Neurological Complications Resulting from Non-Oral Occupational Methanol Poisoning.
ABSTRACT: Methanol poisoning results in neurological complications including visual disturbances, bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis, parkinsonism, cerebral edema, coma, or seizures. Almost all reported cases of methanol poisoning are caused by oral ingestion of methanol. However, recently there was an outbreak of methanol poisoning via non-oral exposure that resulted in severe neurological complications to a few workers at industrial sites in Korea. We present 3 patients who had severe neurological complications resulting from non-oral occupational methanol poisoning. Even though initial metabolic acidosis and mental changes were improved with hemodialysis, all of the 3 patients presented optic atrophy and ataxia or parkinsonism as neurological complications resulting from methanol poisoning. In order to manage it adequately, as well as to prevent it, physicians should recognize that methanol poisoning by non-oral exposure can cause neurologic complications.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mass poisonings with methanol are rare but occur regularly both in developed and in developing countries. Data from the poisoning episodes are often published, but follow-up-data is scarce. We therefore conducted a six year follow-up study after the large methanol outbreak in Estonia in September 2001. METHODS: Surviving victims from the outbreak were contacted and invited to an interview and a clinical evaluation by an ophthalmologist and a physician. The patients that failed to respond were searched for in the Estonian Register of Population and through their General Practitioner. RESULTS: During the outbreak in 2001, 86/111 hospitalized patients survived: 66 without sequelae (Group I) and 20 with sequelae (Group II). Six years later, 26/86 were dead, 33/86 could not be tracked down, and so only 27/86 of these were followed up and examined: 22/66 of the patients in Group I, and 5/20 in Group II were found and examined. From Group I, 8/22 were identified with new neurological impairment and 8/22 with new visual disturbances after discharge. From Group II, visual disturbances (n = 4) and neurological impairment (n = 3) were still present in all patients. Among the 26 dead, 19 were from Group I, and seven were from Group II. Alcohol intoxication was the most frequent cause of death (7/26). CONCLUSION: All sequelae were still present six years after the initial poisoning suggesting that these were irreversible damages. On follow-up, apparently new neurological and visual complications were identified in 36% and 36%, respectively. 35% of the patients initially discharged with sequelae and 29% discharged without were dead six years later; 27% of them from alcohol intoxication.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Outbreaks of methanol poisoning occur frequently on a global basis, affecting poor and vulnerable populations. Knowledge regarding methanol is limited, likely many cases and even outbreaks go unnoticed, with patients dying unnecessarily. We describe findings from the first three large outbreaks of methanol poisoning where Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) responded, and evaluate the benefits of a possible future collaboration between local health authorities, a Non-Governmental Organisation and international expertise. METHODS:Retrospective study of three major methanol outbreaks in Libya (2013) and Kenya (May and July 2014). Data were collected from MSF field personnel, local health personnel, hospital files, and media reports. FINDINGS:In Tripoli, Libya, over 1,000 patients were poisoned with a reported case fatality rate of 10% (101/1,066). In Kenya, two outbreaks resulted in approximately 341 and 126 patients, with case fatality rates of 29% (100/341) and 21% (26/126), respectively. MSF launched an emergency team with international experts, medications and equipment, however, the outbreaks were resolving by the time of arrival. INTERPRETATION:Recognition of an outbreak of methanol poisoning and diagnosis seem to be the most challenging tasks, with significant delay from time of first presentations to public health warnings being issued. In spite of the rapid response from an emergency team, the outbreaks were nearly concluded by the time of arrival. A major impact on the outcome was not seen, but large educational trainings were conducted to increase awareness and knowledge about methanol poisoning. Based on this training, MSF was able to send a local emergency team during the second outbreak, supporting that such an approach could improve outcomes. Basic training, simplified treatment protocols, point-of-care diagnostic tools, and early support when needed, are likely the most important components to impact the consequences of methanol poisoning outbreaks in these challenging contexts.
Project description:Chorea is a rare manifestation of poisoning. We report an index case of a young woman who developed generalized chorea following propiconazole toxin ingestion. As large series on neurological complications of toxic compounds are difficult to be compiled, it is of interest to report our experience. This report adds one more compound to the increasing list of toxic chorea.
