers, where it undergoes homo-oligomerization and triggers the formation of highly curved nonbilayer lipid phases. These events induce LMP via pore formation mechanisms because encapsulated fluorescein-conjugated dextran (FD)-20 was released more significantly than FD-70 or FD-250 from LUVs due to its smaller molecular size. On the basis of these data, we proposed tBid-PA interactions in the lysosomal membranes form lipidic pores and result in LMP. We further noted that chymotrypsin-cleaved Bid is more potent than tBid at binding to PA, inserting into the lipid bilayer, and promoting LMP. This amplification mechanism likely contributes to the culmination of apoptotic signaling.
Project description:The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome drives many inflammatory processes and mediates IL-1 family cytokine release. Inflammasome activators typically damage cells and may release lysosomal and mitochondrial products into the cytosol. Macrophages triggered by the NLRP3 inflammasome activator nigericin show reduced mitochondrial function and decreased cellular ATP. Release of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to subsequent lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). NLRP3-deficient macrophages show comparable reduced mitochondrial function and ATP loss, but maintain lysosomal acidity, demonstrating that LMP is NLRP3 dependent. A subset of wild-type macrophages undergo subsequent mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and die. Both LMP and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization are inhibited by potassium, scavenging mitochondrial ROS, or NLRP3 deficiency, but are unaffected by cathepsin B or caspase-1 inhibitors. In contrast, IL-1? secretion is ablated by potassium, scavenging mitochondrial ROS, and both cathepsin B and caspase-1 inhibition. These results demonstrate interplay between lysosomes and mitochondria that sustain NLRP3 activation and distinguish cell death from IL-1? release.
Project description:Lysosomes are a promising therapeutic target for induction apoptosis in cancer cells due to lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) leading to leakage of hydrolytic enzymes, especially the cathepsins, into the cytoplasm. We hypothesized that with the modification of the ceramide-loaded liposomes with transferrin (Tf), we would achieve both tumor targeting and increased delivery of lysosome-destabilizing agents, such as ceramides to lysosomes, to initiate LMP-induced apoptosis. We prepared Tf-modified (TL) and plain (PL) liposomes and loaded with short (C6)- or long (C16) N-acyl chain ceramides. Uptake, intracellular localization of liposomes, stability of the lysosomal membrane and release of cathepsin D were investigated on Hela cells by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was evaluated by binding of fluorescently-labeled Annexin V. Antitumor and pro-apoptotic effects of C6Cer-loaded Tf-liposomes were demonstrated in vivo in an A2780-ovarian carcinoma xenograft mouse model. TL were internalized specifically via the TfR-dependent endocytic pathway and localized within the endosome-lysosomal compartment. Ceramide-loaded Tf-liposomes significantly increased apoptosis compared with ceramide-free and ceramide-loaded non-modified liposomes. The treatment of cancer cells with TL led to increased LMP and cytoplasmic relocation of the intralysosomal cathepsin D. A strong antitumor and pro-apoptotic effect of C6Cer-loaded TL was also demonstrated in vivo in an A2780-ovarian carcinoma xenograft mouse model. The lysosomal accumulation of ceramides delivered by Tf-liposomes initiates the permeabilization of the lysosomal membranes required for the release of lysosomal cathepsins into the cytoplasm and initiation of the cancer cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Description RECS1, a member of the TMBIM family, triggers lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cells undergoing lysosomal stress. Programmed cell death is regulated by the balance between activating and inhibitory signals. Here, we have identified RECS1 (responsive to centrifugal force and shear stress 1) [also known as TMBIM1 (transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 1)] as a proapoptotic member of the TMBIM family. In contrast to other proteins of the TMBIM family, RECS1 expression induces cell death through the canonical mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Unbiased screening indicated that RECS1 sensitizes cells to lysosomal perturbations. RECS1 localizes to lysosomes, where it regulates their acidification and calcium content, triggering lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Structural modeling and electrophysiological studies indicated that RECS1 is a pH-regulated calcium channel, an activity that is essential to trigger cell death. RECS1 also sensitizes whole animals to stress in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster and zebrafish models. Our results unveil an unanticipated function for RECS1 as a proapoptotic component of the TMBIM family that ignites cell death programs at lysosomes.
Project description:The exact roles of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) in oxidative stress-triggered apoptosis are not completely understood. Here, we first studied the temporal relation between LMP and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) during the initial stage of apoptosis caused by the oxidative stress inducer H2O2. Despite its essential role in mediating apoptosis, the expression of the BH3-only Bcl-2 protein Noxa was dispensable for LMP. In contrast, MOMP was dependent on Noxa expression and occurred downstream of LMP. When lysosomal membranes were stabilized by the iron-chelating agent desferrioxamine, H2O2-induced increase in DNA damage, Noxa expression, and subsequent apoptosis were abolished by the inhibition of LMP. Importantly, LMP-induced Noxa expression increase was mediated by p53 and seems to be a unique feature of apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. Finally, exogenous iron loading recapitulated the effects of H2O2 on the expression of BH3-only Bcl-2 proteins. Overall, these data reveal a Noxa-mediated signaling pathway that couples LMP with MOMP and ultimate apoptosis during oxidative stress.
