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XPO1-dependent nuclear export is a druggable vulnerability in KRAS-mutant lung cancer.
ABSTRACT: The common participation of oncogenic KRAS proteins in many of the most lethal human cancers, together with the ease of detecting somatic KRAS mutant alleles in patient samples, has spurred persistent and intensive efforts to develop drugs that inhibit KRAS activity. However, advances have been hindered by the pervasive inter- and intra-lineage diversity in the targetable mechanisms that underlie KRAS-driven cancers, limited pharmacological accessibility of many candidate synthetic-lethal interactions and the swift emergence of unanticipated resistance mechanisms to otherwise effective targeted therapies. Here we demonstrate the acute and specific cell-autonomous addiction of KRAS-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer cells to receptor-dependent nuclear export. A multi-genomic, data-driven approach, utilizing 106 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines, was used to interrogate 4,725 biological processes with 39,760 short interfering RNA pools for those selectively required for the survival of KRAS-mutant cells that harbour a broad spectrum of phenotypic variation. Nuclear transport machinery was the sole process-level discriminator of statistical significance. Chemical perturbation of the nuclear export receptor XPO1 (also known as CRM1), with a clinically available drug, revealed a robust synthetic-lethal interaction with native or engineered oncogenic KRAS both in vitro and in vivo. The primary mechanism underpinning XPO1 inhibitor sensitivity was intolerance to the accumulation of nuclear I?B? (also known as NFKBIA), with consequent inhibition of NF?B transcription factor activity. Intrinsic resistance associated with concurrent FSTL5 mutations was detected and determined to be a consequence of YAP1 activation via a previously unappreciated FSTL5-Hippo pathway regulatory axis. This occurs in approximately 17% of KRAS-mutant lung cancers, and can be overcome with the co-administration of a YAP1-TEAD inhibitor. These findings indicate that clinically available XPO1 inhibitors are a promising therapeutic strategy for a considerable cohort of patients with lung cancer when coupled to genomics-guided patient selection and observation.
Project description:STK38 (also known as NDR1) is a Hippo pathway serine/threonine protein kinase with multifarious functions in normal and cancer cells. Using a context-dependent proximity-labeling assay, we identify more than 250 partners of STK38 and find that STK38 modulates its partnership depending on the cellular context by increasing its association with cytoplasmic proteins upon nutrient starvation-induced autophagy and with nuclear ones during ECM detachment. We show that STK38 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and that its nuclear exit depends on both XPO1 (aka exportin-1, CRM1) and STK38 kinase activity. We further uncover that STK38 modulates XPO1 export activity by phosphorylating XPO1 on serine 1055, thus regulating its own nuclear exit. We expand our model to other cellular contexts by discovering that XPO1 phosphorylation by STK38 regulates also the nuclear exit of Beclin1 and YAP1, key regulator of autophagy and transcriptional effector, respectively. Collectively, our results reveal STK38 as an activator of XPO1, behaving as a gatekeeper of nuclear export. These observations establish a novel mechanism of XPO1-dependent cargo export regulation by phosphorylation of XPO1's C-terminal auto-inhibitory domain.
Project description:STK38 (also known as NDR1) is a Hippo pathway serine/threonine protein kinase with multifarious functions in normal and cancer cells. Using a context-dependent proximity-labelling assay, we identify more than 250 partners of STK38 and find that STK38 modulates its partnership depending on the cellular context by increasing its association with cytoplasmic proteins upon nutrient starvation-induced autophagy and with nuclear ones during ECM detachment. We show that STK38 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and that its nuclear exit depends on both XPO1 (aka Exportin-1, CRM1) and STK38 kinase activity. We further uncover that STK38 modulates XPO1 export activity by phosphorylating XPO1 on serine 1055, thus regulating its own nuclear exit. We expand our model to other cellular contexts by discovering that XPO1 phosphorylation by STK38 regulates also the nuclear exit of Beclin1 and YAP1, key regulator of autophagy and transcriptional effector, respectively. Collectively, our results reveal STK38 as an activator of XPO1, behaving as a gatekeeper of nuclear export. These observations establish a novel mechanism of XPO1-dependent cargo export regulation by phosphorylation of XPO1's C-terminal auto-inhibitory domain.
