Trigger factor depletion or overproduction causes defective cell division but does not block protein export.
ABSTRACT: Trigger factor is an abundant cytosolic protein of Escherichia coli which can stabilize proOmpA for in vitro translocation across inner membrane vesicles. The gene encoding E. coli trigger factor was isolated and sequenced, allowing construction of strains in which the expression of trigger factor is readily regulated. We found no defect in the in vivo rate of synthesis or secretion of proOmpA in trigger factor-depleted cells. The primary physiological defect in trigger factor-depleted or -overproducing cells is an enrichment of filamented cells. Filamentation of the trigger factor-overproducing strain is suppressed by a multicopy plasmid expressing the essential division gene ftsZ, suggesting that trigger factor has an important role in cell division.
Project description:Bacterial secretory preproteins are translocated across the inner membrane post-translationally by the SecYEG-SecA translocase. Mature domain features and signal peptides maintain preproteins in kinetically trapped, largely soluble, folding intermediates. Some aggregation prone preproteins require chaperones, like trigger factor (TF) and SecB, for solubility and/or targeting. TF antagonizes the contribution of SecB to secretion by an unknown molecular mechanism. We reconstituted this interaction in vitro and studied targeting and secretion of the model preprotein proOmpA. TF and SecB display distinct, unsuspected roles in secretion. Tightly associating TF:proOmpA target the translocase at SecA, but TF prevents proOmpA secretion. In solution, SecB binds TF:proOmpA with high affinity. At the membrane, when bound to the SecA C-tail, SecB increases TF and TF:proOmpA affinities for the translocase and allows proOmpA to resume translocation. Our data reveal that TF, a main cytoplasmic folding pathway chaperone, is also a bona fide post-translational secretory chaperone that directly interacts with both SecB and the translocase to mediate regulated protein secretion. Thus, TF links the cytoplasmic folding and secretion chaperone networks.
Project description:Comparative analysis of changes in gene and protein expression and fatty acid profiles between Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 ΔfadD ΔaraBAD expressing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase from Umbellularia californica (BTE) or a non-functional mutant thioesterase (BTE-H204A) to determine the functional basis for losses in cell viability, membrane integrity, or other stresses and metabolic perturbations that may be present. New hypotheses obtained from the study will assist in metabolic engineering efforts of improved strains exhibiting higher fatty acid yields and productivities. Cultures of fatty acid overproducing (BTE-expressing) and negative control (non-functional BTE-H204A-expressing) strains of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 delta-fadD delta-araBAD (deficient in beta-oxidation and L-arabinose catabolism) were sampled under two different sets of media/induction/antibiotic conditions. These conditions were shake flasks at 37C, 250 rpm shaking, in EZ rich defined medium supplemented with 0.2% glucose and 0.01 mM biotin (EZglu), and in fermentors at 37C with controlled air sparging, agitation, and pH in EZ rich defined medium supplemented with 0.4% glycerol and 0.01 mM biotin (EZgly). Two strains were analyzed in the EZglu experiment, the background strain harboring either pTrc99A-BTE (fatty acid overproducing) or pTrc99A-BTE-H204A (control phenotype). Three strains were analyzed in the EZgly experiment, with the background strain haboring either pBAD35-BTE and pBAD33 (fatty acid overproducing), pBAD35-BTE and pBAD33-ACC (fatty acid overproducing, ACC are the 4 subunits of E. coli K-12 acetyl-CoA carboxylase expressed as an artificial operon accDABC in plasmid pBAD33), and pBAD35-BTE-H204A and pBAD33 (control phenotype). RNA was extracted from harvested cell pellets from biological triplicates (EZglu) or biological duplicates (EZgly) of each strain at three different sampling times as defined in each sample description. Due to a hybridization or scanning problem, biological duplicates rather than triplicates were analyzed at the mid-stationary phase sampling point in the EZglu experiment for the control strain harboring pTrc99A-BTE-H204A. Multiple technical replicates at either the hybridization or sample level were analyzed from the biological duplicates of the fermentor experiment. The form of technical replicate (sample or hybridization) is specified in each EZgly sample description.
Project description:ProOmpA is a preprotein that is translocated across the plasma membrane by the general secretory pathway in Escherichia coli. The molecular chaperon SecB in Sec pathway can recognize and bind proOmpA for its translocation. However, the structure of the SecB/proOmpA complex remains unknown. Here, we constructed an uncleavable proOmpA fused with metallothionein at its C-terminus and labeled it with metals in vitro for the study of cryo-electron microscopy. Using single particle cryo-electron microscopy, we reconstructed 3D structure of the stable SecB/proOmpA complex. The structure shows that the major portion of preprotein locates on one side of SecB tetramer, resulting in an asymmetric binding pattern. This work also provides a possible approach to the structure determination of small protein complexes by cryo-electron microscopy.
