Early life predictors of alcohol-related attitudes among 11-year-old never drinkers.
ABSTRACT: Alcohol-related attitudes are evident before children have personal experience drinking alcohol and represent key proximal predictors of alcohol use, but relatively little is known about how early life characteristics predict these attitudes. Among late childhood lifetime alcohol abstainers (Mage=10.67years; 51% girls), we examine predictors of positive alcohol expectancies and perceived risk of alcohol use. Data from the Millennium Cohort Study, an ongoing nationally representative longitudinal study of children born in the UK, were available from 11,097 children who completed the self-report survey at modal age 11 and reported never drinking alcohol. A sequential structural model suggested that sociodemographic factors were distal predictors of age 11 alcohol attitudes that operated, in part, through family and child risk factors (measured at ages 3 to 7). Alcohol attitudes varied by sociodemographics; for example, boys had higher positive expectancies than girls and White British children had higher positive expectancies and lower perceived risk than Black British and Asian British children. In terms of family factors, parent alcohol problems predicted children's lower perceived risk, and higher parent-child conflict predicted more positive expectancies. For child factors, children's greater cognitive skills predicted higher perceived risk, and internalizing problems predicted more positive expectancies. Indirect effects from sociodemographics through parent-child conflict and internalizing problems predicted positive expectancies; indirect effects through parent alcohol problems and cognitive skills predicted perceived risk. Future research should delve further into mechanisms underlying the development of alcohol attitudes and their potential as malleable targets for prevention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Parental drinking and parent alcohol use disorder (AUD) are known predictors of adolescent positive alcohol expectancies, but their link to negative expectancies is unclear. Research suggests that parent drinking may indirectly predict adolescent expectancies through exposure to parental drinking events. However, exposure to parent negative alcohol consequences may be more relevant to adolescents' expectancies. The present study tested the mediating effect of parent observable negative alcohol consequences in the association between parent AUD and adolescent expectancies. METHODS:This study used parent and adolescent data from the Adult and Family Development Project. A total of 581 adolescents reported on their alcohol expectancies across 2 waves of data, and their parents reported on potentially observable alcohol-related negative consequences during the first wave. Past-year and lifetime parent AUD were assessed with diagnostic interviews across 6 waves of data. RESULTS:Mothers' observable consequences mediated the effect of her past-year AUD on adolescent negative expectancies in adolescence, but this effect did not hold at a 1.5-year follow-up. Mothers' lifetime AUD was the only prospective predictor of later adolescent negative expectancies. No father drinking variables predicted expectancies, and all models were invariant across child biological sex. Finally, older adolescent age prospectively predicted higher positive expectancies, whereas the adolescents' own drinking predicted lower negative expectancies. CONCLUSIONS:These findings, in line with other recent studies, suggest that exposure to mothers' negative experiences with alcohol may counterintuitively normalize negative alcohol effects. This may paradoxically increase risk for adolescents rather than buffering the effects of a family history of parental AUD.
Project description:Face masks continue to be a necessity until a large proportion of the population, including children, receive immunizations for COVID-19. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental attitudes and beliefs about masks and parent-for-child mask behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior. We administered a survey in August 2020 to parents of school-aged children residing in the United States and Canada. Measures included sociodemographic variables for the parent and child, attitudes, norms, perceived control over children's mask use, intentions and enforcement of mask wearing among children (also titled "parent-for-child mask behavior"). Data were analyzed using structural equation modelling. We collected data from 866 parents and 43.5% had children with pre-existing conditions (e.g., allergies, anxiety, impulsivity, skin sensitivity, asthma) that made extended mask wearing difficult, as per parent's report. Among the full sample, negative attitudes (β = -0.20, <i>p</i> = .006), norms (β = 0.41, <i>p</i> = .002), and perceived control (β = 0.33, <i>p</i> = .006) predicted intentions. Norms (β = 0.50, <i>p</i> = .004) and intentions (β = 0.28, <i>p</i> = .003) also predicted parent-for-child mask use, while attitudes and perceived control did not. Intentions mediated the associations between attitudes, norms, perceived control, respectively, <i>and</i> mask behavior. Subgroup analyses revealed intentions as the key predictor of parent-for-child mask use among children with pre-conditions and norms as the key predictor among children without pre-conditions (i.e. healthy). Future public health messaging should target parental intentions, attitudes, norms, and perceived control about children's masks wearing.
