Endogenous programmed death ligand-1 restrains the development and onset of Sj?gren's syndrome in non-obese diabetic mice.
ABSTRACT: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) down-modulates various immune responses by engaging the co-inhibitory receptor programmed death-1. Expression of PD-L1 and programmed death-1 is elevated in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The objective of this study is to define the role of endogenous PD-L1 in SS pathogenesis in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of this disease. We inhibited endogenous PD-L1 function by intraperitoneal administration of a blocking antibody to 6 week-old female NOD/ShiLtJ mice repeatedly during a 9-day period. PD-L1 blockade accelerated leukocyte infiltration and caspase-3 activation in the submandibular gland (SMG), production of antinuclear and anti-M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) autoantibodies and impairment of saliva secretion, indicative of accelerated development and onset of SS. The effect of PD-L1 blockade was associated with increased T- and B cells and T helper 1 cytokine IFN-? in the SMG. Local administration of exogenous IFN-? to the SMG led to impaired salivary secretion accompanied by down-regulation of aquaporin 5 and an increase in anti-M3R autoantibodies. Conversely, neutralization of IFN-? markedly improved salivary secretion and aquaporin 5 expression in anti-PD-L1-treated NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Hence, endogenous PD-L1 hinders the development and onset of SS in NOD mice, in part by suppressing IFN-? production.
Project description:Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and its aspirin-triggered epimeric form (AT-RvD1) are endogenous lipid mediators (derived from docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) that control the duration and magnitude of inflammation in models of complex diseases. Our previous studies demonstrated that RvD1-mediated signaling pathways are expressed and active in salivary glands from rodents and humans. Furthermore, treatment of salivary cells with RvD1 blocked TNF-?-mediated inflammatory signals and improved epithelial integrity. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of treatment with AT-RvD1 versus dexamethasone (DEX) on inflammation (i.e., lymphocytic infiltration, cytokine expression and apoptosis) observed in submandibular glands (SMG) from the NOD/ShiLtJ Sjögren's syndrome (SS) mouse model before experimenting with a larger population. NOD/ShiLtJ mice were treated intravenously with NaCl (0.9%, negative control), AT-RvD1 (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) or DEX (4.125-8.25 mg/kg) twice a week for 14 weeks beginning at 4 weeks of age. At 18 weeks of age, SMG were collected for pathological analysis and detection of SS-associated inflammatory genes. The AT-RvD1 treatment alone did not affect lymphocytic infiltration seen in NOD/ShiLtJ mice while DEX partially prevented lymphocytic infiltration. Interestingly, both AT-RvD1 and DEX caused downregulation of SS-associated inflammatory genes and reduction of apoptosis. Results from this pilot study suggest that a systemic treatment with AT-RvD1 and DEX alone attenuated inflammatory responses observed in the NOD/ShiLtJ mice; therefore, they may be considered as potential therapeutic tools in treating SS patients when used alone or in combination.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes secretory dysfunction of the salivary glands leading to dry mouth. Previous studies reported that tight junction (TJ) proteins are down-regulated and lose polarity in human minor salivary glands with SS, suggesting that TJ structure is compromised in SS patients. In this paper, we utilized the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse with the main goal of evaluating this model for future TJ research. We found that the organization of apical proteins in areas proximal and distal to lymphocytic infiltration remained intact in mouse and human salivary glands with SS. These areas looked comparable to control glands (i.e., with no lymphocytic infiltration). TJ staining was absent in areas of lymphocytic infiltration coinciding with the loss of salivary epithelium. Gene expression studies show that most TJs are not significantly altered in 20-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Protein expression studies revealed that the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-12, as well as E-cadherin, do not significantly change in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Our results suggest that ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin are not altered in areas without lymphocytic infiltration. However, future studies will be necessary to test the functional aspect of these results.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a debilitating autoimmune disease. Patients with SS may develop xerostomia. This process is progressive, and there are no therapeutics that target disease etiology. We hypothesized BAFF receptor (BAFFR) blockade would mitigate SS disease development, and neutralization of CXCL13 and BAFF signaling would be more efficacious than BAFFR blockade alone. We treated NOD/ShiLtJ SS mice with soluble BAFF receptor (BAFFR-Fc) or anti-CXCL13/BAFFR-Fc in combination, prior to the development of clinical disease. Our results show treatment with BAFFR-Fc reduced peripheral B cell numbers and decreased sialadenitis. In addition, this treatment reduced total serum immunoglobulin as well as IgG and IgM specific anti-nuclear autoantibodies. NOD/ShiLtJ mice treated with BAFFR-Fc and anti-CXCL13 antibody were protected from salivary deficits. Results from this study suggest blockade of CXCL13 and BAFFR together may be an effective therapeutic strategy in preventing salivary hypofunction and reducing autoantibody titers and sialadenitis in patients with SS.
