MXRA5 is a TGF-β1-regulated human protein with anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties.
ABSTRACT: Current therapy for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unsatisfactory because of an insufficient understanding of its pathogenesis. Matrix remodelling-associated protein 5 (MXRA5, adlican) is a human protein of unknown function with high kidney tissue expression, not present in rodents. Given the increased expression of MXRA5 in injured tissues, including the kidneys, we have suggested that MXRA5 may modulate kidney injury. MXRA5 immunoreactivity was observed in tubular cells in human renal biopsies and in urine from CKD patients. We then explored factors regulating MXRA5 expression and MXRA5 function in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells and explored MXRA5 expression in kidney cancer cells and kidney tissue. The fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) up-regulated MXRA5 mRNA and protein expression. TGFβ1-induced MXRA5 up-regulation was prevented by either interference with TGFβ1 activation of the TGFβ receptor 1 (TGFBR1, ALK5) or by the vitamin D receptor agonist paricalcitol. By contrast, the pro-inflammatory cytokine TWEAK did not modulate MXRA5 expression. MXRA5 siRNA-induced down-regulation of constitutive MXRA5 expression resulted in higher TWEAK-induced expression of chemokines. In addition, MXRA5 down-regulation resulted in a magnified expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins in response to TGFβ1. Furthermore, in clear cell renal cancer, von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) regulated MXRA5 expression. In conclusion, MXRA5 is a TGFβ1- and VHL-regulated protein and, for the first time, we identify MXRA5 functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic molecule. This information may yield clues to design novel therapeutic strategies in diseases characterized by inflammation and fibrosis.
Project description:The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing. However, there is no effective therapy for AKI and current approaches only slow down, but do not prevent progression of CKD. TWEAK is a TNF superfamily cytokine. A solid base of preclinical data suggests a role of therapies targeting the TWEAK or its receptor Fn14 in AKI and CKD. In particular TWEAK/Fn14 targeting may preserve renal function and decrease cell death, inflammation, proteinuria, and fibrosis in mouse animal models. Furthermore there is clinical evidence for a role of TWEAK in human kidney injury including increased tissue and/or urinary levels of TWEAK and parenchymal renal cell expression of the receptor Fn14. In this regard, clinical trials of TWEAK targeting are ongoing in lupus nephritis. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation plays a key role in TWEAK-elicited inflammatory responses. Activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway is a critical difference between TWEAK and TNF. TWEAK activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathways promotes inflammatory responses in tubular cells. However, there is an incomplete understanding of the role of non-canonical NF-κB activation in kidney disease and on its contribution to TWEAK actions in vivo.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by tubular cell death and interstitial inflammation. TWEAK promotes experimental kidney injury and activates the transcription factor NF-?B, a key regulator of genes involved in cell survival and inflammatory response. In search of potential therapeutic targets for AKI, we compared a transcriptomics database of NF-?B-related genes from murine AKI-kidneys with a transcriptomics database of TWEAK-stimulated cultured tubular cells. Four out of twenty-four (17%) genes were significantly upregulated (false discovery rate, FDR<0.05), while nine out of twenty-four (37%) genes were significantly upregulated at FDR <0.1 in both databases. Bcl3 was the top upregulated NF-?B-related gene in experimental AKI and one of the most upregulated genes in TWEAK-stimulated tubular cells. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry confirmed Bcl3 upregulation in both experimental conditions and localized increased Bcl3 expression to tubular cells in AKI. Transcriptomics database analysis revealed increased Bcl3 expression in numerous experimental and human kidney conditions. Furthermore, systemic TWEAK administration increased kidney Bcl3 expression. In cultured tubular cells, targeting Bcl3 by siRNA resulted in the magnification of TWEAK-induced NF-?B transcriptional activity, chemokine upregulation and Klotho downregulation, and in the sensitization to cell death induced by TWEAK/TNF?/interferon-?. In contrast, Bcl3 overexpression decreased NF-?B transcriptional activity, inflammatory response and cell death while dampening the decrease in Klotho expression. In conclusion, Bcl3 expressed in response to TWEAK stimulation decreases TWEAK-induced inflammatory and lethal responses. Therefore, therapeutic upregulation of Bcl3 activity should be explored in kidney disease because it has advantages over chemical inhibitors of NF-?B that are known to prevent inflammatory responses but can also sensitize the cells to apoptosis.
Project description:Proinflammatory cytokines contribute to renal injury, but the downstream effectors within kidney cells are not well understood. One candidate effector is Klotho, a protein expressed by renal cells that has antiaging properties; Klotho-deficient mice have an accelerated aging-like phenotype, including vascular injury and renal injury. Whether proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF and TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), modulate Klotho is unknown. In mice, exogenous administration of TWEAK decreased expression of Klotho in the kidney. In the setting of acute kidney injury induced by folic acid, the blockade or absence of TWEAK abrogated the injury-related decrease in renal and plasma Klotho levels. TWEAK, TNF?, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of I?B? all activated NF?B and reduced Klotho expression in the MCT tubular cell line. Furthermore, inhibition of NF?B with parthenolide prevented TWEAK- or TNF?-induced downregulation of Klotho. Inhibition of histone deacetylase reversed TWEAK-induced downregulation of Klotho, and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that TWEAK promotes RelA binding to the Klotho promoter, inducing its deacetylation. In conclusion, inflammatory cytokines, such as TWEAK and TNF?, downregulate Klotho expression through an NF?B-dependent mechanism. These results may partially explain the relationship between inflammation and diseases characterized by accelerated aging of organs, including CKD.
