Functionally specified protein signatures distinctive for each of the different blue copper proteins.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Proteins having similar functions from different sources can be identified by the occurrence in their sequences, a conserved cluster of amino acids referred to as pattern, motif, signature or fingerprint. The wide usage of protein sequence analysis in par with the growth of databases signifies the importance of using patterns or signatures to retrieve out related sequences. Blue copper proteins are found in the electron transport chain of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The signatures already existing in the databases like the type 1 copper blue, multiple copper oxidase, cyt b/b6, photosystem 1 psaA&B, psaG&K, and reiske iron sulphur protein are not specified signatures for blue copper proteins as the name itself suggests. Most profile and motif databases strive to classify protein sequences into a broad spectrum of protein families. This work describes the signatures designed based on the copper metal binding motifs in blue copper proteins. The common feature in all blue copper proteins is a trigonal planar arrangement of two nitrogen ligands [each from histidine] and one sulphur containing thiolate ligand [from cysteine], with strong interactions between the copper center and these ligands. RESULTS: Sequences that share such conserved motifs are crucial to the structure or function of the protein and this could provide a signature of family membership. The blue copper proteins chosen for the study were plantacyanin, plastocyanin, cucumber basic protein, stellacyanin, dicyanin, umecyanin, uclacyanin, cusacyanin, rusticyanin, sulfocyanin, halocyanin, azurin, pseudoazurin, amicyanin and nitrite reductase which were identified in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. ClustalW analysis of the protein sequences of each of the blue copper proteins was the basis for designing protein signatures or peptides. The protein signatures and peptides identified in this study were designed involving the active site region involving the amino acids bound to the copper atom. It was highly specific for each kind of blue copper protein and the false picks were minimized. The set of signatures designed specifically for the BCP's was entirely different from the existing broad spectrum signatures as mentioned in the background section. CONCLUSIONS: These signatures can be very useful for the annotation of uncharacterized proteins and highly specific to retrieve blue copper protein sequences of interest from the non redundant databases containing a large deposition of protein sequences.
Project description:Methylomonas J is an obligate methylotroph although it is unable to grow on methane. Like Pseudomonas AM1, it produces two blue copper proteins when growing on methylamine, one of which is the recipient of electrons from the methylamine dehydrogenase. When grown on methanol, only the other blue copper protein is produced. We have determined the amino acid sequences of these blue copper proteins, and show that they are both true azurins. The sequences are clearly homologous to those of the proteins characterized from fluorescent pseudomonads and various species of Alcaligenes, and can be aligned with them and with each other without the need to postulate any internal insertions or deletions in the sequences. The iso-1 azurin, the one produced during both methanol and methylamine growth, shows 59-65% identity with these other azurins, whereas the iso-2 protein shows only 47-53% identity. The proteins show 52% identity with each other. The two functionally equivalent blue copper proteins from Pseudomonas AM1 belong to two sequence classes that are quite distinct from the true azurins. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequences of the proteins has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50151 (23 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1989) 257, 5.
Project description:Among the iron-sulphur cluster assembly proteins encoded by gene cluster iscSUA-hscBA-fdx in Escherichia coli, IscA has a unique and strong iron binding activity and can provide iron for iron-sulphur cluster assembly in proteins in vitro. Deletion of IscA and its paralogue SufA results in an E. coli mutant that fails to assemble [4Fe-4S] clusters in proteins under aerobic conditions, suggesting that IscA has a crucial role for iron-sulphur cluster biogenesis. Here we report that among the iron-sulphur cluster assembly proteins, IscA also has a strong and specific binding activity for Cu(I) in vivo and in vitro. The Cu(I) centre in IscA is stable and resistant to oxidation under aerobic conditions. Mutation of the conserved cysteine residues that are essential for the iron binding in IscA abolishes the copper binding activity, indicating that copper and iron may share the same binding site in the protein. Additional studies reveal that copper can compete with iron for the metal binding site in IscA and effectively inhibits the IscA-mediated [4Fe-4S] cluster assembly in E. coli cells. The results suggest that copper may not only attack the [4Fe-4S] clusters in dehydratases, but also block the [4Fe-4S] cluster assembly in proteins by targeting IscA in cells.
