Bovine Adenovirus-3 pVIII Suppresses Cap-Dependent mRNA Translation Possibly by Interfering with the Recruitment of DDX3 and Translation Initiation Factors to the mRNA Cap.
ABSTRACT: Earlier, targeting of DDX3 by few viral proteins has defined its role in mRNA transport and induction of interferon production. This study was conducted to investigate the function of bovine adenovirus (BAdV)-3 pVIII during virus infection. Here, we provided evidence regarding involvement of DDX3 in cap dependent cellular mRNA translation and demonstrated that targeting of DDX3 by adenovirus protein VIII interfered with cap-dependent mRNA translation function of DDX3 in virus infected cells. Adenovirus late protein pVIII interacted with DDX3 in transfected and BAdV-3 infected cells. pVIII inhibited capped mRNA translation in vitro and in vivo by limiting the amount of DDX3 and eIF3. Diminished amount of DDX3 and eIFs including eIF3, eIF4E, eIF4G, and PABP were present in cap binding complex in BAdV-3 infected or pVIII transfected cells with no trace of pVIII in cap binding complex. The total amount of eIFs appeared similar in uninfected or infected cells as BAdV-3 did not appear to degrade eIFs. The co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicated the absence of direct interaction between pVIII and eIF3, eIF4E, or PABP. These data indicate that interaction of pVIII with DDX3 interferes with the binding of eIF3, eIF4E and PABP to the 5' Cap. We conclude that DDX3 promotes cap-dependent cellular mRNA translation and BAdV-3 pVIII inhibits translation of capped cellular mRNA possibly by interfering with the recruitment of eIFs to the capped cellular mRNA.
Project description:Here, we show a novel molecular mechanism promoted by the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 for translation of the HIV-1 genomic RNA. This occurs through the adenosine triphosphate-dependent formation of a translation initiation complex that is assembled at the 5' m(7)GTP cap of the HIV-1 mRNA. This is due to the property of DDX3 to substitute for the initiation factor eIF4E in the binding of the HIV-1 m(7)GTP 5' cap structure where it nucleates the formation of a core DDX3/PABP/eIF4G trimeric complex on the HIV-1 genomic RNA. By using RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to indirect immunofluorescence, we further show that this viral ribonucleoprotein complex is addressed to compartmentalized cytoplasmic foci where the translation initiation complex is assembled.
Project description:The interaction between the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) and eukaryotic translational initiation factor 4G (eIF4G), which brings about circularization of the mRNA, stimulates translation. General RNA-binding proteins affect translation, but their role in mRNA circularization has not been studied before. Here, we demonstrate that the major mRNA ribonucleoprotein YB-1 has a pivotal function in the regulation of eIF4F activity by PABP. In cell extracts, the addition of YB-1 exacerbated the inhibition of 80S ribosome initiation complex formation by PABP depletion. Rabbit reticulocyte lysate in which PABP weakly stimulates translation is rendered PABP-dependent after the addition of YB-1. In this system, eIF4E binding to the cap structure is inhibited by YB-1 and stimulated by a nonspecific RNA. Significantly, adding PABP back to the depleted lysate stimulated eIF4E binding to the cap structure more potently if this binding had been downregulated by YB-1. Conversely, adding nonspecific RNA abrogated PABP stimulation of eIF4E binding. These data strongly suggest that competition between YB-1 and eIF4G for mRNA binding is required for efficient stimulation of eIF4F activity by PABP.
Project description:Translation is a fundamental step in gene expression that regulates multiple developmental and stress responses. One key step of translation initiation is the association between eIF4E and eIF4G. This process is regulated in different eukaryotes by proteins that bind to eIF4E; however, evidence of eIF4E-interacting proteins able to regulate translation is missing in plants. Here, we report the discovery of CERES, a plant eIF4E-interacting protein. CERES contains an LRR domain and a canonical eIF4E-binding site. Although the CERES-eIF4E complex does not include eIF4G, CERES forms part of cap-binding complexes, interacts with eIF4A, PABP and eIF3, and co-sediments with translation initiation complexes in vivo. Moreover, CERES promotes translation in vitro and general translation in vivo, while it modulates the translation of specific mRNAs related to light and carbohydrate response. These data suggest that CERES is a non-canonical translation initiation factor that modulates translation in plants.
