Karyopherin Alpha 1 Regulates Satellite Cell Proliferation and Survival by Modulating Nuclear Import.
ABSTRACT: Satellite cells are stem cells with an essential role in skeletal muscle repair. Precise regulation of gene expression is critical for proper satellite cell quiescence, proliferation, differentiation and self-renewal. Nuclear proteins required for gene expression are dependent on the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery to access to nucleus, however little is known about regulation of nuclear transport in satellite cells. The best characterized nuclear import pathway is classical nuclear import which depends on a classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS) in a cargo protein and the heterodimeric import receptors, karyopherin alpha (KPNA) and beta (KPNB). Multiple KPNA1 paralogs exist and can differ in importing specific cNLS proteins required for cell differentiation and function. We show that transcripts for six Kpna paralogs underwent distinct changes in mouse satellite cells during muscle regeneration accompanied by changes in cNLS proteins in nuclei. Depletion of KPNA1, the most dramatically altered KPNA, caused satellite cells in uninjured muscle to prematurely activate, proliferate and undergo apoptosis leading to satellite cell exhaustion with age. Increased proliferation of satellite cells led to enhanced muscle regeneration at early stages of regeneration. In addition, we observed impaired nuclear localization of two key KPNA1 cargo proteins: p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor associated with cell cycle control and lymphoid enhancer factor 1, a critical cotranscription factor for ?-catenin. These results indicate that regulated nuclear import of proteins by KPNA1 is critical for satellite cell proliferation and survival and establish classical nuclear import as a novel regulatory mechanism for controlling satellite cell fate. Stem Cells 2016;34:2784-2797.
Project description:Proper muscle function is dependent on spatial and temporal control of gene expression in myofibers. Myofibers are multinucleated cells that are formed, repaired and maintained by the process of myogenesis in which progenitor myoblasts proliferate, differentiate and fuse. Gene expression is dependent upon proteins that require facilitated nuclear import, however little is known about the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport during the formation of myofibers. We analyzed the role of karyopherin alpha (KPNA), a key classical nuclear import receptor, during myogenesis. We established that five karyopherin alpha paralogs are expressed by primary mouse myoblasts in vitro and that their steady-state levels increase in multinucleated myotubes, suggesting a global increase in demand for classical nuclear import during myogenesis. We used siRNA-mediated knockdown to identify paralog-specific roles for KPNA1 and KPNA2 during myogenesis. KPNA1 knockdown increased myoblast proliferation, whereas KPNA2 knockdown decreased proliferation. In contrast, no proliferation defect was observed with KPNA4 knockdown. Only knockdown of KPNA2 decreased myotube growth. These results identify distinct pathways involved in myoblast proliferation and myotube growth that rely on specific nuclear import receptors suggesting that regulation of classical nuclear import pathways likely plays a critical role in controlling gene expression in skeletal muscle.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is primarily composed of large myofibers containing thousands of post-mitotic nuclei distributed throughout a common cytoplasm. Protein production and localization in specialized myofiber regions is crucial for muscle function. Myonuclei differ in transcriptional activity and protein accumulation, but how these differences among nuclei sharing a cytoplasm are achieved is unknown. Regulated nuclear import of proteins is one potential mechanism for regulating transcription spatially and temporally in individual myonuclei. The best-characterized nuclear localization signal (NLS) in proteins is the classical NLS (cNLS), but many other NLS motifs exist. We examined cNLS and non-cNLS reporter protein import using multinucleated muscle cells generated in vitro, revealing that cNLS and non-cNLS nuclear import differs among nuclei in the same cell. Investigation of cNLS nuclear import rates in isolated myofibers ex vivo confirmed differences in nuclear import rates among myonuclei. Analyzing nuclear import throughout myogenesis revealed that cNLS and non-cNLS import varies during differentiation. Taken together, our results suggest that both spatial and temporal regulation of nuclear import pathways are important in muscle cell differentiation and protein regionalization in myofibers.