Project description:Patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease primarily affecting exocrine glands, exhibit enhanced TNF-? expression in the saliva and salivary glands. However, the precise in vivo role of TNF-? during the initiation and development of SS is not clearly defined. The present study is undertaken to determine the function of endogenously produced TNF-? in the pathogenesis of SS in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model of this human disease. Administration of a neutralizing anti-TNF-? antibody to female NOD mice during the stage prior to disease onset significantly improved salivary secretion, indicating a remission of clinical symptoms of SS. TNF-? blockade also decreased the number of leukocyte foci and reduced the number of T cells and B cells in the submandibular glands (SMG). Moreover, TNF-? blockade reduced T-bet protein levels in the SMG, suggesting a decrease in T helper 1 and T cytotoxic 1 cells. These cellular changes induced by TNF-? neutralization were associated with a reduction in T- and B-cell chemoattractants CXCL9 and CXC13. In addition, TNF-? blockade markedly increased the expression level of tight junction protein claudin-1 and water channel protein aquaporin-5, two key factors required for normal salivary secretion, in the SMG. Collectively, these findings indicate that endogenous TNF-? has a pathogenic role in the development of SS in the NOD model of this disease.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoreactive T cell-mediated ? cell destruction. Even though co-inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) restrains autoimmunity, the expression and regulation of its cognate ligands on ? cell remains unknown. Here, we interrogated ? cell-intrinsic programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in mouse and human islets. We measured a significant increase in the level of PD-L1 surface expression and the frequency of PD-L1+ ? cells as non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice aged and developed diabetes. Increased ? cell PD-L1 expression was dependent on T cell infiltration, as ? cells from Rag1-deficient mice lacked PD-L1. Using Rag1-deficient NOD mouse islets, we determined that IFN-? promotes ? cell PD-L1 expression. We performed analogous experiments using human samples, and found a significant increase in ? cell PD-L1 expression in type 1 diabetic samples compared to type 2 diabetic, autoantibody positive, and non-diabetic samples. Among type 1 diabetic samples, ? cell PD-L1 expression correlated with insulitis. In vitro experiments with human islets from non-diabetic individuals showed that IFN-? promoted ? cell PD-L1 expression. These results suggest that insulin-producing ? cells respond to pancreatic inflammation and IFN-? production by upregulating PD-L1 expression to limit self-reactive T cells.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) transplantation has been used to treat Sjögren's syndrome (SS) based on the immunoregulatory properties of MSCs. However, the effectiveness need improving and its underlying intrinsic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we show that Id3 is upregulated in bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs) isolated from NOD/ShiLtJ mice, a widely used SS model, compared with ICR mice as control, suggesting that it functions in SS development and therapy. Transplantation of Id3-deficient BMMSCs rescues salivary gland function more effective than wild-type BMMSCs in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Mechanistically, we show that ID3 negatively regulated BMP4 expression by preventing binding of basic helix-loop-helix protein E2A to the promoter of the Bmp4 gene. BMP4 in turn promoted PGE2 production in MSCs, and exhibited enhanced suppressive activities of T-cell proliferation and Th1 differentiation. Importantly, BMMSCs from SS patients showed significantly lower BMP4 and PGE2 expression than those from healthy individuals. Taken together, our findings revealed the targeting Id3 may be therapeutically useful for improving MSC immunoregulation and effectiveness of MSCs therapy for SS.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune exocrinopathy mainly affecting lachrymal and salivary glands, results in ocular and oral dryness (keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia). The aetiology and pathogenesis are largely unknown; currently, only palliative treatment is available. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether gene transfer of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), based on its immunomodulatory properties, might be useful in the management of SS. METHODS: A recombinant serotype 2 adeno-associated virus encoding the human VIP transgene (rAAV2hVIP) was constructed and its efficacy tested in the female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model for SS after retrograde instillation in submandibular glands (SMGs). 10(10) particles/gland of rAAV2hVIP or rAAV2LacZ (encoding beta-galactosidase; control vector) were administered at 8 weeks of age (before sialadenitis onset). Salivary flow rates were determined before vector delivery and at time of death (16 weeks). After death, saliva, serum, and SMGs were harvested. Salivary output, inflammatory infiltrates (focus scores), VIP protein expression, cytokine profile, and serum anti-VIP antibodies were analysed. RESULTS: rAAV2hVIP significantly improved the salivary flow, increased SMG and serum expression of VIP, and reduced SMG cytokines interleukin (IL) 2, IL10, IL12 (p70), and tumour necrosis factor alpha, and serum RANTES, compared with the control vector. No difference in focus scores or apoptotic rates was found; neutralising antibodies were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Local delivery of rAAV2hVIP can have disease modifying and immunosuppressive effects in SMGs of the NOD mouse model of SS. The new strategy of employing VIP prophylactically may be useful for both understanding and managing the salivary component of SS.