Project description:Eukaryotic mRNAs contain a 5? cap structure that is crucial for recruitment of the translation machinery and initiation of protein synthesis. mRNA recognition is thought to require direct interactions between eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and the mRNA cap. However, translation of numerous capped mRNAs remains robust during cellular stress, early development, and cell cycle progression despite inactivation of eIF4E. Here we describe a cap-dependent pathway of translation initiation in human cells that relies on a previously unknown cap-binding activity of eIF3d, a subunit of the 800-kilodalton eIF3 complex. A 1.4?Å crystal structure of the eIF3d cap-binding domain reveals unexpected homology to endonucleases involved in RNA turnover, and allows modelling of cap recognition by eIF3d. eIF3d makes specific contacts with the cap, as exemplified by cap analogue competition, and these interactions are essential for assembly of translation initiation complexes on eIF3-specialized mRNAs such as the cell proliferation regulator c-Jun (also known as JUN). The c-Jun mRNA further encodes an inhibitory RNA element that blocks eIF4E recruitment, thus enforcing alternative cap recognition by eIF3d. Our results reveal a mechanism of cap-dependent translation that is independent of eIF4E, and illustrate how modular RNA elements work together to direct specialized forms of translation initiation.
Project description:Viruses employ an alternative translation mechanism to exploit cellular resources at the expense of host mRNAs and to allow preferential translation. Plant RNA viruses often lack both a 5' cap and a 3' poly(A) tail in their genomic RNAs. Instead, cap-independent translation enhancer elements (CITEs) located in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) mediate their translation. Although eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) or ribosomes have been shown to bind to the 3'CITEs, our knowledge is still limited for the mechanism, especially for cellular factors. Here, we searched for cellular factors that stimulate the 3'CITE-mediated translation of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) RNA1 using RNA aptamer-based one-step affinity chromatography, followed by mass spectrometry analysis. We identified the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) as one of the key players in the 3'CITE-mediated translation of RCNMV RNA1. We found that PABP binds to an A-rich sequence (ARS) in the viral 3' UTR. The ARS is conserved among dianthoviruses. Mutagenesis and a tethering assay revealed that the PABP-ARS interaction stimulates 3'CITE-mediated translation of RCNMV RNA1. We also found that both the ARS and 3'CITE are important for the recruitment of the plant eIF4F and eIFiso4F factors to the 3' UTR and of the 40S ribosomal subunit to the viral mRNA. Our results suggest that dianthoviruses have evolved the ARS and 3'CITE as substitutes for the 3' poly(A) tail and the 5' cap of eukaryotic mRNAs for the efficient recruitment of eIFs, PABP, and ribosomes to the uncapped/nonpolyadenylated viral mRNA.
Project description:Translation initiation in eukaryotes is facilitated by the cap structure, m7GpppN (where N is any nucleotide). Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) is a cap binding protein complex that consists of three subunits: eIF4A, eIF4E and eIF4G. eIF4G interacts directly with eIF4E and eIF4A. The binding site of eIF4E resides in the N-terminal third of eIF4G, while eIF4A and eIF3 binding sites are present in the C-terminal two-thirds. Here, we describe a new eukaryotic translational regulator (hereafter called p97) which exhibits 28% identity to the C-terminal two-thirds of eIF4G. p97 mRNA has no initiator AUG and translation starts exclusively at a GUG codon. The GUG-initiated open reading frame (907 amino acids) has no canonical eIF4E binding site. p97 binds to eIF4A and eIF3, but not to eIF4E. Transient transfection experiments show that p97 suppresses both cap-dependent and independent translation, while eIF4G supports both translation pathways. Furthermore, inducible expression of p97 reduces overall protein synthesis. These results suggest that p97 functions as a general repressor of translation by forming translationally inactive complexes that include eIF4A and eIF3, but exclude eIF4E.
