Data for differentially expressed microRNAs in saturated fatty acid palmitate-treated HepG2 cells.
ABSTRACT: Certain microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting the molecules in the insulin signaling cascades are dysregulated by saturated fatty acids (SFA), which can lead to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This article reports the accompanying data collected using miRNAs microarrays to identify the changes in miRNA expression in HepG2 cells treated with SFA palmitate. Differentially expressed miRNA analyses in HepG2 cells showed that a range of upregulated (>1.5-fold) or downregulated (<0.5-fold) miRNAs. Further extensive insights into the implications of miRNAs, particularly miR-1271, in HepG2 cells can be found in "MiR-1271 upregulated by saturated fatty acid palmitate provokes impaired insulin signaling by repressing INSR and IRS-1 expression in HepG2 cells" (W.M. Yang, K.H. Min, W. Lee, 2016) .
Project description:Obesity and metabolic diseases are closely associated with insulin resistance. Obesity-induced miRNAs are also considered to be potential contributors to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Previously, the expression of miR-1271 was reported to be upregulated in the liver of diet-induced obese mice (Yang et al., 2016) . In this data article, multiple in silico analysis predicted FOXO1 gene to be a direct target of miR-1271. Dual luciferase reporter gene analysis showed that miR-1271 suppressed FOXO1 expression by direct binding to 3'UTR. The overexpression of miR-1271 reduced the protein expression of FOXO1, thereby reducing the transcription of PEPCK, a downstream target of FOXO1. The data is related to a research article entitled "MiR-1271 upregulated by saturated fatty acid palmitate provokes impaired insulin signaling by repressing INSR and IRS-1 expression in HepG2 cells" (Yang et al., 2016) .
Project description:Dietary fats rich in saturated fatty acid (SFA) increase the risk of metabolic diseases, and certain microRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulated by SFA are associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A previous study found that miR-195 is increased by SFA and impairs hepatic insulin signaling through the suppression of INSR (Yang et al., 2014) . This article reports accompanying data to determine the effect of miR-195 on the expression of PEPCK, a key player in hepatic gluconeogenesis. The transfection of miR-195 in HepG2 hepatocytes was found to increase the mRNA and protein expression of PEPCK. Moreover, the insulin-stimulated reduction of PEPCK expression was attenuated drastically by miR-195. More detailed analysis and understanding of the role of miR-195 in diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance can be found in "Saturated fatty acid-induced miR-195 impairs insulin signaling and glycogen metabolism in HepG2 cells" (Yang et al., 2014) .
Project description:Obesity is defined as the excessive accumulation of body fat that ultimately leads to chronic metabolic diseases. Diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) exacerbate obesity and hepatic steatosis, which increase the risk of hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in a range of biological processes, the implications of SFA-induced miRNAs in metabolic dysregulation, particularly in the pathogenesis of hepatic insulin resistance, are not well understood. This study investigated the implications of miR-96, which is induced strongly by SFA, in the development of hepatic insulin resistance. The liver of HFD mice and the palmitate-treated hepatocytes exhibited an impairment of insulin signaling due to the significant decrease in INSR and IRS-1 expression. According to expression profiling and qRT-PCR analysis of the miRNAs, the expression level of miR-96 was higher in hepatocytes treated with palmitate. Moreover, miR-96 was also upregulated in the liver of HFD mice. Interestingly, miR-96 targeted the 3'UTRs of INSR and IRS-1 directly, and repressed the expression of INSR and IRS-1 at the post-transcriptional level. Accordingly, the overexpression of miR-96 was found to cause a significant decrease in INSR and IRS-1 expression, thereby leading to an impairment of insulin signaling and glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes. These results reveal a novel mechanism whereby miR-96 promotes the pathogenesis of hepatic insulin resistance resulted from SFA or obesity.
