The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge.
ABSTRACT: An anaerobic sludge (AS), capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N,N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N,N-dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid) were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes.
Project description:In the present study, Alcaligenes aquatilis was found to decolorize 82% Synazol red 6HBN after incubation of 4 days at 37 °C and pH 7. Maximum decolorization was found under static conditions by using saw dust and yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen source. It also showed promising potential to decolorize mixture of multiple dyes at a rate of more than 86% in 5 days. Decolorization of dye had positive influence on the growth of bacterium as growth rate was increased along with decolorization. The cleavage of azo bond was confirmed through TLC, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. The dye metabolites produced during bacterial treatment are linked to various pathways including ATP synthesis process. The absence of peaks of wavelength 1612/cm and 1532/cm in bacterially treated FTIR sample demonstrated the cleavage of azo bond. Microbial growth in decolorized dye wastewater shows that bacterially decolorized wastewater is unharmful for the growth of micro-flora. The high decolorization ability of A. aquatilis 3c to convert toxic azo dyes into useful end products may find potential applications in the environmental biotechnology.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Synthetic dyes are recalcitrant to degradation and toxic to different organisms. Decolorization of textile wastewaters is one of the major concerns since last decades. Physical-chemical treatments are very expensive and frequently producing large amounts of toxic wastes. Biological treatments can be more convenient. In the present study, an attempt has been made for decolorization of azo dyes using microbial process. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Screening of microorganisms capable of azo dye decolorization was performed from activated sludge. The decolorization of various dyes (Reactive Black 5, Reactive Orange 16, Reactive Red 198, Direct Blue 71, Direct Yellow 12 and Direct Black 22) was determined by measuring the absorbance of culture supernatant at their ?max. Culture supernatants were also analyzed for UV-Vis absorption between 200-800 nm. The effect of aeration, temperature, different concentrations of glucose and NaCl was studied with an aim to determine the optimal conditions required for maximum decolorization. RESULTS:The yeast (strain JKS4) which had high ability to decolorize different azo dyes was isolated. Under aerobic condition, the yeast strain showed 85.7% of decolorization at 200 mg/l Reactive Black 5 (as a model azo dye), 1% (w/v) glucose concentration and 35°C after 24 h. All the examined dyes were extensively decolorized (53.35-97.9%) after 24 h. With elongated incubation period, complete decolorization was observed in presence of all dyes. From the physiological properties and phylogenetic analysis based on the 26S rDNA sequences, strain JKS4 was classified into Candida palmioleophila. CONCLUSIONS:Because of high decolorizing activity against various azo dyes commonly used in the textile industries, it is proposed that the isolated yeast may have a practical application in the biotransformation of various dye effluents.
Project description:Background:Azo dyes are xenobiotic compounds that have bioaccumulated in the environment due to escalated industrial development. These are hazardous in nature, possessing carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on human beings. Objectives:The perspective of the present study was to isolate and to determine azo dye (Reactive Orange-16) degrading potential of marine actinobacteria isolated from sediment samples of Port Blair, India. Material and Methods:Actinobacteria with dye decolorization potential were isolated from sea sediment samples. The actinobacterial isolate with the highest dye decolorizing percentage was identified with the help of phenotypic, biochemical and molecular studies. The different physico-chemical parameters for dye decolorization were also optimized. The nature of decolorization by the potent isolate was determined with the help of High Performance Liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Further the toxicity of RO-16 decolorized products was investigated with the help of phytotoxcity assay. Results:Out of six actinobacterial isolates, VITVAMB 1 possessed the most efficient RO-16 decolorization property. It decolorized 85.6% of RO-16 (250 mg L-1) within 24hrs. Isolate VITVAMB 1 was identified to be Nocardiopsis sp. Maximum dye decolorization occurred at pH 8, temperature 35°C, 3% salt concentration and a dye concentration of 50 mg L-1. Conclusions:The nature of decolorization by Nocardiopsis sp. was biodegradation. Additionally, the degraded dye metabolites were found to be less toxic than pure dye. The high decolorization potential of VITVAMB 1 and the low toxicity of its degradation products make it a prospective dye removal system. The marine origin of VITVAMB 1 also makes it an attractive source for novel azo dye reducing enzymes.
Project description:Wastewater released from textile and dye-based industries is one of the major concerns for human and aquatic beings. Biological decolorization using ligninolytic bacteria has been considered as an effective and alternative approach for the treatment of dyeing wastewater. This study aimed to assess the isolation, characterization and application of soil bacteria isolated from mangrove wetlands in Thailand. Four active bacteria were genetically identified and designated as Klebsiella pneumoniae strain RY10302, Enterobacter sp. strain RY10402, Enterobacter sp. strain RY11902 and Enterobacter sp. strain RY11903. They were observed for ligninolytic activity and decolorization of nine reactive dyes under experimental conditions. All bacteria exhibited strong decolorization efficiency within 72 h of incubation at 0.01% (w/v) of reactive dyes. The decolorization percentage varied from 20% (C.I. Reactive Red 195 decolorized by K. pneumoniae strain RY10302) to 92% (C.I. Reactive Blue 194 decolorized by Enterobacter sp. strain RY11902) in the case of bacterial monoculture, whereas the decolorization percentage for a mixed culture of four bacteria varied from 58% (C.I. Reactive Blue 19) to 94% (C.I. Reactive Black 1). These findings confer the possibility of using these bacteria for the biological decolorization of dyeing wastewater.
