Longitudinal relationships of periodic limb movements during sleep and incident atrial fibrillation.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine relationship between periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and incident atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF).Prospective multicenter cohort (n?=?2273: adjudicated AF group; n?=?843: self-reported AF group) of community-dwelling men without prevalent AF were followed for an average of 8.3 years (adjudicated) and 6.5 years (self-reported). PLMS index (PLMI, <5 (ref), ?5 to <30, ?30) and PLM arousal index (PLMAI, <1 (ref), ?1 to <5, ?5) were measured by polysomnography. Incident adjudicated and self-reported AF were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression, respectively, and adjusted for age, clinic, race, body mass index (BMI), alcohol use, cholesterol level, cardiac medications, pacemaker, apnea-hypopnea index, renal function, and cardiac risk. The interaction of age and PLMS was examined.In this primarily Caucasian (89.8%) cohort of older men (mean age 76.1?±?5.5 years) with BMI of 27.2?±?3.7, there were 261 cases (11.5%) of adjudicated and 85 cases (10.1%) of self-reported incident AF. In the overall cohort, PLMI and PLMAI were not associated with adjudicated or self-reported AF. There was some evidence of an interaction of age and PLMI (p?=?0.08, adjudicated AF) and PLMAI (p???0.06, both outcomes). Among men aged ?76 years, the highest PLMI tertile was at increased risk of adjudicated AF (?30 vs. <5; hazard ratio (HR)?=?1.63, 1.01-2.63) and the middle PLMAI tertile predicted increased risk of both outcomes (1 to <5 vs. <1; adjudicated, HR?=?1.65, 1.05-2.58; self-reported HR?=?5.76, 1.76-18.84). No such associations were found in men aged <76 years.Although PLMS do not predict AF incidence in the overall cohort, the findings suggest PLMS increases incident AF risk in the older subgroup.
Project description:Both restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) may be associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the individual contributions of these factors to adverse CVD outcomes are unknown.During the MrOS Sleep Study, 2823 men (mean age = 76.3 years) participated in a comprehensive sleep assessment from 2000 to 2002. RLS was identified by self-report of a physician diagnosis of RLS. A periodic limb movement of sleep index (PLMI) was derived from unattended in-home polysomnography. Incident cardiovascular events were centrally adjudicated during 8.7 ± 2.6 years of follow-up. The primary outcome was all-cause CVD; secondary outcomes included incident myocardial infarction (MI) and cerebrovascular disease. Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for multiple covariates, including PLMI, to examine if there were independent associations of RLS and PLMI to the outcomes.Physician-diagnosed RLS was reported by 2.2% and a PLMI ? 15 was found in 59.6% of men. RLS was not associated with the composite CVD outcome. RLS was significantly associated with incident MI (Hazard ratio [HR] = 2.02, 95% CI, 1.04-3.91) even after adjustment for multiple covariates. Results were only modestly attenuated when PLMI was added to the model. PLMI also was found to predict incident MI (per SD increase in PLMI, HR = 1.14, 95% CI, 1.00-1.30, p = .05), and was materially unchanged after addition of RLS.The independent risk that RLS confers for MI suggests a role for non-PLMS factors such as sleep disturbance, shared genetic factors, or PLM-independent sympathetic hyperactivity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We sought to assess the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of periodic limb movements of sleep (PLMS) in persons with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the effect (worsening or improvement) of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on PLMS in a large prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial. METHODS:We performed retrospective analyses of data from the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study, a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial. A total of 1,105 persons with OSA enrolled in this study underwent a polysomnographic investigation at baseline, another one for CPAP titration, and another study 6 months after randomization to either active CPAP or sham CPAP. RESULTS:Of all participants, 19.7% had PLM index (PLMI) ?10/hour, 14.8% had PLMI ?15/hour, 12.1% had PLMI ?20/hour, 9.3% had PLMI ?25/hour, and 7.5% had PLMI ?30/hour. The odds of having a PLMI ?10 were higher in older participants (odds ratio [OR] 1.03, p < 0.001), men (OR 1.63. p = 0.007), those using antidepressants (OR 1.48. p = 0.048), and those with higher caffeine use (OR 1.01, p = 0.04). After controlling for OSA and depression, PLMS were associated with increased sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, and reduced total sleep time. No significant relationships were noted between PLMS frequency and subjective sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale score) or objective sleepiness (Maintenance of Wakefulness Test). There was no differential effect of CPAP in comparison to sham CPAP on PLMS after 6 months of therapy. CONCLUSIONS:PLMS are common in patients with OSA and are associated with a significant reduction in sleep quality over and above that conferred by OSA. Treatment with CPAP does not affect the severity of PLMS.