Project description:The detrimental role of hepatic lipotoxicity has been well-implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Previously, we reported that inhibiting autophagy aggravated saturated fatty acid (SFA)-induced hepatotoxicity. Insulin, a physiological inhibitor of autophagy, is commonly increased within NAFLD mainly caused by insulin resistance. We therefore hypothesized that insulin augments the sensitivity of hepatocyte to SFA-induced lipotoxicity. The present study was conducted via employing human and mouse hepatocytes, which were exposed to SFAs, insulin, or their combination. Unexpectedly, our results indicated that insulin protected hepatocytes against SFA-induced lipotoxicity, based on the LDH, MTT, and nuclear morphological measurements, and the detection from cleaved-Parp-1 and -caspase-3 expressions. We subsequently clarified that insulin led to a rapid and short-period inhibition of autophagy, which was gradually recovered after 1 h incubation in hepatocytes, and such extent of inhibition was insufficient to aggravate SFA-induced lipotoxicity. The mechanistic study revealed that insulin-induced alleviation of ER stress contributed to its hepatoprotective role. Pre-treating hepatocytes with insulin significantly stimulated phosphorylated-Akt and reversed SFA-induced up-regulation of p53. Chemical inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-? robustly prevented palmitate-induced cell death. The PI3K/Akt pathway blockade by its special antagonist abolished the protective role of insulin against SFA-induced lipotoxicity and p53 up-regulation. Furthermore, we observed that insulin promoted intracellular TG deposits in hepatocytes in the present of palmitate. However, blocking TG accumulation via genetically silencing DGAT-2 did not prevent insulin-protected lipotoxicity. Our study demonstrated that insulin strongly protected against SFA-induced lipotoxicity in hepatocytes mechanistically through alleviating ER stress via a PI3K/Akt/p53 involved pathway but independently from autophagy.
Project description:Diets containing a high saturated fatty acid (SFA) increase the risk of metabolic diseases, and microRNAs (miRNAs) induced by SFA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In a previous report, miR-96 is found to be upregulated by SFA and involved in the suppression of insulin signaling intermediates, leading to insulin resistance in hepatocytes (Yang et al., 2016) . This article presents the accompanying data collected from L6-GLUT4myc myocytes to determine the effects of miR-96 on insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells. The transfection of miR-96 decreased the expression of IRS-1 in myocytes. Accordingly, miR-96 inhibited the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1, which led to an impairment of insulin signaling. More detailed analysis and understanding of the roles of miR-96 in diet-induced insulin resistance can be found in "Induction of miR-96 by dietary saturated fatty acids exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance through the suppression of INSR and IRS-1" (Yang et al., 2016) .
Project description:Sulforaphane (SFA), a naturally active isothiocyanate compound from cruciferous vegetables used in clinical trials for cancer treatment, was found to possess potency to alleviate insulin resistance. But its underlying molecular mechanisms are still incompletely understood. In this study, we assessed whether SFA could improve insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis both in vitro and in vivo by regulating ceramide production. The effects of SFA on glucose metabolism and expression levels of key proteins in the hepatic insulin signaling pathway were evaluated in insulin-resistant human hepatic carcinoma HepG2 cells. The results showed that SFA dose-dependently increased glucose uptake and intracellular glycogen content by regulating the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. SFA also reduced ceramide contents and downregulated transcription of ceramide-related genes. In addition, knockdown of serine palmitoyltransferase 3 (SPTLC3) in HepG2 cells prevented ceramide accumulation and alleviated insulin resistance. Moreover, SFA treatment improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, inhibited SPTLC3 expression and hepatic ceramide production and reduced hepatic triglyceride content in vivo. We conclude that SFA recovers glucose homeostasis and improves insulin sensitivity by blocking ceramide biosynthesis through modulating SPTLC3, indicating that SFA may be a potential candidate for prevention and amelioration of hepatic insulin resistance via a ceramide-dependent mechanism.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Visceral obesity and elevated plasma free fatty acids are predisposing factors for type 2 diabetes. Chronic exposure to these lipids is detrimental for pancreatic beta-cells, resulting in reduced insulin content, defective insulin secretion, and apoptosis. We investigated the involvement in this phenomenon of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs regulating gene expression by sequence-specific inhibition of mRNA translation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed miRNA expression in insulin-secreting cell lines or pancreatic islets exposed to palmitate for 3 days and in islets from diabetic db/db mice. We studied the signaling pathways triggering the changes in miRNA expression and determined the impact of the miRNAs affected by palmitate on insulin secretion and apoptosis. RESULTS: Prolonged exposure of the beta-cell line MIN6B1 and pancreatic islets to palmitate causes a time- and dose-dependent increase of miR34a and miR146. Elevated levels of these miRNAs are also observed in islets of diabetic db/db mice. miR34a rise is linked to activation of p53 and results in sensitization to apoptosis and impaired nutrient-induced secretion. The latter effect is associated with inhibition of the expression of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, a key player in beta-cell exocytosis. Higher miR146 levels do not affect the capacity to release insulin but contribute to increased apoptosis. Treatment with oligonucleotides that block miR34a or miR146 activity partially protects palmitate-treated cells from apoptosis but is insufficient to restore normal secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that at least part of the detrimental effects of palmitate on beta-cells is caused by alterations in the level of specific miRNAs.