Project description:Delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) are the most severe and clinically intractable complications following acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Symptoms of DNS often resemble those of Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting shared neurological deficits. Furthermore, Parkinson protein 2 (PARK2) mutations are associated with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. The association signal was detected between PARK2 and DNS after acute CO poisoning in our DNA pooling base genome-wide association study.Two PARK2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1784594 (C/T allele) and rs1893895 (G/A allele), selected from DNA pooling base genome-wide association study, were genotyped by in 514 CO poisoning patients using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs). The patient group consisted of 231 patients with DNS and 283 patients with no signs of lasting neurological damage (control population).The frequency of the rs1784594 T allele was significantly lower in the DNS population (OR?=?1.42, 95%CI: 1.08?-?1.87), as was the TT vs. CC genotype (OR?=?1.95, 95%CI: 1.15?-?3.23) and the TT vs. CT?+?CC frequency (OR?=?1.68, 95%CI: 1.32?-?2.49) compared to controls. Association analysis revealed a significant association between DNS and rs1784594 (P?<?0.01) but not rs1893895 (P?>?0.05). In female cases, the T allele frequency of rs1784594 was significantly lower in DNS patients compared to female controls (OR?=?1.48, 95%CI: 1.01?-?2.17).These data suggest that the allelic variant of rs1784594 is a risk factor for DNS following acute CO poisoning, especially in females. The PARK2 protein may modulate the susceptibility to DNS, underscoring the importance of examining the relationship between other PARK2 polymorphisms and clinical outcome following CO poisoning.
Project description:The severity of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is often based on non-specific clinical criteria because there are no reliable laboratory markers. We hypothesized that a pattern of plasma protein values might objectively discern CO poisoning severity. This was a pilot study to evaluate protein profiles in plasma samples collected from patients at the time of initial hospital evaluation. The goal was to assess whether any values differed from age- and sex-matched controls using a commercially available plasma screening package.Frozen samples from 63 suspected CO poisoning patients categorized based on clinical signs, symptoms, and blood carboxyhemoglobin level were analyzed along with 42 age- and sex-matched controls using Luminex-based technology to determine the concentration of 180 proteins.Significant differences from control values were found for 99 proteins in at least one of five CO poisoning groups. A complex pattern of elevations in acute phase reactants and proteins associated with inflammatory responses including chemokines/cytokines and interleukins, growth factors, hormones, and an array of auto-antibodies was found. Fourteen protein values were significantly different from control in all CO groups, including patients with nominal carboxyhemoglobin elevations and relatively brief intervals of exposure.The data demonstrate the complexity of CO pathophysiology and support a view that exposure causes acute inflammatory events in humans. This pilot study has insufficient power to discern reliable differences among patients who develop neurological sequelae but future trials are warranted to determine whether plasma profiles predict mortality and morbidity risks of CO poisoning.
Project description:A prospective study was done on 12 consecutive cases of aluminium phosphide poisoning admitted to a zonal hospital in Punjab. Patients were in 18-36 years age group and mortality was more in females. The dose of aluminium phosphide was more in non-survivors and fresh tablets were more likely to cause fatality. Early vomitting and prompt initiation of treatment resulted in better outcome. Survivors responded to treatment early, but duration of shock had no predictive value. Shock and cardiac arrhythmias were present in all cases and extracardiac complications occurred more commonly in fatal group. With vigorous treatment of shock and other complications 33 per cent of the cases could be saved.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Poisoning with carbon monoxide (CO) remains an important cause of accidental and intentional injury worldwide. Several unblinded non-randomized trials have suggested that the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) prevents the development of neurological sequelae. This has led to the widespread use of HBO in the management of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. OBJECTIVES:To examine randomised trials of the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) compared to normobaric oxygen (NBO) for the prevention of neurologic sequelae in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched the following electronic databases; Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register (searched June 2010), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) 1950 to June 2010, EMBASE (Ovid SP) 1980 to June 2010, ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) 1970 to June 2010, ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) 1990 to June 2010. SELECTION CRITERIA:All randomised controlled trials of HBO compared to NBO, involving non-pregnant adults who are acutely poisoned with carbon monoxide (regardless of severity). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two authors independently extracted from each trial information on: the number of randomised patients, types of participants, the dose and duration of the intervention, and the prevalence of neurologic symptoms at follow-up. MAIN RESULTS:Seven randomised controlled trials of varying quality were identified; one was excluded because it did not evaluate clinical outcomes. Of the six remaining trials involving 1361 participants, two found a beneficial effect of HBO for the reduction of neurologic sequelae at one month, while four others did not. One of these is an incomplete publication (an abstract of an interim analysis). Although pooled random effects meta-analysis does not suggest a significant benefit from HBOT (OR for neurological deficits 0.78, 95%CI 0.54 to 1.12), significant methodologic and statistical heterogeneity was apparent among the trials, and this result should be interpreted cautiously. Moreover, design or analysis flaws were evident in all trials. Importantly, the conclusions of one positive trial may have been influenced by failure to adjust for multiple hypothesis testing, while interpretation of the other positive trial is hampered by a high risk of bias introduced during the analysis including an apparent change in the primary outcome. Both were also stopped early 'for benefit', which is likely to have inflated the observed effect. In contrast three negative trials had low power to detect a benefit of HBO due to exclusion of severely poisoned patients in two and very poor follow-up in the other. One trial that was said to be finished around eight years ago has not reported the final analysis in any forum. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Existing randomised trials do not establish whether the administration of HBO to patients with carbon monoxide poisoning reduces the incidence of adverse neurologic outcomes. Additional research is needed to better define the role, if any, of HBO in the treatment of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. This research question is ideally suited to a multi-center randomised controlled trial.