Project description:The transcriptional regulator YAP1 is critical for the pathological activation of fibroblasts. In normal fibroblasts, YAP1 is located in the cytoplasm, while in activated cancer-associated fibroblasts, it is nuclear and promotes the expression of genes required for pro-tumorigenic functions. Here, we investigate the dynamics of YAP1 shuttling in normal and activated fibroblasts, using EYFP-YAP1, quantitative photobleaching methods, and mathematical modeling. Imaging of migrating fibroblasts reveals the tight temporal coupling of cell shape change and altered YAP1 localization. Both 14-3-3 and TEAD binding modulate YAP1 shuttling, but neither affects nuclear import. Instead, we find that YAP1 nuclear accumulation in activated fibroblasts results from Src and actomyosin-dependent suppression of phosphorylated YAP1 export. Finally, we show that nuclear-constrained YAP1, upon XPO1 depletion, remains sensitive to blockade of actomyosin function. Together, these data place nuclear export at the center of YAP1 regulation and indicate that the cytoskeleton can regulate YAP1 within the nucleus.
Project description:Altered expression of XPO1, the main nuclear export receptor in eukaryotic cells, has been observed in cancer, and XPO1 has been a focus of anticancer drug development. However, mechanistic evidence for cancer-specific alterations in XPO1 function is lacking. Here, genomic analysis of 42,793 cancers identified recurrent and previously unrecognized mutational hotspots in XPO1. XPO1 mutations exhibited striking lineage specificity, with enrichment in a variety of B-cell malignancies, and introduction of single amino acid substitutions in XPO1 initiated clonal, B-cell malignancy in vivo. Proteomic characterization identified that mutant XPO1 altered the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of hundreds of proteins in a sequence-specific manner that promoted oncogenesis. XPO1 mutations preferentially sensitized cells to inhibitors of nuclear export, providing a biomarker of response to this family of drugs. These data reveal a new class of oncogenic alteration based on change-of-function mutations in nuclear export signal recognition and identify therapeutic targets based on altered nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. SIGNIFICANCE: Here, we identify that heterozygous mutations in the main nuclear exporter in eukaryotic cells, XPO1, are positively selected in cancer and promote the initiation of clonal B-cell malignancies. XPO1 mutations alter nuclear export signal recognition in a sequence-specific manner and sensitize cells to compounds in clinical development inhibiting XPO1 function.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1325.
Project description:XPO1 (exportin1) mediates nuclear export of proteins and RNAs and is frequently overexpressed in cancers. In this study, we show that the orally bioavailable XPO1 inhibitor KPT-330 reduced Mcl-1 protein level, by which it synergized with Bcl-xL inhibitor A-1331852 to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. KPT-330/A-1331852 combination disrupted bindings of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL to Bax, Bak, and/or Bim, elicited mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, and triggered apoptosis. KPT-330 generally mitigated mRNA expression and protein synthesis rather than mRNA nuclear export or protein stability of Mcl-1. KPT-330 inhibited mTORC1/4E-BP1 and Mnk1/eIF4E axes, which disrupted the eIF4F translation initiation complex but was dispensable for Mcl-1 reduction and KPT-330/A-1331852 combination-induced apoptosis. Mature rRNAs are integral components of the ribosome that determines protein synthesis ability. KPT-330 impeded nucleolar rRNA processing and reduced total levels of multiple mature rRNAs. Reconstitution of XPO1 by expressing degradation-resistant C528S mutant retained rRNA amount, Mcl-1 expression, and Bcl-xL inhibitor resistance upon KPT-330 treatment. KPT-330/A-1331852 combination suppressed growth and enhanced apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer xenografts. Therefore, we clarify the reason of apoptosis resistance of cancer cells to XPO1 inhibition and develop a potential strategy for treating solid tumors.
Project description:Cellular homeostasis requires the proper nuclear-cytoplasmic partitioning of large molecules, which is often deregulated in cancer. XPO1 is an export receptor responsible for the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport of hundreds of proteins and multiple RNA species. XPO1 is frequently overexpressed and/or mutated in human cancers and functions as an oncogenic driver. Suppression of XPO1-mediated nuclear export, therefore, presents a unique therapeutic strategy. In this review, we summarize the physiological functions of XPO1 as well as the development of various XPO1 inhibitors and provide an update on the recent clinical trials of the SINE compounds. We also discuss potential future research directions on the molecular function of XPO1 and the clinical application of XPO1 inhibitors.