Project description:Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC1 and ACC2) generates malonyl CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and an inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid ?-oxidation (FAO). Malonyl CoA is also a substrate for microsomal fatty acid elongation, an important pathway for saturated (SFA), mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis. Despite the interest in ACC as a target for obesity and cancer therapy, little attention has been given to the role ACC plays in long chain fatty acid synthesis. This report examines the effect of pharmacological inhibition of ACC on DNL and palmitate (16:0) and linoleate (18:2, n-6) metabolism in HepG2 and LnCap cells. The ACC inhibitor, soraphen A, lowers cellular malonyl CoA, attenuates DNL and the formation of fatty acid elongation products derived from exogenous fatty acids, i.e., 16:0 and 18:2, n-6; IC(50)?5nM. Elevated expression of fatty acid elongases (Elovl5, Elovl6) or desaturases (FADS1, FADS2) failed to override the soraphen A effect on SFA, MUFA or PUFA synthesis. Inhibition of fatty acid elongation leads to the accumulation of 16- and 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids derived from 16:0 and 18:2, n-6, respectively. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC activity will not only attenuate DNL and induce FAO, but will also attenuate the synthesis of very long chain saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Project description:Lipotoxicity induced by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the exact mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase located primarily inside mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrated that an SFA-rich high-fat diet (HFD) was more detrimental to the liver than an isocaloric unsaturated HFD rich in fatty acids. Unexpectedly, SIRT3 expression and activity were significantly elevated in the livers of mice exposed to the SFA-rich HFD. Using cultured HepG2 and AML-12 hepatocytes, we demonstrated that unlike monounsaturated fatty acids, SFAs up-regulate SIRT3 expression and activity. SIRT3 overexpression renders both the liver and hepatocytes susceptible to palmitate-induced cell death, which can be alleviated by SIRT3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. In contrast, SIRT3 suppression protects hepatocytes from palmitate cytotoxicity. Further studies revealed that SIRT3 acts as a negative regulator of autophagy, thereby enhancing the susceptibility of hepatocytes to SFA-induced cytotoxicity. Mechanistic investigations revealed that SIRT3 overexpression causes manganese superoxide dismutase deacetylation and activation, which depleted intracellular superoxide contents, leading to adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition and mammalian target of rapamycin C1 activation, resulting in autophagy suppression. In contrast, SIRT3 siRNA gene silencing enhanced autophagy flux. A similar result was observed in the liver tissue of SIRT3 knockout mice.Our data indicate that SIRT3 is a negative regulator of autophagy whose activation by SFAs contributes to lipotoxicity in hepatocytes and suggest that restraining SIRT3 overactivation can be a potential therapeutic choice for the treatment of NAFLD as well as other metabolic disorders, with lipotoxicity being the principal pathomechanism. (Hepatology 2017;66:936-952).
Project description:Dietary fat quality may influence skeletal muscle lipid handling and fat accumulation, thereby modulating insulin sensitivity. Objective: To examine acute effects of meals with various fatty acid (FA) compositions on skeletal muscle FA handling and postprandial insulin sensitivity in obese insulin resistant men. Design: In a single-blinded randomized crossover study, 10 insulin resistant men consumed three high-fat mixed-meals (2.6MJ). Meals were high in saturated FA (SFA), in monounsaturated FA (MUFA) or in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Fasting and postprandial skeletal muscle FA handling were examined by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [2H2]-palmitate was infused intravenously to label endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG) and FFA in the circulation and [U-13C]-palmitate was added to the meal to label chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to assess intramuscular lipid metabolism and gene expression. Results: Insulin and glucose responses (AUC) after SFA meal were significantly higher compared with PUFA meal (p=0.003 and 0.028, respectively). Uptake of TAG-derived FA was significantly lower in the early postprandial phase after PUFA meal as compared with other meals (AUC60-120, p<0.001). The PUFA meal induced less transcriptional downregulation of oxidative pathways compared with other meals. The fractional synthetic rate was higher in DAG and PL fraction after MUFA and PUFA meal. Conclusion: Intake of a PUFA meal reduced TAG-derived skeletal muscle FA uptake, which was accompanied by higher postprandial insulin sensitivity and a tendency towards a higher muscle lipid turnover. These data suggest that the effects of replacement of SFA by PUFA may contribute to less muscle lipid uptake and may be therefore protective against the development of insulin resistance. Keywords: expression profiling by array randomized crossover dietary intervention study