Project description:The cDNAs encoding plantacyanin from spinach were isolated and characterized. In addition, four new cDNA sequences from Arabidopsis ESTs were identified that encode polypeptides resembling phytocyanins, plant-specific proteins constituting a distinct family of mononuclear blue copper proteins. One of them encodes plantacyanin from Arabidopsis, while three others, designated as uclacyanin 1, 2, and 3, encode protein precursors that are closely related to precursors of stellacyanins and a blue copper protein from pea pods. Comparative analyses with known phytocyanins allow further classification of these proteins into three distinct subfamilies designated as uclacyanins, stellacyanins, and plantacyanins. This specification is based on (1) their spectroscopic properties, (2) their glycosylation state, (3) the domain organization of their precursors, and (4) their copper-binding amino acids. The recombinant copper binding domain of Arabidopsis uclacyanin 1 was expressed, purified, and shown to bind a copper atom in a fashion known as "blue" or type 1. The mutant of cucumber stellacyanin in which the glutamine axial ligand was substituted by a methionine (Q99M) was purified and shown to possess spectroscopic properties similar to uclacyanin 1 rather than to plantacyanins. Its redox potential was determined by cyclic voltammetry to be +420 mV, a value that is significantly higher than that determined for the wild-type protein (+260 mV). The available structural data suggest that stellacyanins (and possibly other phytocyanins) might not be diffusible electron-transfer proteins participating in long-range electron-transfer processes. Conceivably, they are involved in redox reactions occurring during primary defense responses in plants and/or in lignin formation.
Project description:Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are known to have family-specific sequence composition, which can be mined for discovery and design of AMPs. Here, we present CAMPR3; an update to the existing CAMP database available online at www.camp3.bicnirrh.res.in. It is a database of sequences, structures and family-specific signatures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic AMPs. Family-specific sequence signatures comprising of patterns and Hidden Markov Models were generated for 45 AMP families by analysing 1386 experimentally studied AMPs. These were further used to retrieve AMPs from online sequence databases. More than 4000 AMPs could be identified using these signatures. AMP family signatures provided in CAMPR3 can thus be used to accelerate and expand the discovery of AMPs. CAMPR3 presently holds 10247 sequences, 757 structures and 114 family-specific signatures of AMPs. Users can avail the sequence optimization algorithm for rational design of AMPs. The database integrated with tools for AMP sequence and structure analysis will be a valuable resource for family-based studies on AMPs.
Project description:The elemental composition of proteins influences the quantities of different elements required by organisms. Here, we considered variation in the sulphur content of whole proteomes among 19 Archaea, 122 Eubacteria and 10 eukaryotes whose genomes have been fully sequenced. We found that different species vary greatly in the sulphur content of their proteins, and that average sulphur content of proteomes and genome base composition are related. Forces contributing to variation in proteomic sulphur content appear to operate quite uniformly across the proteins of different species. In particular, the sulphur content of orthologous proteins was frequently correlated with mean proteomic sulphur contents. Among prokaryotes, proteomic sulphur content tended to be greater in anaerobes, relative to non-anaerobes. Thermophiles tended to have lower proteomic sulphur content than non-thermophiles, consistent with the thermolability of cysteine and methionine residues. This work suggests that persistent environmental growth conditions can influence the evolution of elemental composition of whole proteomes in a manner that may have important implications for the amount of sulphur used by living organisms to build proteins. It extends previous studies that demonstrated links between transient changes in environmental conditions and the elemental composition of subsets of proteins expressed under these conditions.