Project description:The burden of poisoning among children is largely underexplored in rural Sri Lanka. This study describes the patterns of demographic characteristics, poison related factors, clinical management and outcome following acute poisoning among children (9 months- 12 years) in rural Sri Lanka.This hospital based multi-center study included Anuradhapura Teaching hospital, Polonnaruwa District General hospital, and 34 regional hospitals within Regional Director of Health Services in North Central province of Sri Lanka. The study assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, harmful first aid practices, reasons for delayed management, complications and outcomes following acute poisoning over 7 years.Among 1621 children with acute poisoning, the majority were in preschool age group. Household chemicals were accountable for 489 acute poisonings (30.2%). The most common poison was kerosene oil, followed by paracetamol. Most events occurred within their own domestic premises. Potentially harmful first aid measures were practiced by approximately one third of care givers. Reasons for delayed presentation at emergency center included lack of concern by family members regarding the urgency of the situation and lack of knowledge regarding possible complications. Complications were observed in 12.5% and the most common complication was chemical pneumonitis.Children with acute poisoing in rural Sri Lanka were predominantly preschoolers. They are poisonined mostly within their own housing premises. Kerosene oil, in addition to being the most common poison, had additional risks of aspiration pneumonia following potentially hazadrous first aid measures practised by the care givers. Complications though rare were potentially preventable by community education and awareness on timely attention to seek medical care, and avoidance of harmful first aid practices.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Toxic alcohols have been implicated in accidental ingestions and intentional exposures. Recognition of toxic alcohol poisoning is challenging. The main treatment modalities include antidotes with alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors and dialysis. Current guidelines exist for both methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication. However, treatment consensus related to other toxic alcohols is limited. Furthermore, uncertainties regarding thresholds for when to initiate antidotes and dialysis persist. As a consequence, variations exist in the interventions utilized for management of all toxic alcohol poisonings. To our knowledge, no prior systematic review of clinical outcomes of toxic alcohols exists. The objective of this study is to summarize existing evidence on short- and long-term outcomes of patients following toxic alcohol poisonings, including methanol, ethylene glycol, isopropanol, propylene glycol, and diethylene glycol. METHODS:A literature search in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE will be performed based on pre-determined criteria. There will be no restrictions on publication dates or languages. The search will be supplemented by manual scan of bibliographies of eligible studies and gray literature assessment. Observational studies and clinical trials will be included in this review. Once eligible studies have been selected based on pre-specified criteria, two investigators will extract relevant data independently and perform quality assessment per validated tools. A pooled analysis of mortality and short- and long-term secondary outcomes will be performed. Pre-specified subgroup analyses will be performed according to the type of toxic alcohol intoxication, mode of renal replacement therapy, and medical interventions received. A meta-analysis will be performed if three or more studies with similar populations, type of toxic alcohol poisoning, and outcome measures, as well as adequate quality, are identified. This review will be reported according to the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. DISCUSSION:This systematic review aims to synthesize current evidence in the short- and long-term outcomes of post-toxic alcohol poisoning. The results will enhance the understanding of patient morbidity and mortality after toxic alcohol poisoning, help inform uniform concrete management guideline development, identify gaps in the current state of knowledge, and provide evidence to help implement post-treatment follow-up. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:PROSPERO CRD42018101955.