Structural analysis uncovers a role for redox in regulating FKBP13, an immunophilin of the chloroplast thylakoid lumen.
ABSTRACT: Change in redox status has long been known to link light to the posttranslational regulation of chloroplast enzymes. So far, studies have been conducted primarily with thioredoxin-linked members of the stroma that function in a broad array of biosynthetic and degradatory processes. Consequently, little is known about the role of redox in regulating the growing number of enzymes found to occur in the lumen, the site of oxygen evolution in thylakoid membranes. To help fill this gap, we have studied AtFKBP13, an FKBP-type immunophilin earlier shown to interact with a redox-active protein of the lumen, and found the enzyme to contain a pair of disulfide bonds in x-ray structural studies. These disulfides, which in protein mutagenesis experiments were shown to be essential for the associated peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity, are unique to chloroplast FKBPs and are absent in animal and yeast counterparts. Both disulfide bonds were redox-active and were reduced by thioredoxin from either chloroplast or bacterial sources in a reaction that led to loss of enzyme activity. The results suggest a previously unrecognized paradigm for redox regulation in chloroplasts in which activation by light is achieved in concert with oxygen evolution by the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups (conversion of SH to S-S). Such a mechanism, occurring in the thylakoid lumen, is in direct contrast to regulation of enzymes in the stroma, where reduction of disulfides targeted by thioredoxin (S-S converted to SH) leads to an increase in activity in the light.
Project description:Linear electron transport in the thylakoid membrane drives photosynthetic NADPH and ATP production, while cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I only promotes the translocation of protons from stroma to thylakoid lumen. The chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH) participates in one CEF route transferring electrons from ferredoxin back to the plastoquinone pool with concomitant proton pumping to the lumen. CEF has been proposed to balance the ratio of ATP/NADPH production and to control the redox poise particularly in fluctuating light conditions, but the mechanisms regulating the NDH complex remain unknown. We have investigated potential regulation of the CEF pathways by the chloroplast NADPH-thioredoxin reductase (NTRC) in vivo by using an Arabidopsis knockout line of NTRC as well as lines overexpressing NTRC. Here, we present biochemical and biophysical evidence showing that NTRC stimulates the activity of NDH-dependent CEF and is involved in the regulation of generation of proton motive force, thylakoid conductivity to protons, and redox balance between the thylakoid electron transfer chain and the stroma during changes in light conditions. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction assays suggest a putative thioredoxin-target site in close proximity to the ferredoxin-binding domain of NDH, thus providing a plausible mechanism for redox regulation of the NDH ferredoxin:plastoquinone oxidoreductase activity.
Project description:<h4>Key message</h4>The thylakoid transit peptide of tobacco oxygen-evolving enhancer protein contains a minimal ten amino acid sequences for thylakoid lumen transports. This ten amino acids do not contain twin-arginine, which is required for typical chloroplast lumen translocation. Chloroplasts are intracellular organelles responsible for photosynthesis to produce organic carbon for all organisms. Numerous proteins must be transported from the cytosol to chloroplasts to support photosynthesis. This transport is facilitated by chloroplast transit peptides (TPs). Four chloroplast thylakoid lumen TPs were isolated from Nicotiana tabacum and were functionally analyzed as thylakoid lumen TPs. Typical chloroplast stroma-transit peptides and thylakoid lumen transit peptides (tTPs) are found in N. tabacum transit peptides (NtTPs) and the functions of these peptides are confirmed with TP-GFP fusion proteins under fluorescence microscopy and chloroplast fractionation, followed by Western blot analysis. During the functional analysis of tTPs, we uncovered the minimum 10 amino acid sequence is sufficient for thylakoid lumen transport. These ten amino acids can efficiently translocate GFP protein, even if they do not contain the twin-arginine residues required for the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway, which is a typical thylakoid lumen transport. Further, thylakoid lumen transporting processes through the Tat pathway was examined by analyzing tTP sequence functions and we demonstrate that the importance of hydrophobic core for the tTP cleavage and target protein translocation.
Project description:Arabidopsis plastidic HSP90C is an HSP90 family molecular chaperone that is required for chloroplast development and function. To understand the mechanism of action of HSP90C within the chloroplast, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screening and revealed it interacts directly with the photosystem II extrinsic protein PsbO1, which performs a canonical function in the thylakoid lumen. To understand the biological significance of HSP90C-PsbO1 interaction, we investigated the role of HSP90C in modulating the stromal and thylakoid distribution of PsbO1GFP fusion protein. Fusion to GFP significantly delays the PsbO1 thylakoid transport and induces a variegation phenotype. Overexpression of HSP90C promotes the thylakoid distribution of PsbO1GFP and alleviates the leaf variegation. By tracking the chloroplast maturation during photomorphogenesis, we observed PsbO1GFP tends to form distinct fluorescent clusters within the stroma with delayed thylakoid membrane biogenesis, while HSP90C overexpression corrects these adverse effects. We also demonstrated that active HSP90C function is specifically required for stable accumulation of mature PsbO1GFP in thylakoid by using specific inhibitor geldanamycin. This study therefore not only identified novel HSP90C interactors, but also reports for the first time that PsbO1 enroute from the cytoplasm to thylakoid lumen is tightly regulated by the HSP90C chaperone complex in plastid stroma; whereas the proper HSP90C homeostasis is also critical for chloroplast maturation and function.
