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Long term effects of carbaryl exposure on antiviral immune responses in Xenopus laevis.


ABSTRACT: Water pollutants associated with agriculture may contribute to the increased prevalence of infectious diseases caused by ranaviruses. We have established the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the ranavirus Frog Virus 3 (FV3) as a reliable experimental platform for evaluating the effects of common waterborne pollutants, such as the insecticide carbaryl. Following 3 weeks of exposure to 10 ppb carbaryl, X. laevis tadpoles exhibited a marked increase in mortality and accelerated development. Exposure at lower concentrations (0.1 and 1.0 ppb) was not toxic, but it impaired tadpole innate antiviral immune responses, as evidenced by significantly decreased TNF-?, IL-1?, IFN-I, and IFN-III gene expression. The defect in IFN-I and IL-1? gene expression levels persisted after metamorphosis in froglets, whereas only IFN-I gene expression in response to FV3 was attenuated when carbaryl exposure was performed at the adult stage. These findings suggest that the agriculture-associated carbaryl exposure at low but ecologically-relevant concentrations has the potential to induce long term alterations in host-pathogen interactions and antiviral immunity.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5205582 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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