Project description:We recently reported that brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 3 (BIG3) binds Prohibitin 2 (PHB2) in cytoplasm, thereby causing a loss of function of the PHB2 tumor suppressor in the nuclei of breast cancer cells. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which BIG3 inhibits the nuclear translocation of PHB2 into breast cancer cells. Here, we report that BIG3 blocks the estrogen (E2)-dependent nuclear import of PHB2 via the karyopherin alpha (KPNA) family in breast cancer cells. We found that overexpressed PHB2 interacted with KPNA1, KPNA5, and KPNA6, thereby leading to the E2-dependent translocation of PHB2 into the nuclei of breast cancer cells. More importantly, knockdown of each endogenous KPNA by siRNA caused a significant inhibition of E2-dependent translocation of PHB2 in BIG3-depleted breast cancer cells, thereby enhancing activation of estrogen receptor alpha (ER?). These data indicated that BIG3 may block the KPNAs (KPNA1, KPNA5, and KPNA6) binding region(s) of PHB2, thereby leading to inhibition of KPNAs-mediated PHB2 nuclear translocation in the presence of E2 in breast cancer cells. Understanding this regulation of PHB2 nuclear import may provide therapeutic strategies for controlling E2/ER? signals in breast cancer cells.
Project description:We have previously shown that the transcription-promoting activity of serum response factor (SRF) is partially regulated by its extranuclear redistribution. In this study, we examined the cellular mechanisms that facilitate SRF nuclear entry in canine tracheal smooth muscle cells. We used in vitro pull-down assays to determine which karyopherin proteins bound SRF and found that SRF binds KPNA1 and KPNB1 through its nuclear localization sequence. Immunoprecipitation studies also demonstrated direct SRF-KPNA1 interaction in HEK293 cells. Import assays demonstrated that KPNA1 and KPNB1 together were sufficient to mediate rapid nuclear import of SRF-GFP. Our studies also suggest that SRF is able to gain nuclear entry through an auxiliary, nuclear localization sequence-independent mechanism.
Project description:Nuclear localization signals (NLSs) are amino acid sequences that target cargo proteins into the nucleus. Rigorous characterization of NLS motifs is essential to understanding and predicting pathways for nuclear import. The best-characterized NLS is the classical NLS (cNLS), which is recognized by the cNLS receptor, importin-alpha. cNLSs are conventionally defined as having one (monopartite) or two clusters of basic amino acids separated by a 9-12 aa linker (bipartite). Motivated by the finding that Ty1 integrase, which contains an unconventional putative bipartite cNLS with a 29 aa linker, exploits the classical nuclear import machinery, we assessed the functional boundaries for linker length within a bipartite cNLS. We confirmed that the integrase cNLS is a bona fide bipartite cNLS, then carried out a systematic analysis of linker length in an obligate bipartite cNLS cargo, which revealed that some linkers longer than conventionally defined can function in nuclear import. Linker function is dependent on the sequence and likely the inherent flexibility of the linker. Subsequently, we interrogated the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome to identify cellular proteins containing putative long bipartite cNLSs. We experimentally confirmed that Rrp4 contains a bipartite cNLS with a 25 aa linker. Our studies show that the traditional definition of bipartite cNLSs is too restrictive and linker length can vary depending on amino acid composition.
Project description:Nuclear imports of uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U1 snRNP) and proteins with classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS-protein) are mediated by importin beta. However, due to the presence of different import signals, the adapter protein of the imported molecules and importin beta is different for each pathway. Although the adapter for cNLS-protein is importin alpha, the adapter for U1 snRNP is snurportin1 (SPN1). Herein, we show that the use of distinct adapters by importin beta results in differences at the docking and releasing step for these two import pathways. Nuclear pore complex (NPC) docking of U1 snRNP but not of cNLS-protein was inhibited by an anti-CAN/Nup214 antibody. Thus, the initial NPC-binding site is different for each pathway. Pull-down assays between immobilized SPN1 and two truncated forms of importin beta documented that SPN1 and importin alpha have different binding sites on importin beta. Importin beta fragment 1-618, which binds to SPN1 but not to importin alpha, was able to support the nuclear import of U1 snRNPs. After the translocation through the NPC, both import complexes associated with the nuclear side of the NPC. However, we found that the nature of the importin beta-binding domain of the adapters influences the release of the cargo into the nucleoplasm.