Project description:Water pollution due to release of industrial wastewater has already become a serious problem in almost every industry using dyes to color its products. In this work, polyphenol oxidase enzyme from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves immobilized on calcium alginate beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme was extracted from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves and immobilized on calcium alginate beads. The kinetic properties of free and immobilized PPO were determined. Quince leaf PPO enzyme stability was increased after immobilization. The immobilized and free enzymes were employed for the decolorization of textile dyes. The dye solutions were prepared in the concentration of 100 mg/L in distilled water and incubated with free and immobilized quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaf PPO for one hour. The percent decolorization was calculated by taking untreated dye solution. Immobilized PPO was significantly more effective in decolorizing the dyes as compared to free enzyme. Our results showed that the immobilized quince leaf PPO enzyme could be efficiently used for the removal of synthetic dyes from industrial effluents.
Project description:Laccases are multi-copper oxidoreductases with broad biotechnological applications. Here, we report detailed biochemical characterization of purified recombinant laccases originating from Myceliophthora thermophila (MtL) and Trametes trogii (TtL). We identified optimal conditions for decolorization of commercial dyes and textile wastewater samples. We also tested the toxicity of decolorized wastewater samples using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. MtL and TtL were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and secreted enzymes were purified by consecutive hydrophobic and gel chromatography. The molecular masses of TtL (~?65 kDa) and MtL (>?100 kDa) suggested glycosylation of the recombinant enzymes. Deglycosylation of MtL and TtL led to 25% and 10% decreases in activity, respectively. In a thermal stability assay, TtL retained 61% and MtL 86% of the initial activity at 40 °C. While TtL retained roughly 50% activity at 60 °C, MtL lost stability at temperatures higher than 40 °C. MtL and TtL preferred syringaldazine as a substrate, and the catalytic efficiencies for ABTS oxidation were 7.5 times lower than for syringaldazine oxidation. In the presence of the mediator HBT, purified TtL almost completely decolorized dyes within 30 min and substantially decolorized wastewater samples from a textile factory (up to 74%) within 20 h. However, products of TtL-catalyzed decolorization were more toxic than MtL-decolorized products, which were almost completely detoxified.
Project description:Malachite green (MG) was decolorized by laccase (LacA) of white-rot fungus Cerrena sp. with strong decolorizing ability. Decolorization conditions were optimized with response surface methodology. A highly significant quadratic model was developed to investigate MG decolorization with LacA, and the maximum MG decolorization ratio of 91.6% was predicted under the conditions of 2.8 U mL(-1) LacA, 109.9 mg L(-1) MG and decolorization for 172.4 min. Kinetic studies revealed the Km and kcat values of LacA toward MG were 781.9 mM and 9.5 s(-1), respectively. UV-visible spectra confirmed degradation of MG, and the degradation mechanism was explored with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Based on the LC-MS spectra of degradation products, LacA catalyzed MG degradation via two simultaneous pathways. In addition, the phytotoxicity of MG, in terms of inhibition on seed germination and seedling root elongation of Nicotiana tabacum and Lactuca sativa, was reduced after laccase treatment. These results suggest that laccase of Cerrena was effective in decolorizing MG and promising in bioremediation of wastewater in food and aquaculture industries.
Project description:Textile azo dye decolorizing bacteria were isolated from alkaline Lakes Abaya and Chamo using Reactive Red 239 (RR239) dye. Through subsequent screening process, strain CH12 was selected to investigate the effects of nutrient supplement, DO, pH, temperature, dye concentration and types on decolorization. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CH12 was identified as Bacillus sp. Decolorization efficiencies were significantly enhanced with carbon (?98%) and organic nitrogen (?100%) supplements. Complete decolorization was also observed under anoxic and anaerobic conditions, and at the temperature of 30 °C and the pH of 10. However, the azo dye decolorization efficiency of strain CH12 was significantly reduced when NaNO3 (1-8%) was supplemented or under aerobic culturing condition (?6%), indicating that RR239 was less preferred electron acceptor. Overall, strain CH12 can be a promising candidate for decolorization applications due to its potential to effectively decolorize higher RR239 concentrations (50-250 mg/L) and six additional dyes.
Project description:Synthetic dyes are widely used in many industries, but they cause serious environmental problems due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. In contrast to traditional physical and chemical treatments, biodegradation is generally considered an environmental-friendly, efficient, and inexpensive way to eliminate dye contaminants. Here, a novel laccase-like enzyme Lac1326 was cloned from a marine metagenomic library. It showed a maximum activity at 60°C, and it retained more than 40% of its maximal activity at 10°C and more than 50% at 20-70°C. Interestingly, the laccase behaved stably below 50°C, even in commonly used water-miscible organic solvents. The enzyme decolorized all tested dyes with high decolorization efficiency. This thermostable enzyme with high decolorization activity and excellent tolerance of organic solvents and salt has remarkable potential for bioremediation of dye wastewater. It is thus proposed as an industrial enzyme.
Project description:In this study, two modes of hybrid anaerobic digestion (AD) bioreactor with built-in BESs (electrodes installed in liquid phase (R1) and sludge phase (R2)) were tested for identifying the effect of electrodes position on azo dye wastewater treatment. Alizarin yellow R (AYR) was used as a model dye. Decolorization efficiency of R1 was 90.41 ± 6.20% at influent loading rate of 800 g-AYR/ m(3)·d, which was 39% higher than that of R2. The contribution of bioelectrochemical reduction to AYR decolorization (16.23 ± 1.86% for R1 versus 22.24 ± 2.14% for R2) implied that although azo dye was mainly removed in sludge zone, BES further improved the effluent quality, especially for R1 where electrodes were installed in liquid phase. The microbial communities in the electrode biofilms (dominant by Enterobacter) and sludge (dominant by Enterococcus) were well distinguished in R1, but they were similar in R2. These results suggest that electrodes installed in liquid phase in the anaerobic hybrid system are more efficient than that in sludge phase for azo dye removal, which give great inspirations for the application of AD-BES hybrid process for various refractory wastewaters treatment.