Project description:Study Objectives:The purpose of this study is to examine the association of abnormal periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) with neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from the general population. Methods:Four hundred twenty-one adolescents (17.0 ± 2.3 years, 53.9% male) from the Penn State Child Cohort, a random general population sample, underwent 9 hr polysomnography, clinical history, physical examination, neurocognitive evaluation, and completed the Child or Adult Behavioral Checklist (C/ABCL). The presence of ADHD was ascertained by parent- or self-report of receiving a diagnosis of ADHD. PLMS were defined as a PLM index (PLMI) of ≥5 events per hour of sleep. Results:Adolescents with ADHD (n = 98) had a significantly higher PLMI (5.4 ± 7.3) and prevalence of PLMS (35%) when compared with controls (3.4 ± 5.6, p = 0.006 and 21%, p = 0.004). Significant interactions between ADHD and PLMS showed that adolescents with both disorders (n = 35) were characterized by deficits in control interference, as measured by Stroop test, and elevated internalizing behaviors, as measured by C/ABCL. ADHD severity and externalizing behaviors were elevated in a dose-response manner across ADHD-alone (n = 63) and ADHD + PLMS groups. The association of ADHD with other neurocognitive functions did not vary as a function of PLMS. Conclusions:PLMS are significantly more frequent in adolescents with ADHD. Importantly, adolescents with both disorders not only have worse neurobehavioral functioning than adolescents with ADHD-alone but specifically presented with executive deficits and anxiety symptoms. These data suggest that PLMS may be a marker of more severe underlying neurobiological deficits in adolescents with ADHD and comorbid internalizing problems.
Project description:The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and potential clinical impact of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), with or without arousals, as recorded incidentally from children before and after adenotonsillectomy (AT).Children scheduled for AT for any clinical indications who participated in the Washtenaw County Adenotonsillectomy Cohort II were studied at enrollment and again 6 months thereafter. Assessments included laboratory-based polysomnography, a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), parent-completed behavioral rating scales, neuropsychological testing, and psychiatric evaluation.Participants included 144 children (81 boys) aged 3-12 years. Children generally showed mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (median respiratory disturbance index 4.5 (Q1 = 2.0, Q3 = 9.5)) at baseline, and 15 subjects (10%) had at least five periodic leg movements per hour of sleep (PLMI ? 5). After surgery, 21 (15%) of n = 137 subjects who had follow-up studies showed PLMI ? 5 (p = 0.0067). Improvements were noted after surgery in the respiratory disturbance index; insomnia symptoms; sleepiness symptoms; mean sleep latencies; hyperactive behavior; memory, learning, attention, and executive functioning on NEPSY assessments; and frequency of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (DSM-IV criteria). However, PLMI ? 5 failed to show associations with worse morbidity in these domains at baseline or follow-up. New appearance of PLMI ? 5 after surgery failed to predict worsening of these morbidities (all p > 0.05), with only one exception (NEPSY) where the magnitude of association was nonetheless negligible. Similar findings emerged for periodic leg movements with arousals (PLMAI ? 1).PLMS, with and without arousals, become more common after AT in children. However, results in this setting did not suggest substantial clinical impact.