Project description:TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a member of the TNF superfamily of cytokines. In addition to binding and activating the fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 receptor, TWEAK may regulate apoptosis, proliferation, and inflammation; however, the role of this system in kidney injury is unknown. In vitro, it was found that TWEAK induced the sustained activation of NF-kappaB in a murine tubular epithelial cell line (MCT). NF-kappaB activation was associated with degradation of IkappaB-alpha; translocation of RelA to the nucleus; and increased mRNA and protein expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, RANTES, and IL-6. Similarly, in vivo, the systemic administration of TWEAK induced renal NF-kappaB activation, chemokine and IL-6 expression, and interstitial inflammation in mice. Parthenolide, which prevents IkappaB-alpha degradation, inhibited TWEAK-induced NF-kappaB activation and prevented the aforementioned changes in vitro and in vivo. After folic acid-induced acute kidney injury, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 expression increased in mouse tubular epithelium. Neutralization of TWEAK decreased the expression of chemokines in tubular cells and reduced interstitial inflammation. In conclusion, TWEAK has NF-kappaB-dependent proinflammatory effects on tubular epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, blockade of TWEAK reduces tubular chemokine expression and macrophage infiltration, suggesting that TWEAK modulates acute kidney injury by regulating the inflammatory response.
Project description:The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family member TWEAK activates the Fn14 receptor and has pro-apoptotic, proliferative and pro-inflammatory actions that depend on the cell type and the microenvironment. We explored the proliferative actions of TWEAK on cultured tubular cells and in vivo on renal tubules. Additionally, we studied the role of TWEAK in compensatory proliferation following unilateral nephrectomy and in an inflammatory model of acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by a folic acid overdose. TWEAK increased the proliferation, cell number and cyclin D1 expression of cultured tubular cells, in vitro. Exposure to serum increased TWEAK and Fn14 expression and the proliferative response to TWEAK. TWEAK activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and p38, the phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and NF-kappaB. TWEAK-induced proliferation was prevented by inhibitors of these protein kinases and by the NF-kappaB inhibitor parthenolide. TWEAK-induced tubular cell proliferation as assessed by PCNA and cyclin D1 expression in the kidneys of adult healthy mice in vivo. By contrast, TWEAK knock-out mice displayed lower tubular cell proliferation in the remnant kidney following unilateral nephrectomy, a non-inflammatory model. This is consistent with TWEAK-induced proliferation on cultured tubular cells in the absence of inflammatory cytokines. Consistent with our previously published data, in the presence of inflammatory cytokines TWEAK promoted apoptosis, not proliferation, of cultured tubular cells. In this regard, TWEAK knock-out mice with AKI displayed less tubular apoptosis and proliferation, as well as improved renal function. In conclusion, TWEAK actions in tubular cells are context dependent. In a non-inflammatory milieu TWEAK induces proliferation of tubular epithelium. This may be relevant for compensatory renal hyperplasia following nephrectomy.
Project description:Tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) activates the fibroblast growth factor-inducible-14 (Fn14) receptor. TWEAK has actions on intrinsic kidney cells and on inflammatory cells of potential pathophysiological relevance. The effects of TWEAK in tubular cells have been explored in most detail. In cultured murine tubular cells TWEAK induces the expression of inflammatory cytokines, downregulates the expression of Klotho, is mitogenic, and in the presence of sensitizing agents promotes apoptosis. Similar actions were observed on glomerular mesangial cells. In vivo TWEAK actions on healthy kidneys mimic cell culture observations. Increased expression of TWEAK and Fn14 was reported in human and experimental acute and chronic kidney injury. The role of TWEAK/Fn14 in kidney injury has been demonstrated in non-inflammatory compensatory renal growth, acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease of immune and non-immune origin, including hyperlipidaemic nephropathy, lupus nephritis (LN) and anti-GBM nephritis. The nephroprotective effect of TWEAK or Fn14 targeting in immune-mediated kidney injury is the result of protection from TWEAK-induced injury of renal intrinsic cells, not from interference with the immune response. A phase I dose-ranging clinical trial demonstrated the safety of anti-TWEAK antibodies in humans. A phase II randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial exploring the efficacy, safety and tolerability of neutralizing anti-TWEAK antibodies as a tissue protection strategy in LN is ongoing. The eventual success of this trial may expand the range of kidney diseases in which TWEAK targeting should be explored.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are the most severe consequences of kidney injury. They are interconnected syndromes as CKD predisposes to AKI and AKI may accelerate CKD progression. Despite their growing impact on the global burden of disease, there is no satisfactory treatment for AKI and current therapeutic approaches to CKD remain suboptimal. Recent research has focused on the therapeutic target potential of epigenetic regulation of gene expression, including non-coding RNAs and the covalent modifications of histones and DNA. Indeed, several drugs targeting histone modifications are in clinical use or undergoing clinical trials. Acyl-lysine histone modifications (e.g. methylation, acetylation, and crotonylation) have modulated experimental kidney injury. Most recently, increased histone lysine crotonylation (Kcr) was observed during experimental AKI and could be reproduced in cultured tubular cells exposed to inflammatory stress triggered by the cytokine TWEAK. The degree of kidney histone crotonylation was modulated by crotonate availability and crotonate supplementation protected from nephrotoxic AKI. We now review the functional relevance of histone crotonylation in kidney disease and other pathophysiological contexts, as well as the implications for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. These studies provide insights into the overall role of histone crotonylation in health and disease.
