Pulsed photothermal interferometry for spectroscopic gas detection with hollow-core optical fibre.
ABSTRACT: Gas detection with hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre (HC-PBF) and pulsed photothermal (PT) interferometry spectroscopy are studied theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model is developed and used to compute the gas-absorption-induced temperature and phase modulation in a HC-PBF filled with low-concentration of C2H2 in nitrogen. The PT phase modulation dynamics for different pulse duration, peak power and energy of pump beam are numerically modelled, which are supported by the experimental results obtained around the P(9) absorption line of C2H2 at 1530.371?nm. Thermal conduction is identified as the main process responsible for the phase modulation dynamics. For a constant peak pump power level, the phase modulation is found to increase with pulse duration up to ~1.2??s, while it increases with decreasing pulse duration for a constant pulse energy. It is theoretically possible to achieve ppb level detection of C2H2 with ~1?m length HC-PBF and a pump beam with ~10?ns pulse duration and ~100?nJ pulse energy.
Project description:Rapid polarization control by an electric field in ferroelectrics is important to realize high-frequency modulation of light, which has potential applications in optical communications. To achieve this, a key strategy is to use an electronic part of ferroelectric polarization. A hydrogen-bonded molecular ferroelectric, croconic acid, is a good candidate, since ?-electron polarization within each molecule is theoretically predicted to play a significant role in the ferroelectric-state formation, as well as the proton displacements. Here, we show that a sub-picosecond polarization modulation is possible in croconic acid using a terahertz pulse. The terahertz-pulse-pump second-harmonic-generation-probe and optical-reflectivity-probe spectroscopy reveal that the amplitude of polarization modulation reaches 10% via the electric-field-induced modifications of ?-electron wavefunctions. Moreover, the measurement of electric-field-induced changes in the infrared molecular vibrational spectrum elucidates that the contribution of proton displacements to the polarization modulation is negligibly small. These results demonstrate the electronic nature of polarization in hydrogen-bonded molecular ferroelectrics. The ultrafast polarization control via ?-electron systems observed in croconic acid is expected to be possible in many other hydrogen-bonded molecular ferroelectrics and utilized for future high-speed optical-modulation devices.
Project description:Optomechanically-induced transparency (OMIT) and the associated slowing of light provide the basis for storing photons in nanoscale devices. Here we study OMIT in parity-time (PT)-symmetric microresonators with a tunable gain-to-loss ratio. This system features a sideband-reversed, non-amplifying transparency, i.e., an inverted-OMIT. When the gain-to-loss ratio is varied, the system exhibits a transition from a PT-symmetric phase to a broken-PT-symmetric phase. This PT-phase transition results in the reversal of the pump and gain dependence of the transmission rates. Moreover, we show that by tuning the pump power at a fixed gain-to-loss ratio, or the gain-to-loss ratio at a fixed pump power, one can switch from slow to fast light and vice versa. These findings provide new tools for controlling light propagation using nanofabricated phononic devices.
Project description:In order to exploit the femtosecond pulse duration of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFEL) operating in the hard X-ray regime for ultrafast time-resolved protein crystallography experiments, critical parameters that determine the crystallographic signal-to-noise (I/?I) must be addressed. For single-crystal studies under low absorbed dose conditions, it has been shown that the intrinsic pulse intensity stability as well as mode structure and jitter of this structure, significantly affect the crystallographic signal-to-noise. Here, geometrical parameters are theoretically explored for a three-beam scheme: X-ray probe, optical pump, X-ray probe (or "probe-pump-probe") which will allow experimental determination of the photo-induced structure factor amplitude differences, ?F, in a ratiometric manner, thereby internally referencing the intensity noise of the XFEL source. In addition to a non-collinear split-beam geometry which separates un-pumped and pumped diffraction patterns on an area detector, applying an additional convergence angle to both beams by focusing leads to integration over mosaic blocks in the case of well-ordered stationary protein crystals. Ray-tracing X-ray diffraction simulations are performed for an example using photoactive yellow protein crystals in order to explore the geometrical design parameters which would be needed. The specifications for an X-ray split and delay instrument that implements both an offset angle and focused beams are discussed, for implementation of a probe-pump-probe scheme at the European XFEL. We discuss possible extension of single crystal studies to serial femtosecond crystallography, particularly in view of the expected X-ray damage and ablation due to the first probe pulse.
Project description:The concept of parity-time (PT) symmetry in SPPs is proposed and confirmed for the first time in this work. By introducing periodic modulation of the effective refractive index in SPP system, the asymmetric propagation is theoretically predicted and numerically demonstrated. After validation of this concept, we apply it in two applications: PT-waveguide and PT-cloak. Both two applications further illustrate the wide applicability of this concept in SPP system.