Project description:Lysosomes are central organelles for cellular degradation and energy homeostasis. In addition, lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and subsequent release of lysosomal content to the cytosol can initiate programmed cell death. The extent of LMP and available repair mechanisms determine the cell fate after lysosomal damage. In this study, we aimed to investigate the premises for lysosomal membrane repair after LMP and found that lysosomal membrane damage initiated by L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLOMe) caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in almost 50% of the cells, while the rest recovered. Immediately after LLOMe addition, lysosomal proteases were detected in the cytosol and the ESCRT-components ALIX and CHMP4B were recruited to the lysosomal membrane. Next, lysophagic clearance of damaged lysosomes was evident and a concentration-dependent translocation of several lysosomal membrane proteins, including LAMP2, to the cytosol was found. LAMP2 was present in small vesicles with the N-terminal protein chain facing the lumen of the vesicle. We conclude that lysophagic clearance of damaged lysosomes results in generation of lysosomal membrane protein complexes, which constitute small membrane enclosed units, possibly for recycling of lysosomal membrane proteins. These lysosomal membrane complexes enable an efficient regeneration of lysosomes to regain cell functionality.
Project description:Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) contributes to tissue involution, degenerative diseases, and cancer therapy. Its investigation has, however, been hindered by the lack of sensitive methods. Here, we characterize and validate the detection of galectin puncta at leaky lysosomes as a highly sensitive and easily manageable assay for LMP. LGALS1/galectin-1 and LGALS3/galectin-3 are best suited for this purpose due to their widespread expression, rapid translocation to leaky lysosomes and availability of high-affinity antibodies. Galectin staining marks individual leaky lysosomes early during lysosomal cell death and is useful when defining whether LMP is a primary or secondary cause of cell death. This sensitive method also reveals that cells can survive limited LMP and confirms a rapid formation of autophagic structures at the site of galectin puncta. Importantly, galectin staining detects individual leaky lysosomes also in paraffin-embedded tissues allowing us to demonstrate LMP in tumor xenografts in mice treated with cationic amphiphilic drugs and to identify a subpopulation of lysosomes that initiates LMP in involuting mouse mammary gland. The use of ectopic fluorescent galectins renders the galectin puncta assay suitable for automated screening and visualization of LMP in live cells and animals. Thus, the lysosomal galectin puncta assay opens up new possibilities to study LMP in cell death and its role in other cellular processes such as autophagy, senescence, aging, and inflammation.
Project description:Nanoparticles (NPs) typically accumulate in lysosomes. However, their impact on lysosomal function, as well as autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is still not well known. We have previously reported in the 1321N1 cell line that amine-modified polystyrene (NH2-PS) NPs induce apoptosis through damage initiated in the lysosomes leading ultimately to release of lysosomal content in the cytosol, followed by apoptosis. Here, by using a combination of biochemical and cell biological approaches, we have characterized in a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line that the lysosomal alterations induced by NH2-PS NPs is progressive, initiating from mild lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), to expansion of lysosomal volume and intensive LMP before the summit of cell death. Though the cells initially seem to induce autophagy as a surviving mechanism, the damage of NH2-PS NPs to lysosomes probably results in lysosomal dysfunctions, leading to blockage of autophagic flux at the level of lysosomes and the eventual cell death.
Project description:Humans resist infection by the African parasite Trypanosoma brucei owing to the trypanolytic activity of the serum apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1). Following uptake by endocytosis in the parasite, APOL1 forms pores in endolysosomal membranes and triggers lysosome swelling. Here we show that APOL1 induces both lysosomal and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (LMP and MMP). Trypanolysis coincides with MMP and consecutive release of the mitochondrial TbEndoG endonuclease to the nucleus. APOL1 is associated with the kinesin TbKIFC1, of which both the motor and vesicular trafficking VHS domains are required for MMP, but not for LMP. The presence of APOL1 in the mitochondrion is accompanied by mitochondrial membrane fenestration, which can be mimicked by knockdown of a mitochondrial mitofusin-like protein (TbMFNL). The BH3-like peptide of APOL1 is required for LMP, MMP and trypanolysis. Thus, trypanolysis by APOL1 is linked to apoptosis-like MMP occurring together with TbKIFC1-mediated transport of APOL1 from endolysosomal membranes to the mitochondrion.
Project description:Lysosome-activated apoptosis represents an alternative method of overcoming tumor resistance compared to traditional forms of treatment. Pulsed magnetic fields open a new avenue for controlled and targeted initiation of lysosomal permeabilization in cancer cells via mechanical actuation of magnetic nanomaterials. In this study we used a noninvasive tool; namely, a benchtop pulsed magnetic system, which enabled remote activation of apoptosis in liver cancer cells. The magnetic system we designed represents a platform that can be used in a wide range of biomedical applications. We show that liver cancer cells can be loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). SPIONs retained in lysosomal compartments can be effectively actuated with a high intensity (up to 8 T), short pulse width (~15 µs), pulsed magnetic field (PMF), resulting in lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) in cancer cells. We revealed that SPION-loaded lysosomes undergo LMP by assessing an increase in the cytosolic activity of the lysosomal cathepsin B. The extent of cell death induced by LMP correlated with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in cells. LMP was achieved for estimated forces of 700 pN and higher. Furthermore, we validated our approach on a three-dimensional cellular culture model to be able to mimic in vivo conditions. Overall, our results show that PMF treatment of SPION-loaded lysosomes can be utilized as a noninvasive tool to remotely induce apoptosis.