Project description:Prior studies suggested an association between bisphosphonates and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) in women. This relationship in men, including those with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), remains unclear. This study evaluated the relationship between bisphosphonate use and prevalent (nocturnal) and incident (clinically relevant) AF in a population of community-dwelling older men.A total of 2,911 male participants (mean age, 76 years) of the prospective observational Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study sleep cohort with overnight in-home polysomnography (PSG) constituted the analytic cohort. Nocturnal AF from ECGs during PSG and incident AF events were centrally adjudicated. The association of bisphosphonate use and AF was examined using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression for prevalent AF and Cox proportional hazards regression for incident AF.A total of 123 (4.2%) men were current bisphosphonate users. Prevalent nocturnal AF was present in 138 participants (4.6%). After multivariable adjustment, there was a significant association between current bisphosphonate use and prevalent AF (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.13-4.79). In the subset of men with moderate to severe SDB, this association was even more pronounced (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.29-8.03). However, the multivariable-adjusted relationship between bisphosphonate use and incident AF did not reach statistical significance (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 0.96-2.45).These results support an association between bisphosphonate use and prevalent nocturnal AF in community-dwelling older men. The data further suggest that those with moderate to severe SDB may be a particularly vulnerable group susceptible to bisphosphonate-related AF. Similar associations were not seen for bisphosphonate use and clinically relevant incident AF.
Project description:Aims:Atrial fibrillation (AF) may present variously in time, and AF may progress from self-terminating to non-self-terminating AF, and is associated with impaired prognosis. However, predictors of AF types are largely unexplored. We investigate the clinical, biomarker, and genetic predictors of development of specific types of AF in a community-based cohort. Methods:We included 8042 individuals (319 with incident AF) of the PREVEND study. Types of AF were compared, and multivariate multinomial regression analysis determined associations with specific types of AF. Results:Mean age was 48.5 ± 12.4 years and 50% were men. The types of incident AF were ascertained based on electrocardiograms; 103(32%) were classified as AF without 2-year recurrence, 158(50%) as self-terminating AF, and 58(18%) as non-self-terminating AF. With multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, advancing age (P< 0.001 for all three types) was associated with all AF types, male sex was associated with AF without 2-year recurrence and self-terminating AF (P= 0.031 and P= 0.008, respectively). Increasing body mass index and MR-proANP were associated with both self-terminating (P= 0.009 and P< 0.001) and non-self-terminating AF (P= 0.003 and P< 0.001). The only predictor associated with solely self-terminating AF is prescribed anti-hypertensive treatment (P= 0.019). The following predictors were associated with non-self-terminating AF; lower heart rate (P= 0.018), lipid-lowering treatment prescribed (P= 0.009), and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P= 0.006). Three known AF-genetic variants (rs6666258, rs6817105, and rs10821415) were associated with self-terminating AF. Conclusions:We found clinical, biomarker and genetic predictors of specific types of incident AF in a community-based cohort. The genetic background seems to play a more important role than modifiable risk factors in self-terminating AF.
Project description:Recent hospital-based cohort studies found the CHA2DS2-VASc score to be associated with ischemic stroke in individuals without atrial fibrillation (AF). Our aim was to determine the distribution of embolic and thrombotic strokes and association with the CHA2DS2-VASc score, among community-dwelling individuals without AF. We included participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who attended visit 4 (1996 to 1998) and had no previous AF, stroke, or anticoagulant use (n?=?10,671). During follow-up through 2008, incident AF cases (n?=?760) and participants who started warfarin were censored. Incident AF was ascertained from study electrocardiograms and hospital discharge diagnosis codes, and stroke was physician-adjudicated. After 10 years of follow-up, 280 ischemic strokes were identified, of which 146 were thrombotic and 57 embolic. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for thrombotic stroke were 1 (reference), 1.71 (1.13 to 2.59), 2.92 (1.91 to 4.45), 3.22 (1.70 to 6.11), and 1.25 (0.17 to 9.09), with CHA2DS2-VASc scores of 0 to 1, 2, 3, 4, and ?5, respectively. The hazard ratios (95% CI) for embolic stroke were 1 (ref), 4.91 (2.10 to 11.5), 7.07 (2.93 to 17.0), 14.8 (5.50 to 39.6), and 15.2 (3.16 to 73.3), with CHA2DS2-VASc scores of 0 to 1, 2, 3, 4, and ?5, respectively. A receiver-operating characteristic model had a C-statistic of 0.65 for ischemic stroke, 0.61 for thrombotic stroke, and 0.71 for embolic stroke. In conclusion, in community-dwelling individuals without AF, the CHA2DS2-VASc score can assess ischemic stroke risk and has good discriminatory capacity for embolic stroke.