Project description:The XPO1 gene encodes exportin 1 (XPO1) that controls the nuclear export of cargo proteins and RNAs. Almost 25% of primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) cases harboured a recurrent XPO1 point mutation (NM_003400, chr2:g61718472C>T) resulting in the E571K substitution within the hydrophobic groove of the protein, the site of cargo binding. We investigated the impact of the XPO1E571K mutation using PMBL/cHL cells having various XPO1 statuses and CRISPR-Cas9-edited cells in which the E571K mutation was either introduced or knocked-out. We first confirmed that the mutation was present in both XPO1 mRNA and protein. We observed that the mutation did not modify the export capacity but rather the subcellular localisation of XPO1 itself. In particular, mutant XPO1 bound to importin ?1 modified the nuclear export/import dynamics of relevant cargoes.
Project description:Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a progressive, proliferative renal disease. Kidneys from ADPKD patients are characterized by the presence of cysts that are marked by enhanced proliferation and apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. Current treatment of this disease is supportive, as there are few if any clinically validated targeted therapeutics. Given the parallels between cystic disease and cancer, and in light of our findings of the efficacy of the nuclear transport inhibitors in kidney cancer, which has similarities to ADPKD, we asked whether such inhibitors show utility in ADPKD. In this study, we tested selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) in two human ADPKD cell lines and in an in vivo mouse model of ADPKD. After effective downregulation of a nuclear exporter, exportin 1 (XPO1), with KPT-330, both cell lines showed dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation through G?/G? arrest associated with downregulation of CDK4, with minimal apoptosis. To analyze mechanisms of CDK4 decrease by XPO1 inhibition, localization of various XPO1 target proteins was examined, and C/EBP? was found to be localized in the nucleus by XPO1 inhibition, resulting in an increase of C/EBP?, which activates degradation of CDK4. Furthermore, inhibition of XPO1 with the parallel inhibitor KPT-335 attenuated cyst growth in vivo in the PKD1 mutant mouse model Pkd1(v/v). Thus, inhibition of nuclear export by KPT-330, which has shown no adverse effects in renal serum chemistries and urinalyses in animal models, and which is already in phase 1 trials for cancers, will be rapidly translatable to human ADPKD.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive cancers, with high mortality in the United States. One of the important signal transduction proteins involved in the regulation of pancreatic cancer's aggressive progression is the nuclear export protein (XPO1). High expression of XPO1 has been found in pancreatic, lung, breast and other cancers and lymphomas with a poor prognosis of patients with tumors and high proliferative activity of cancer cells. Because XPO1 exports multiple tumor suppressor proteins simultaneously from the nucleus, the inhibition of XPO1 may retain multiple tumor suppressors in the nucleus, resulting in the suppression of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in tumors. In this study, we found that the high expression of XPO1 in pancreatic cancer cells could be, in part, due to the methylation of the miR-30 gene, leading to the low expression level of the miR-30 family. By co-transfection of the XPO1 3'-UTR-Luc target vector with miR-30 mimic, we found that XPO1 is a direct target of the miR-30 family. We also observed that the enforced expression of the miR-30 family inhibited the expression of XPO1, resulting in the suppression of pancreatic cancer growth both in vitro and in vivo. These findings could help to design a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer by introducing miR-30 into cancer cells.
Project description:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are progressive neurodegenerative disorders marked in most cases by the nuclear exclusion and cytoplasmic deposition of the RNA binding protein TDP43. We previously demonstrated that ALS-associated mutant TDP43 accumulates within the cytoplasm, and that TDP43 mislocalization predicts neurodegeneration. Here, we sought to prevent neurodegeneration in ALS/FTD models using selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds that target exportin-1 (XPO1). SINE compounds modestly extend cellular survival in neuronal ALS/FTD models and mitigate motor symptoms in an in vivo rat ALS model. At high doses, SINE compounds block nuclear egress of an XPO1 cargo reporter, but not at lower concentrations that were associated with neuroprotection. Neither SINE compounds nor leptomycin B, a separate XPO1 inhibitor, enhanced nuclear TDP43 levels, while depletion of XPO1 or other exportins had little effect on TDP43 localization, suggesting that no single exporter is necessary for TDP43 export. Supporting this hypothesis, we find overexpression of XPO1, XPO7 and NXF1 are each sufficient to promote nuclear TDP43 egress. Taken together, our results indicate that redundant pathways regulate TDP43 nuclear export, and that therapeutic prevention of cytoplasmic TDP43 accumulation in ALS/FTD may be enhanced by targeting several overlapping mechanisms.