Project description:The apparatus of photosynthetic energy conversion in chloroplasts is quite well characterized with respect to structure and function. Light-driven electron transport in the thylakoid membrane is coupled to synthesis of ATP, used to drive energy-dependent metabolic processes in the stroma and the outer surface of the thylakoid membrane. The role of the inner (luminal) compartment of the thylakoids has, however, remained largely unknown although recent proteomic analyses have revealed the presence of up to 80 different proteins. Further, there are no reports concerning the presence of nucleotides in the thylakoid lumen. Here, we bring three lines of experimental evidence for nucleotide-dependent processes in this chloroplast compartment. (i) The thylakoid lumen contains a protein of 17.2 kDa, catalyzing the transfer of the gamma-phosphate group from ATP to GDP, proposed to correspond to the nucleoside diphosphate kinase III. (ii) The 33-kDa subunit of photosystem II, bound to the luminal side of the thylakoid membrane and associated with the water-splitting process, can bind GTP. (iii) The thylakoid membrane contains a nucleotide transport system that is suggested to be associated with a 36.5-kDa nucleotide-binding protein. Our results imply, against current dogmas, that the thylakoid lumen contains nucleotides, thereby providing unexpected aspects on this chloroplast compartment from a metabolic and regulatory perspective and expanding its functional significance beyond a pure bioenergetic function.
Project description:The putative thylakoid lumen immunophilin, FKBP16-3, has not yet been characterized, although this protein is known to be regulated by thioredoxin and possesses a well-conserved CxxxC motif in photosynthetic organisms. Here, we characterized rice OsFKBP16-3 and examined the role of this gene in the regulation of abiotic stress in plants. FKBP16-3s are well conserved in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, including the presence of a unique disulfide-forming CxxxC motif in their N-terminal regions. OsFKBP16-3 was mainly expressed in rice leaf tissues and was upregulated by various abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, high light, hydrogen peroxide, heat and methyl viologen. The chloroplast localization of OsFKBP16-3-GFP was confirmed through the transient expression of OsFKBP16-3 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic rice plants that constitutively expressed OsFKBP16-3 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity, drought and oxidative stresses, but showed no change in growth or phenotype, compared with vector control plants, when grown under non-stressed conditions. This is the first report to demonstrate the potential role of FKBP16-3 in the environmental stress response, which may be regulated by a redox relay process in the thylakoid lumen, suggesting that artificial regulation of FKBP16-3 expression is a candidate for stress-tolerant crop breeding.
Project description:The chloroplast ATP synthase catalyzes the light-driven synthesis of ATP and is activated in the light and inactivated in the dark by redox-modulation through the thioredoxin system. It has been proposed that this down-regulation is important for preventing wasteful hydrolysis of ATP in the dark. To test this proposal, we compared the effects of extended dark exposure in Arabidopsis lines expressing the wild-type and mutant forms of ATP synthase that are redox regulated or constitutively active. In contrast to the predictions of the model, we observed that plants with wild-type redox regulation lost photosynthetic capacity rapidly in darkness, whereas those expressing redox-insensitive form were far more stable. To explain these results, we propose that in wild-type plants, down-regulation of ATP synthase inhibits ATP hydrolysis, leading to dissipation of thylakoid proton motive force (pmf) and subsequent inhibition of protein transport across the thylakoid through the twin arginine transporter (Tat)-dependent and Sec-dependent import pathways, resulting in the selective loss of specific protein complexes. By contrast, in mutants with a redox-insensitive ATP synthase, pmf is maintained by ATP hydrolysis, thus allowing protein transport to maintain photosynthetic activities for extended periods in the dark. Hence, a basal level of Tat-dependent, as well as, Sec-dependent import activity, in the dark helps replenishes certain components of the photosynthetic complexes and thereby aids in maintaining overall complex activity. However, the influence of a dark pmf on thylakoid protein import, by itself, could not explain all the effects we observed in this study. For example, we also observed in wild type plants a large transient buildup of thylakoid pmf and nonphotochemical exciton quenching upon sudden illumination of dark adapted plants. Therefore, we conclude that down-regulation of the ATP synthase is probably not related to preventing loss of ATP per se. Instead, ATP synthase redox regulation may be impacting a number of cellular processes such as (1) the accumulation of chloroplast proteins and/or ions or (2) the responses of photosynthesis to rapid changes in light intensity. A model highlighting the complex interplay between ATP synthase regulation and pmf in maintaining various chloroplast functions in the dark is presented. Significance Statement: We uncover an unexpected role for thioredoxin modulation of the chloroplast ATP synthase in regulating the dark-stability of the photosynthetic apparatus, most likely by controlling thylakoid membrane transport of proteins and ions.