Project description:Regulation of mRNA translation is a major control point for gene expression and is critical for life. Of central importance is the complex between cap-bound eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), eIF4G, and poly(A) tail-binding protein (PABP) that circularizes mRNAs, promoting translation and stability. This complex is often targeted to regulate overall translation rates, and also by mRNA-specific translational repressors. However, the mechanisms of mRNA-specific translational activation by RNA-binding proteins remain poorly understood. Here, we address this deficit, focusing on a herpes simplex virus-1 protein, ICP27. We reveal a direct interaction with PABP that is sufficient to promote PABP recruitment and necessary for ICP27-mediated activation. PABP binds several translation factors but is primarily considered to activate translation initiation as part of the PABP-eIF4G-eIF4E complex that stimulates the initial cap-binding step. Importantly, we find that ICP27-PABP forms a complex with, and requires the activity of, eIF4G. Surprisingly, ICP27-PABP-eIF4G complexes act independently of the effects of PABP-eIF4G on cap binding to promote small ribosomal subunit recruitment. Moreover, we find that a cellular mRNA-specific regulator, Deleted in Azoospermia-like (Dazl), also employs the PABP-eIF4G interaction in a similar manner. We propose a mechanism whereby diverse RNA-binding proteins directly recruit PABP, in a non-poly(A) tail-dependent manner, to stimulate the small subunit recruitment step. This strategy may be particularly relevant to biological conditions associated with hypoadenylated mRNAs (e.g., germ cells/neurons) and/or limiting cytoplasmic PABP (e.g., viral infection, cell stress). This mechanism adds significant insight into our knowledge of mRNA-specific translational activation and the function of the PABP-eIF4G complex in translation initiation.
Project description:40S ribosomes are loaded onto capped mRNAs via the multisubunit translation initiation factors eIF3 and eIF4F. While eIF4E is the eIF4F cap recognition component, the eIF4G subunit associates with 40S-bound eIF3. How this intricate process is coordinated remains poorly understood. Here, we identify an eIF3 subunit that regulates eIF4F modification and show that eIF3e is required for inducible eIF4E phosphorylation. Significantly, recruitment of the eIF4E kinase Mnk1 (MAPK signal-integrating kinase 1) to eIF4F depended on eIF3e, and eIF3e was sufficient to promote Mnk1-binding to eIF4G. This establishes a mechanism by which 40S ribosome loading imparts a phosphorylation mark on the cap-binding eIF4F complex that regulates selective mRNA translation and is synchronized by a specific eIF3 subunit.
Project description:Ribosomal attachment to mammalian capped mRNAs is achieved through the cap-eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-eIF4G-eIF3-40S chain of interactions, but the mechanism by which mRNA enters the mRNA-binding channel of the 40S subunit remains unknown. To investigate this process, we recapitulated initiation on capped mRNAs in vitro using a reconstituted translation system. Formation of initiation complexes at 5'-terminal AUGs was stimulated by the eIF4E-cap interaction and followed "the first AUG" rule, indicating that it did not occur by backward scanning. Initiation complexes formed even at the very 5' end of mRNA, implying that Met-tRNAi (Met) inspects mRNA from the first nucleotide and that initiation does not have a "blind spot." In assembled initiation complexes, the cap was no longer associated with eIF4E. Omission of eIF4A or disruption of eIF4E-eIF4G-eIF3 interactions converted eIF4E into a specific inhibitor of initiation on capped mRNAs. Taken together, these results are consistent with the model in which eIF4E-eIF4G-eIF3-40S interactions place eIF4E at the leading edge of the 40S subunit, and mRNA is threaded into the mRNA-binding channel such that Met-tRNAi (Met) can inspect it from the first nucleotide. Before entering, eIF4E likely dissociates from the cap to overcome steric hindrance. We also found that the m(7)G cap specifically interacts with eIF3l.
Project description:The poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) simultaneously interacts with the poly(A) tail of mRNAs and the scaffolding protein eIF4G to mediate mRNA circularization, resulting in stimulation of protein translation. PABP is regulated by the PABP-interacting protein Paip1. Paip1 is thought to act as a translational activator in 5' cap-dependent translation by interacting with PABP and the initiation factors eIF4A and eIF3. Here, the crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of the middle domain of Paip1 (Paip1M), which produces crystals that diffract to a resolution of 2.2 A, are presented.