Project description:The earliest experiences with alcohol for many children occur in the family context with parental supervision. The current study examined individual and sociocultural characteristics associated with early (prior to age 13years) sipping and tasting alcohol with parental permission in two longitudinal community samples. Early sipping/tasting was also tested as a predictor of frequency and quantity of alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems seven years later in late adolescence. Early sipping/tasting with parental permission was associated with a sociocultural context supportive of alcohol use (e.g., parental alcohol use, permissive rules about alcohol use in the home, parental attitudes about underage drinking, perceived peer norms), adolescent sensation seeking and disinhibition (e.g., surgency, externalizing behavior) and appraisals of alcohol (negative outcome expectancies and negative implicit alcohol associations). Early sipping/tasting predicted increased frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and increased alcohol-related problems in late adolescence, even after controlling sociocultural and individual difference variables. Findings suggest that early sipping/tasting with parental permission is not benign and is a viable target for preventive interventions.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Research on adolescent predictors of later alcohol misuse is typically conducted on samples of singletons, and associations may be confounded by between-family differences. To address potential confounding, we applied a co-twin comparison design to evaluate whether differences between co-twins in a wide array of adolescent risk factors predicted differences in young adult alcohol misuse.<h4>Design</h4>Longitudinal study in which associations between characteristics of the sample as adolescents were used to predict young adult alcohol misuse in individual-level analyses and co-twin comparisons.<h4>Setting</h4>Finland.<h4>Participants</h4>A total of 3402 individuals (1435 complete twin pairs; 36% monozygotic; 57% female) from the FinnTwin12 study.<h4>Measurements</h4>The young adult alcohol misuse outcome was a composite score of alcohol use and intoxication frequency. Adolescent predictors included factor scores representing academic performance, substance use, externalizing problems, internalizing problems, peer environment, physical health and relationship with parents; and single measures tapping alcohol expectancies, life events and pubertal development.<h4>Findings</h4>In individual-level analyses, individuals with higher adolescent substance use, externalizing problems, time with friends, peer deviance, sports involvement, sleeping difficulties, parental discipline, positive alcohol expectancies and difficulty of life events reported higher alcohol misuse in young adulthood (Ps < 0.019, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.0003-0.0310%). Conversely, those with higher adolescent internalizing problems, parent-child relationship quality and time with parents reported lower alcohol misuse (Ps < 0021, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.0018-0.0093%). The associations with adolescent substance use and alcohol expectancies remained significant in co-twin comparisons (Ps < 0.049, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.0019-0.0314%). Further, academic performance emerged as a significant predictor, such that individuals with higher grades compared with their co-twin reported higher young adult alcohol misuse (Ps < 0.029, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.0449-0.0533%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Adolescent substance use, positive alcohol expectancies and higher academic performance appear to be robust predictors of later alcohol misuse.