Project description:The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses a CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) that helps in successful acclimation to low CO2 conditions. Current models of the CCM postulate that a series of ion transporters bring HCO3 - from outside the cell to the thylakoid lumen, where the carbonic anhydrase 3 (CAH3) dehydrates accumulated HCO3 - to CO2, raising the CO2 concentration for Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Previously, HCO3 - transporters have been identified at both the plasma membrane and the chloroplast envelope, but the transporter thought to be on the thylakoid membrane has not been identified. Three paralogous genes (BST1, BST2, and BST3) belonging to the bestrophin family have been found to be up-regulated in low CO2 conditions, and their expression is controlled by CIA5, a transcription factor that controls many CCM genes. YFP fusions demonstrate that all 3 proteins are located on the thylakoid membrane, and interactome studies indicate that they might associate with chloroplast CCM components. A single mutant defective in BST3 has near-normal growth on low CO2, indicating that the 3 bestrophin-like proteins may have redundant functions. Therefore, an RNA interference (RNAi) approach was adopted to reduce the expression of all 3 genes at once. RNAi mutants with reduced expression of BST1-3 were unable to grow at low CO2 concentrations, exhibited a reduced affinity to inorganic carbon (Ci) compared with the wild-type cells, and showed reduced Ci uptake. We propose that these bestrophin-like proteins are essential components of the CCM that deliver HCO3 - accumulated in the chloroplast stroma to CAH3 inside the thylakoid lumen.
Project description:Cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (CEF) is critical for balancing the photosynthetic energy budget of the chloroplast by generating ATP without net production of NADPH. We demonstrate that the chloroplast NADPH dehydrogenase complex, a homolog to respiratory Complex I, pumps approximately two protons from the chloroplast stroma to the lumen per electron transferred from ferredoxin to plastoquinone, effectively increasing the efficiency of ATP production via CEF by 2-fold compared with CEF pathways involving non-proton-pumping plastoquinone reductases. By virtue of this proton-pumping stoichiometry, we hypothesize that NADPH dehydrogenase not only efficiently contributes to ATP production but operates near thermodynamic reversibility, with potentially important consequences for remediating mismatches in the thylakoid energy budget.
Project description:The PsbP protein is an extrinsic component of photosystem II that together with PsbO and PsbQ forms the thylakoid lumenal part of the oxygen-evolving complex in higher plants. In addition to PsbP, the thylakoid lumen contains two PsbP-like proteins (PPLs) and six PsbP-domain proteins (PPDs). While the functions of the PsbP-like proteins PPL1 and PPL2 are currently under investigation, the function of the PsbP-domain proteins still remains completely unknown. PPD6 is unique among the PsbP family of proteins in that it contains a conserved disulfide bond which can be reduced in vitro by thioredoxin. The crystal structure determination of the PPD6 protein has been initiated in order to elucidate its function and to gain deeper insights into redox-regulation pathways in the thylakoid lumen. PPD6 has been expressed, purified and crystallized and preliminary X-ray diffraction data have been collected. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 47.0, b = 64.3, c = 62.0 Å, ? = 94.2°, and diffracted to a maximum d-spacing of 2.1 Å.
Project description:Folding of proteins entering the mammalian secretory pathway requires the insertion of the correct disulfides. Disulfide formation involves both an oxidative pathway for their insertion and a reductive pathway to remove incorrectly formed disulfides. Reduction of these disulfides is crucial for correct folding and degradation of misfolded proteins. Previously, we showed that the reductive pathway is driven by NADPH generated in the cytosol. Here, by reconstituting the pathway using purified proteins and ER microsomal membranes, we demonstrate that the thioredoxin reductase system provides the minimal cytosolic components required for reducing proteins within the ER lumen. In particular, saturation of the pathway and its protease sensitivity demonstrates the requirement for a membrane protein to shuttle electrons from the cytosol to the ER. These results provide compelling evidence for the crucial role of the cytosol in regulating ER redox homeostasis, ensuring correct protein folding and facilitating the degradation of misfolded ER proteins.