Project description:Under conditions of reduced mitogen or nutritional substrate levels, the serine/threonine kinase target of rapamycin can augment the nuclear content of distinct transcription factors and promote the induction of stress response genes. In its latent (i.e., unphosphorylated) form, the transcription factor STAT1 regulates a subset of genes involved in immune modulation and apoptosis. Based on previous work indicating a functional relationship between mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the nuclear content of latent STAT1, we investigated the mechanism by which mTOR controls STAT1 nuclear import. By fluorescence confocal microscopy, inactivation of mTOR with rapamycin promoted the nuclear translocation of unphosphorylated STAT1, but not that of a STAT1 mutant incapable of binding its nuclear import adaptor karyopherin-?1 (KPNA1). By immunoprecipitation, KPNA1 was physically associated with mTOR and STAT1 in a complex that translocated to the nucleus in response to rapamycin. Although mTOR is not a kinase for KPNA1, the mTOR-associated phosphatase protein phosphatase 2A catalytic interacted directly with KPNA1 and regulated nuclear import of the mTOR-KPNA1 complex. KPNA1, or its interaction with STAT1, was required for the nuclear import of latent STAT1, transcriptional induction of the STAT1 gene, and caspase-3 activation under conditions of reduced mTOR activity (i.e. rapamycin, glucose starvation, serum withdrawal). Therefore, at low mitogen or nutrient levels, mTOR and protein phosphatase 2A catalytically control the constitutive nuclear import of latent STAT1 by KPNA1, which are key modulators of STAT1 expression and apoptosis.
Project description:During antiviral defense, interferon (IFN) signaling triggers nuclear transport of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 (PY-STAT1), which occurs via a subset of karyopherin alpha (KPNA) nuclear transporters. Many viruses, including Ebola virus, actively antagonize STAT1 signaling to counteract the antiviral effects of IFN. Ebola virus VP24 protein (eVP24) binds KPNA to inhibit PY-STAT1 nuclear transport and render cells refractory to IFNs. We describe the structure of human KPNA5 C terminus in complex with eVP24. In the complex, eVP24 recognizes a unique nonclassical nuclear localization signal (NLS) binding site on KPNA5 that is necessary for efficient PY-STAT1 nuclear transport. eVP24 binds KPNA5 with very high affinity to effectively compete with and inhibit PY-STAT1 nuclear transport. In contrast, eVP24 binding does not affect the transport of classical NLS cargo. Thus, eVP24 counters cell-intrinsic innate immunity by selectively targeting PY-STAT1 nuclear import while leaving the transport of other cargo that may be required for viral replication unaffected.
Project description:One of the most conserved cellular pathways among eukaryotes is the extensively studied classical protein nuclear import pathway mediated by importin-?. Classical nuclear localization signals (cNLSs) are recognized by importin-? and are highly predictable due to their abundance of basic amino acids. However, various studies in model organisms have repeatedly demonstrated that only a fraction of nuclear proteins contain identifiable cNLSs, including those that directly interact with importin-?. Using data from the Human Protein Atlas and the Human Reference Interactome, and proteomic data from BioID/protein-proximity labeling studies using multiple human importin-? proteins, we determine that nearly 50% of the human nuclear proteome does not have a predictable cNLS. Surprisingly, between 25% and 50% of previously identified human importin-? cargoes do not have predictable cNLS. Analysis of importin-? cargo without a cNLS identified an alternative basic rich motif that does not resemble a cNLS. Furthermore, several previously suspected piggybacking proteins were identified, such as those belonging to the RNA polymerase II and transcription factor II D complexes. Additionally, many components of the mediator complex interact with at least one importin-?, yet do not have a predictable cNLS, suggesting that many of the subunits may enter the nucleus through an importin-?-dependent piggybacking mechanism.
Project description:Importin ?1 is involved in nuclear import as a receptor for proteins with a classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS). Here, we report that importin ?1 is localized to the cell surface in several cancer cell lines and detected in their cultured medium. We also found that exogenously added importin ?1 is associated with the cell membrane via interaction with heparan sulfate. Furthermore, we revealed that the cell surface importin ?1 recognizes cNLS-containing substrates. More particularly, importin ?1 bound directly to FGF1 and FGF2, secreted cNLS-containing growth factors, and addition of exogenous importin ?1 enhanced the activation of ERK1/2, downstream targets of FGF1 signalling, in FGF1-stimulated cancer cells. Additionally, anti-importin ?1 antibody treatment suppressed the importin ?1-FGF1 complex formation and ERK1/2 activation, resulting in decreased cell growth. This study provides novel evidence that functional importin ?1 is located at the cell surface, where it accelerates the proliferation of cancer cells.