Project description:The tendency to form first impressions from facial appearance emerges early in development. One route through which these impressions may be learned is parent-child interaction. In Study 1, 24 parent-child dyads (children aged 5-6 years, 50% male, 83% White British) were given four computer generated faces and asked to talk about each of the characters shown. Study 2 (children aged 5-6 years, 50% male, 92% White British) followed a similar procedure using images of real faces. Across both studies, around 13% of conversation related to the perceived traits of the individuals depicted. Furthermore, parents actively reinforced their children's face-trait mappings, agreeing with the opinions they voiced on approximately 40% of occasions across both studies. Interestingly, although parents often encouraged face-trait mappings in their children, their responses to questionnaire items suggested they typically did not approve of judging others based on their appearance.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There are mixed findings in the literature regarding the association between parental alcohol communication and offspring alcohol use. To clarify this association, this study tested a prospective mediated moderation model in which the association between parental communication about the risks of alcohol use and emerging adult offspring drinking was mediated by offspring perceived parental approval of drinking. Parental alcohol expectancies and use were tested as moderators of the link between communication and perceived approval.<h4>Method</h4>The community sample of 378 emerging adult and caregiver dyads completed 3 annual assessments (first assessment mean age = 19.13). The sample was 54% female and majority White/non-Hispanic (76%). Caregivers reported on their own alcohol expectancies and use, and emerging adult offspring reported on parental communication of alcohol risks, perceived parental approval of drinking, and their own alcohol use. Multilevel modeling was used to test hypotheses.<h4>Results</h4>Mediated moderation was largely supported. More frequent communication about the risks of drinking was prospectively associated with low levels of perceived parental approval of alcohol use, which in turn was associated with low levels of offspring drinking. This pathway depended on parental alcohol expectancies.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Findings suggest that including mediators (e.g., perceived approval of drinking) helps to clarify the mixed literature on parental communication about alcohol and that parental attitudes about alcohol can impact the effectiveness with which parents convey the risk of alcohol to offspring.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Functional abdominal pain disorders are chronic abdominal pain conditions, which affect up to 20% of children worldwide. Of the various functional abdominal pain disorder treatment modalities, psychological therapies such as guided imagery therapy appear most effective. However, there are significant barriers to receiving psychological therapies, including access to trained therapists. Alternatively, remotely delivered psychological therapies for functional abdominal pain disorders have been efficacious.<h4>Objective</h4>The objective of our study was to assess acceptability of a proposed guided imagery therapy app designed to treat functional abdominal pain disorders through remote delivery of prerecorded audio sessions and to evaluate user preferences for using such an app.<h4>Methods</h4>Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted a predevelopment formative study among children aged 7 to 12 years with a functional abdominal pain disorder and their parents. The parents completed our modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) questionnaire, which quantified behavioral intention and related factors for using a guided imagery therapy app. Dyads participated in separate in-person semistructured interviews to assess their attitudes toward and preferences for a guided imagery therapy app. Questionnaire and interview findings were collected concurrently, analyzed separately, and then integrated through methods triangulation.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 15 participating parent-child dyads, 5 (33%) children were Hispanic and 11 (73%) had irritable bowel syndrome. They had diverse socioeconomic status. All parent participants were mothers. The TAM questionnaire indicated that mothers scored favorably on behavioral intention to use a guided imagery therapy app (mean score 12.0, SD 2.6, possible range 3-15). Scores for the TAM factors perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, hedonic motivation, compatibility, and habit also were favorable. Maternal interviews confirmed positive attitudes toward the proposed app. They advocated a visual component to hold their child's attention during the guided imagery therapy sessions; recommended incorporating background sounds into the sessions; favored session reminder notifications from the app; and thought the best time for their child to listen to the sessions would be in the evening or before bed. The child interviews also confirmed positive attitudes toward the proposed app. They suggested guided imagery therapy session topics such as sports and adventures; listening to sessions in their bedroom; and the need for parental supervision to install the app on their mobile device. Integration of the quantitative and qualitative methods findings complimented one another on acceptability. The favorable behavioral intention TAM score aligned well with expressed positive maternal and child attitudes toward the app and can be explained by the desire to avoid medications. The questionnaire and interviews also confirmed therapeutic benefit as an intrinsic motivator to promote routine use.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A guided imagery therapy app designed to treat pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain disorders appears to be acceptable to both mothers and children. Incorporating parent and child preferences into a guided imagery therapy app could promote therapeutic compliance and increase access to optimal care.