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the salivary glands leading to secretory dysfunction. Previous studies demonstrated that aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) reduces inflammation and restores tissue integrity in salivary glands. Specifically, progression of SS-like features in NOD/ShiLtJ mice can be systemically halted using AT-RvD1 prior or after disease onset to downregulate proinflammatory cytokines, upregulate anti-inflammatory molecules, and restore saliva production. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to create a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to offer a reasonable starting point for required total AT-RvD1 dosage to be administered in future mice and humans thereby eliminating the need for excessive use of animals and humans in preclinical and clinical trials, respectively. Likewise, PBPK modeling was employed to increase the range of testable scenarios for elucidating the mechanisms under consideration. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Pharmacokinetics following intravenous administration of a 0.1 mg/kg dose of AT-RvD1 in NOD/ShiLtJ were predicted in both plasma and saliva using PBPK modeling with PK-Sim® and MoBi® Version 7.4 software. RESULTS:The model provides high-value pathways for future validation via in vivo studies in NOD/ShiLtJ to corroborate the findings themselves while also establishing this method as a means to better target drug development and clinical study design. CONCLUSIONS:Clinical and basic research would benefit from knowledge of the potential offered by computer modeling. Specifically, short-term utility of these pharmacokinetic modeling findings involves improved targeting of in vivo studies as well as longer term prospects for drug development and/or better designs for clinical trials.
Project description:Although elevated interleukin-7 (IL-7) levels have been reported in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), the role of IL-7 in this disease remains unclear. We undertook this study to characterize the previously unexplored role of IL-7 in the development and onset of primary SS using the C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 (B6.NOD-Aec) mouse model, which recapitulates human primary SS.For gain-of-function studies, recombinant IL-7 or control phosphate buffered saline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) into 12-week-old B6.NOD-Aec mice for 8 weeks. For loss-of-function studies, anti-IL-7 receptor ?-chain (anti-IL-7R?) antibody or its isotype control IgG was administered IP into 16-week-old B6.NOD-Aec mice. Salivary flow measurement, histologic and flow cytometric analysis of salivary glands, and serum antinuclear antibody assay were performed to assess various disease parameters.Administration of exogenous IL-7 accelerated the development of primary SS, whereas blockade of IL-7R? signaling almost completely abolished the development of primary SS, based on salivary gland inflammation and apoptosis, autoantibody production, and secretory dysfunction. IL-7 positively regulated interferon-? (IFN?)-producing Th1 and CD8+ T cells in the salivary glands without affecting IL-17. Moreover, IL-7 enhanced the expression of CXCR3 ligands in a T cell- and IFN?-dependent manner. Accordingly, IFN? induced a human salivary gland epithelial cell line to produce CXCR3 ligands. IL-7 also increased the level of tumor necrosis factor ?, another Th1-associated cytokine that can facilitate tissue destruction and inflammation.IL-7 plays a pivotal pathogenic role in SS, which is underpinned by an enhanced Th1 response and IFN?/CXCR3 ligand-mediated lymphocyte infiltration of target organs. These results suggest that targeting the IL-7 pathway may be a potential future strategy for preventing and treating SS.
Project description:Sjögren syndrome (SS) is an immunologically complex, chronic autoimmune disease targeting lacrimal and salivary glands. Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice spontaneously develop inflammation of lacrimal and salivary glands with histopathological features similar to SS in humans including focal lymphocytic infiltrates in the affected glands. The innate immune signals driving lymphocytic infiltration of these glands are not well-defined. Here we evaluate the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 in the development of SS-like manifestations in NOD mice. We created a <i>Tlr7</i> knockout NOD mouse strain and performed histological and gene expression studies to characterize the effects of TLR7 on autoimmunity development. TLR7 was required for male-specific lacrimal gland inflammation but not for female-specific salivary gland inflammation. Moreover, TLR7 was required for type 1 diabetes development in male but not female NOD mice. RNA sequencing demonstrated that TLR7 was associated with a type I interferon (IFN) response and a type I IFN-independent B cell response in the lacrimal glands. Together these studies identify a previously unappreciated pathogenic role for TLR7 in lacrimal gland autoimmunity and T1D development in male NOD mice adding to the growing body of evidence supporting sex differences in mechanisms of autoimmune disease in NOD mice.