Project description:Physical activity (PA) has previously been suggested to attenuate the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) conferred by excess body weight and weight gain. We prospectively examined the relationship between body size, weight change, and level of PA in a biracial cohort of middle-aged men and women.Baseline characteristics on risk factor levels were obtained on 14 219 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. AF incidence was ascertained from 1987 to 2009. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the associations between body mass index, waist circumference, relative weight change, and PA level with incident AF. During follow-up, there were 1775 cases of incident AF. Body mass index and waist circumference were positively associated with AF as was weight loss/gain of >5% initial body weight. An ideal level of PA had a small protective effect on AF risk and partially attenuated the risk of AF associated with excess weight in men but not women: compared with men with a normal body mass index, the risk of AF in obese men with an ideal, intermediate, and poor level of PA at baseline was increased by 37%, 129%, and 156% (Pinteraction=0.04). During follow-up, PA did not modify the association between weight gain and risk of AF.Obesity and extreme weight change are risk factors for incident AF, whereas being physically active is associated with a small reduction in risk. In men only, being physically active offset some, but not all, of the risk incurred with excess body weight.
Project description:Myocardial infarction (MI) is an established risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the extent to which AF is a risk factor for MI has not been investigated.To examine the risk of incident MI associated with AF.A prospective cohort of 23,928 participants residing in the continental United States and without coronary heart disease at baseline were enrolled from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort between 2003 and 2007, with follow-up through December 2009.Expert-adjudicated total MI events (fatal and nonfatal).Over 6.9 years of follow-up (median 4.5 years), 648 incident MI events occurred. In a sociodemographic-adjusted model, AF was associated with about 2-fold increased risk of MI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.96 [95% CI, 1.52-2.52]). This association remained significant (HR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.26-2.30]) after further adjustment for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, blood pressure-lowering drugs, body mass index, diabetes, warfarin use, aspirin use, statin use, history of stroke and vascular disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate, albumin to creatinine ratio, and C-reactive protein level. In subgroup analysis, the risk of MI associated with AF was significantly higher in women (HR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.41-3.31]) than in men (HR, 1.39 [95% CI, 0.91-2.10]) and in blacks (HR, 2.53 [95% CI, 1.67-3.86]) than in whites (HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 0.83-1.93]); for interactions, P = .03 and P = .02, respectively. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the risk of MI associated with AF in older (?75 years) vs younger (<75 years) participants (HR, 2.00 [95% CI, 1.16-3.35] and HR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.11-2.30], respectively); for interaction, P = .44.AF is independently associated with an increased risk of incident MI, especially in women and blacks. These findings add to the growing concerns of the seriousness of AF as a public health burden: in addition to being a well-known risk factor for stroke, AF is also associated with increased risk of MI.
Project description:We previously reported that incident atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the general population. We now aimed to identify predictors of SCD in persons with AF from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a community-based cohort study. We included all participants who attended visit 1 (1987-89) and had no prior AF (n = 14,836). Incident AF was identified from study electrocardiograms and hospitalization discharge codes through 2012. SCD was physician-adjudicated. We used cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models, followed by stepwise selection (backwards elimination, removing all variables with p>0.10) to identify predictors of SCD in participants with AF. AF occurred in 2321 (15.6%) participants (age 45-64 years, 58% male, 18% black). Over a median of 3.3 years, SCD occurred in 110 of those with AF (4.7%). Predictors of SCD in AF included higher age, body mass index (BMI), coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, current smoker, left ventricular hypertrophy, increased heart rate, and decreased albumin. Predictors associated only with SCD and not other cardiovascular (CV) death included increased BMI (HR per 5-unit increase, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.97-1.36, p = 0.10), increased heart rate (HR per SD increase, 1.18, 95% CI 0.99-1.41, p = 0.07), and low albumin (HR per SD decrease 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48, p = 0.03). In the ARIC study, predictors of SCD in AF that are not associated with non-sudden CV death included increased BMI, increased heart rate, and low albumin. Further research to confirm these findings in larger community-based cohorts and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms to facilitate prevention is warranted.