Project description:Multicopper blue proteins, composed of several repetitive copper-binding domains similar to one-domain cupredoxin-like proteins, were found in almost all organisms. They are classified into the three different groups, based on their two-, three- or six-domain organization. We found orthologs of chordate six-domain copper-binding proteins in animals, plants, bacteria and archea. The phylogenetic analysis of 183 multicopper blue proteins and their copper-binding sites comparison make us think that all the modern six-domain blue proteins have originated from the common ancestral six-domain protein in the process of gene duplication and copper-binding sites loss as a result of amino acid substitutions.
Project description:GSTaxClassifier (Genomic Signature based Taxonomic Classifier) is a program for metagenomics analysis of shotgun DNA sequences. The program includes a simple but effective algorithm, a modification of the Bayesian method, to predict the most probable genomic origins of sequences at different taxonomical ranks, on the basis of genome databases;a function to generate genomic profiles of reference sequences with tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide motifs for setting a user-defined database; two different formats (tabular- and tree-based summaries) to display taxonomic predictions with improved analytical methods; and effective ways to retrieve, search, and summarize results by integrating the predictions into the NCBI tree-based taxonomic information.GSTaxClassifier takes input nucleotide sequences and using a modified Bayesian model evaluates the genomic signatures between metagenomic query sequences and reference genome databases. The simulation studies of a numerical data sets showed that GSTaxClassifier could serve as a useful program for metagenomics studies, which is freely available at http://helix2.biotech.ufl.edu:26878/metagenomics/.
Project description:Proteins in the small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Four individual proteins were subjected to in-gel Endoprotease Lys-C digestion. The sequences of selected proteolytic peptides were obtained by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Peptide sequences obtained from in-gel digestion of individual spots were used to screen human, mouse, and rat expressed sequence tag databases, and complete consensus cDNAs for these species were deduced in silico. The corresponding protein sequences were characterized by comparison to known ribosomal proteins in protein databases. Four different classes of mammalian mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal proteins were identified. Only two of these proteins have significant sequence similarities to ribosomal proteins from prokaryotes. These proteins are homologs to Escherichia coli S9 and S5 proteins. The presence of these newly identified mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are also investigated in the Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and in the genomes of several fungi.
Project description:The amino acid sequences of two blue copper proteins from the pink facultative methylotroph Pseudomonas AM1 (N.C.I.B. 9133) were determined. They each consist of a single polypeptide chain and bind one copper atom. Amicyanin contains 99 and pseudoazurin 123 residues. Copper-binding sites, consisting of the side chains of two histidine, one cysteine and one methionine residues, can be recognized in each protein by analogy with azurin and plastocyanin, but the spacings of the ligand residues are different, and other sequence similarity is limited. Proteins that are in the pseudoazurin sequence class can be recognized in some strains of Alcaligenes, and probably also in Paracoccus denitrificans. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequences of the proteins has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50130 (23 pp.) at the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1985) 225, 5.
Project description:Copper is an essential trace element in many organisms and is utilized in all domains of life. It is often used as a cofactor of redox proteins, but is also a toxic metal ion. Intracellular copper must be carefully handled to prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species which pose a threat to DNA, lipids, and proteins. In this work, we examined patterns of copper utilization in prokaryotes by analyzing the occurrence of copper transporters and copper-containing proteins. Many organisms, including those that lack copper-dependent proteins, had copper exporters, likely to protect against copper ions that inadvertently enter the cell. We found that copper use is widespread among prokaryotes, but also identified several phyla that lack cuproproteins. This is in contrast to the use of other trace elements, such as selenium, which shows more scattered and reduced usage, yet larger selenoproteomes. Copper transporters had different patterns of occurrence than cuproproteins, suggesting that the pathways of copper utilization and copper detoxification are independent of each other. We present evidence that organisms living in oxygen-rich environments utilize copper, whereas the majority of anaerobic organisms do not. In addition, among copper users, cuproproteomes of aerobic organisms were larger than those of anaerobic organisms. Prokaryotic cuproproteomes were small and dominated by a single protein, cytochrome c oxidase. The data are consistent with the idea that proteins evolved to utilize copper following the oxygenation of the Earth.