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This feasibility pilot of the Parenting for Lifelong Health for Young Children program in Thailand aimed to: 1) explore the feasibility of study evaluation approaches; 2) assess the feasibility of delivering an adapted program; 3) report indicative effects on child maltreatment and related outcomes; and 4) examine intervention content associated with key mechanisms of change perceived by caregivers and facilitators.<h4>Method</h4>Sixty primary caregivers of children aged 2-9 years were recruited for an 8-week parenting program embedded within the local health system. Mixed-methods approaches included quantitative caregiver-report and observational data from standardized instruments, and qualitative data from individual and group interviews with caregivers and program facilitators. Analyses involved Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, paired t-tests, Friedman's ANOVA, and thematic analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Participants reported that most (65%) were grandparents or great-grandparents. Study retention and response rates were high, and enrolled caregivers attended an average of 93% of sessions. Primary outcomes showed caregiver-reported pre-post reductions in overall child maltreatment (d = - 0.58, p < 0.001), as well as reductions in physical (d = - 0.58, p < 0.001) and emotional abuse (d = - 0.40, p < 0.001). Combined caregiver report and observational assessments using the HOME Inventory showed reductions in abusive and harsh parenting (d = - 0.52, p < 0.001). Secondary outcomes demonstrated decreases in child neglect; dysfunctional parenting; poor child monitoring and supervision; parental sense of inefficacy; child behavior problems; daily report on child problem behavior; parent overall depression, anxiety, and stress; and attitudes supporting physical punishment and harsh discipline. There were increases in overall positive parenting, daily positive parenting behavior, as well as HOME Inventory assessments on parent-child relationships. Thematic analyses from interviews and focus group data identified six key program themes associated with strengthened parent-child relationships, reduced child behavior problems, improved attitudes and strategies toward discipline, and improved management of parental stress.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study represents one of few evaluations to test the feasibility of an evidence-based parenting program embedded within routine public health service delivery in a low- or middle-income country. Findings show preliminary effectiveness in reducing child maltreatment, improvements on 22 of 24 secondary outcomes, and perceived mechanisms of change that support quantitative findings. Prospects are promising for program scalability, pending randomized controlled trial results.<h4>Trial registration</h4>11/01/2019, ClinicalTrials.gov, ID# NCT03539341 .
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Alcohol and cannabis co-users experience more negative alcohol consequences, but distal and mediating mechanisms of this association remain largely unstudied. Considering research suggests that individuals high in impulsivity and sensation seeking are more likely to be co-users, it is possible that co-users have more positive expectancies and become heavier drinkers, which confer risk for future negative consequences. Therefore, the current study tested prospective mediation models in which impulsive personality traits indirectly predicted negative consequences through co-use, heavier drinking, and expectancies.<h4>Methods</h4>The current study used data from a study of familial AUD spanning 3 waves (1995-2010). Participants (N = 567) reported on impulsivity (via the Eysenck Personality Inventory and Sensation Seeking Scale) alcohol and cannabis use, alcohol expectancies, and negative consequences. Models tested the factor structure of impulsive personality traits and whether these traits predicted future negative consequences through past-year co-use and drinking/expectancies.<h4>Results</h4>Factor analysis suggested two factors, sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. Sensation seeking was associated with future negative consequences indirectly through co-use and both drinking quantity and positive expectancies. Lack of premeditation was not associated with co-use, but indirectly predicted negative consequences through positive expectancies, above and beyond co-use. Sensation seeking directly predicted negative expectancies, but negative expectancies did not predict negative consequences.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Impulsive personality traits in co-users, particularly sensation seeking, explained variance in future negative alcohol consequences via heavier drinking (behavior) and positive expectancies (cognition). Personalized interventions targeting a lack of premeditation, and sensation seeking in co-users, may interrupt a developmental trajectory toward problem drinking.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Alcohol expectancies are important determinants and predictors of adolescent alcohol use. Research with African Americans has shown that the endorsement of positive alcohol expectancies differs from that of Whites during childhood and predicts different alcohol outcomes during young adulthood. However, limited research has explored racial differences in the relationship between expectancy endorsement and alcohol use in school-aged adolescents. The current study examines the effect of White or African American race on the relationship between positive alcohol expectancies and alcohol use. METHODS:Participants were 104 adolescents ages 12-18 who identified as either non-Hispanic White or non-Hispanic African American. Participants completed self-report measures of alcohol consumption and positive social alcohol expectancies. RESULTS:Preliminary analyses revealed no racial differences in alcohol expectancies or consumption. However, race moderated the relationship between alcohol expectancies and alcohol use such that more positive expectancies predicted alcohol use among White youth, but not African American youth. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that alcohol expectancies, which were thought to be important mediators of the relationship between social and personality factors and adolescent alcohol use may not be as impactful for African Americans. Future research should focus on identifying factors posing unique risk for alcohol consumption in this population.