Project description:The graphene oxide (GO) is successfully prepared from a purified natural graphite through a pressurized oxidation method. We experimentally demonstrate that GO as an optical media can be used for spatial light modulation based on plasma channels induced by femtosecond pulses. The modulated beam exhibits good propagation properties in free space. It is easy to realize the spatial modulation on the probe beam at a high concentration of GO dispersion solutions, high power and smaller pulse width of the pump beam. We also find that the spatial modulation on the probe beam can be conveniently adjusted through the power and pulse width of pump lasers, dispersion solution concentration.
Project description:We introduce a unique technique for generating directional coherent emissions that could be utilized to create coherent sources in a wide range of frequencies from the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) to the deep infrared. This is accomplished without population inversion by pumping a two-level system with a far-detuned strong optical field that induces the splitting of the two-level system. A nonlinear process of four-wave mixing then occurs across the split system, driving coherent emission at sidebands both red- and blue-detuned from the pump frequency, and propagates both forward and backward along the pump beam path. We observed this phenomenon in dense rubidium vapor along both the D1 and D2 transitions. The sideband emission exhibits a short pulse duration (<1?ns) with threshold-like behavior dependent on both the pump intensity and Rb vapor density. This technique offers a new capability for manipulating the emission frequency simply through intensity-induced atomic modulation that can be scaled to most frequency regimes using various atomic/molecular ensembles and pump energies.
Project description:High performance all-optical quantizer based on silicon waveguide is believed to have significant applications in photonic integratable optical communication links, optical interconnection networks, and real-time signal processing systems. In this paper, we propose an integratable all-optical quantizer for on-chip and low power consumption all-optical analog-to-digital converters. The quantization is realized by the strong cross-phase modulation and interference in a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) slot waveguide based Mach-Zehnder interferometer. By carefully designing the dimension of the SOH waveguide, large nonlinear coefficients up to 16,000 and 18,069 W(-1)/m for the pump and probe signals can be obtained respectively, along with a low pulse walk-off parameter of 66.7 fs/mm, and all-normal dispersion in the wavelength regime considered. Simulation results show that the phase shift of the probe signal can reach 8π at a low pump pulse peak power of 206 mW and propagation length of 5 mm such that a 4-bit all-optical quantizer can be realized. The corresponding signal-to-noise ratio is 23.42 dB and effective number of bit is 3.89-bit.
Project description:When a diatomic molecule is ionized by an intense laser field, the ionization rate depends very strongly on the inter-nuclear separation. That dependence exhibits a pronounced maximum at the inter-nuclear separation known as the "critical distance". This phenomenon was first demonstrated theoretically in H2(+) and became known as "charge-resonance enhanced ionization" (CREI, in reference to a proposed physical mechanism) or simply "enhanced ionization"(EI). All theoretical models of this phenomenon predict a double-peak structure in the R-dependent ionization rate of H2(+). However, such double-peak structure has never been observed experimentally. It was even suggested that it is impossible to observe due to fast motion of the nuclear wavepackets. Here we report a few-cycle pump-probe experiment which clearly resolves that elusive double-peak structure. In the experiment, an expanding H2(+) ion produced by an intense pump pulse is probed by a much weaker probe pulse. The predicted double-peak structure is clearly seen in delay-dependent kinetic energy spectra of protons when pump and probe pulses are polarized parallel to each other. No structure is seen when the probe is polarized perpendicular to the pump.
Project description:Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanomaterials are emerging as promising candidates in optoelectronics, volumetric display, anti-counterfeiting as well as biological imaging and therapy. Typical modulations of upconversion through chemical methods, such as controlling phase, composition, morphology and size enable us to rationally manipulate emission profiles and lifetimes of lanthanide ions by using continuous-wave laser excitation. Here we demonstrate that under pulsed laser excitation the emission color of NaYF4:Er/Tm (2/0.5%)@NaYF4 core-shell nanoparticles has an obvious transformation from green to red colors. Moreover, both pulse duration and repetition frequency are responsible for manipulating the upconversion emission color. The mechanism of the phenomena may be that the pulsed laser sequence triggers the emission levels to non-steady upconversion states first, and then cuts off the unfinished population process within the pulse duration. This pump source dependent and resultant tunable fluorescence emission enables NaYF4:Er/Tm (2/0.5%)@NaYF4 nanoparticles as a promising fluorophore in the transparent anti-fake printing.