Project description:The Hypoxia-inducible transcription Factor (HIF) represents an important adaptive mechanism under hypoxia, whereas sustained activation may also have deleterious effects. HIF activity is determined by the oxygen regulated ?-subunits HIF-1? or HIF-2?. Both are regulated by oxygen dependent degradation, which is controlled by the tumor suppressor "von Hippel-Lindau" (VHL), the gatekeeper of renal tubular growth control. HIF appears to play a particular role for the kidney, where renal EPO production, organ preservation from ischemia-reperfusion injury and renal tumorigenesis are prominent examples. Whereas HIF-1? is inducible in physiological renal mouse, rat and human tubular epithelia, HIF-2? is never detected in these cells, in any species. In contrast, distinct early lesions of biallelic VHL inactivation in kidneys of the hereditary VHL syndrome show strong HIF-2? expression. Furthermore, knockout of VHL in the mouse tubular apparatus enables HIF-2? expression. Continuous transgenic expression of HIF-2? by the Ksp-Cadherin promotor leads to renal fibrosis and insufficiency, next to multiple renal cysts. In conclusion, VHL appears to specifically repress HIF-2? in renal epithelia. Unphysiological expression of HIF-2? in tubular epithelia has deleterious effects. Our data are compatible with dedifferentiation of renal epithelial cells by sustained HIF-2? expression. However, HIF-2? overexpression alone is insufficient to induce tumors. Thus, our data bear implications for renal tumorigenesis, epithelial differentiation and renal repair mechanisms.
Project description:In many kidney diseases, the original insult primarily involves the glomerulus and may then pass onto the tubulointerstitium. Several hypotheses link glomerular disease to tubular injury; perhaps the foremost hypothesis involves chronic tubular hypoxia. The reported effects of hypoxia and consecutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), however, are controversial. Hypoxia induces interstitial fibrosis but also has beneficial effects on renal disease progression when HIF is activated pharmacologically. To analyze the impact of HIF on tubulointerstitial disease development in primary glomerular disease, transgenic von Hippel Lindau (VHL)-knockout mice were generated and null expression was induced before the onset of autoimmune IgG-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (GN). Tubular VHL knockout and, thus, local HIF-? stabilization increased renal production of vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor growth factor-?(1), and platelet-derived growth factor-B, resulting in augmented formation of capillaries and interstitial matrix, and conversion of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Within the glomerular disease, VHL knockout reduced the glomerular damage and attenuated tubulointerstitial injury. Likewise, proteinuria, plasma urea concentration, and tubulointerstitial matrix were decreased in VHL knockout with GN. These findings shown that tubular HIF-? stabilization in glomerular disease is beneficial for disease outcome. In comparison with VHL knockout alone, GN is a much stronger activator of fibrosis such that stimuli other than hypoxia may be considered important for renal disease progression.
Project description:Epithelial injury is a key initiator of fibrosis but - in contrast to the previous paradigm - the epithelium in situ does not undergo wide-spread epithelial-mesenchymal/myofibroblast transition (EMT/EMyT). Instead, it assumes a Profibrotic Epithelial Phenotype (PEP) characterized by fibrogenic cytokine production. The transcriptional mechanisms underlying PEP are undefined. As we have shown that two RhoA/cytoskeleton-regulated transcriptional coactivators, Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) and TAZ, are indispensable for EMyT, we asked if they might mediate PEP as well. Here we show that mechanical stress (cyclic stretch) increased the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), platelet-derived growth factor and Indian Hedgehog mRNA in LLC-PK1 tubular cells. These responses were mitigated by siRNA-mediated silencing or pharmacological inhibition of MRTF (CCG-1423) or TAZ (verteporfin). RhoA inhibition exerted similar effects. Unilateral ureteral obstruction, a murine model of mechanically-triggered kidney fibrosis, induced tubular RhoA activation along with overexpression/nuclear accumulation of MRTF and TAZ, and increased transcription of the above-mentioned cytokines. Laser capture microdissection revealed TAZ, TGFβ1 and CTGF induction specifically in the tubular epithelium. CCG-1423 suppressed total renal and tubular expression of these proteins. Thus, MRTF regulates epithelial TAZ expression, and both MRTF and TAZ are critical mediators of PEP-related epithelial cytokine production.