Project description:Microbially produced fatty acids are potential precursors to high-energy-density biofuels, including alkanes and alkyl ethyl esters, by either catalytic conversion of free fatty acids (FFAs) or enzymatic conversion of acyl-acyl carrier protein or acyl-coenzyme A intermediates. Metabolic engineering efforts aimed at overproducing FFAs in Escherichia coli have achieved less than 30% of the maximum theoretical yield on the supplied carbon source. In this work, the viability, morphology, transcript levels, and protein levels of a strain of E. coli that overproduces medium-chain-length FFAs was compared to an engineered control strain. By early stationary phase, an 85% reduction in viable cell counts and exacerbated loss of inner membrane integrity were observed in the FFA-overproducing strain. These effects were enhanced in strains endogenously producing FFAs compared to strains exposed to exogenously fed FFAs. Under two sets of cultivation conditions, long-chain unsaturated fatty acid content greatly increased, and the expression of genes and proteins required for unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis were significantly decreased. Membrane stresses were further implicated by increased expression of genes and proteins of the phage shock response, the MarA/Rob/SoxS regulon, and the nuo and cyo operons of aerobic respiration. Gene deletion studies confirmed the importance of the phage shock proteins and Rob for maintaining cell viability; however, little to no change in FFA titer was observed after 24 h of cultivation. The results of this study serve as a baseline for future targeted attempts to improve FFA yields and titers in E. coli.
Project description:The present study examines changes in global gene expression patterns and in virulence factor-associated genes in an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing UPEC (ESBL019) during the morphologic transitions induced by an ineffective antibiotic and in the presence of human primary bladder epithelial cells. The morphological shifts induced by ineffective antibiotics are associated with significant transcriptional virulence alterations in ESBL-producing UPEC, which may affect survival and persistence in the urinary tract. Overall design: Changes in global gene expression patterns and in virulence factor-associated genes in an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing UPEC (ESBL019) during the morphologic transitions induced by an ineffective antibiotic (ceftibuten) in the presence of human primary bladder epithelial cells was evaluated by microarray after 4 hours. Four different morphologies were studied; Coliform, Transition (from Coli into Filamented), Filamented and Reverted (reverted back from a Filamented shape into a coli shape). Four independent experiments were included in each group.
Project description:Overexpression of key genes is a basic strategy for overproducing target products via metabolic engineering. Traditionally, identifying those key genes/pathways largely relies on the knowledge of biochemistry and bioinformatics. In this study, a modeling tool named UP Finder was developed to facilitate the rapid identification of gene overexpression strategies. It was based on the COBRA toolbox under MATLAB environment. All the key gene/pathway targets are identified in one click after simply loading a Systems Biology Markup Language model and specifying a metabolite as the targeted product. The outputs are also quantitatively ranked to show the preference for determining overexpression strategies in pathway design. Analysis examples for overproducing lycopene precursor in Escherichia coli and fatty acyl-ACP in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by the UP Finder showed high degree of agreement with the reported key genes in the literatures.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Using a functional genomics approach we addressed the impact of folate overproduction on metabolite formation and gene expression in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. We focused specifically on the mechanism that reduces growth rates in folate-overproducing cells. RESULTS: Metabolite formation and gene expression were determined in a folate-overproducing- and wild-type strain. Differential metabolomics analysis of intracellular metabolite pools indicated that the pool sizes of 18 metabolites differed significantly between these strains. The gene expression profile was determined for both strains in pH-regulated chemostat culture and batch culture. Apart from the expected overexpression of the 6 genes of the folate gene cluster, no other genes were found to be differentially expressed both in continuous and batch cultures. The discrepancy between the low transcriptome and metabolome response and the 25% growth rate reduction of the folate overproducing strain was further investigated. Folate production per se could be ruled out as a contributing factor, since in the absence of folate production the growth rate of the overproducer was also reduced by 25%. The higher metabolic costs for DNA and RNA biosynthesis in the folate overproducing strain were also ruled out. However, it was demonstrated that folate-specific mRNAs and proteins constitute 8% and 4% of the total mRNA and protein pool, respectively. CONCLUSION: Folate overproduction leads to very little change in metabolite levels or overall transcript profile, while at the same time the growth rate is reduced drastically. This shows that Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 is unable to respond to this growth rate reduction, most likely because the growth-related transcripts and proteins are diluted by the enormous amount of gratuitous folate-related transcripts and proteins.
Project description:CsaA from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis has been identified previously as a suppressor of the growth and protein-export defect of Escherichia coli secA(Ts) mutants. CsaA has chaperone-like activities in vivo and in vitro. To examine the role of CsaA in protein export in B. subtilis, expression of the csaA gene was repressed. While export of most proteins remained unaffected, export of at least two proteins was significantly reduced upon CsaA depletion. CsaA co-immunoprecipitates and co-purifies with the SecA proteins of E. coli and B. subtilis, and binds the B. subtilis preprotein prePhoB. Purified CsaA stimulates the translocation of prePhoB into E. coli membrane vesicles bearing the B. subtilis translocase, whereas it interferes with the SecB-mediated translocation of proOmpA into membrane vesicles of E. coli. The specific interaction with the SecA translocation ATPase and preproteins suggests that CsaA acts as a chaperone that promotes the export of a subset of preproteins in B. subtilis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: FtsZ is an essential cell division protein, which localizes at the middle of the bacterial cell to mediate cytokinesis. In vitro, FtsZ polymerizes and induces GTPase activity through longitudinal interactions to form the protofilaments, whilst lateral interactions result within formation of bundles. The interactions that participate in the protofilaments are similar to its eukaryotic homologue tubulin and are well characterized; however, lateral interactions between the inter protofilaments are less defined. FtsZ forms double protofilaments in vitro, though the key elements on the interface of the inter-protofilaments remain unclear as well as the structures involved in the lateral interactions in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we demonstrate that the highly conserved negative charge of glutamate 83 and the positive charge of arginine 85 located in the helix H3 bend of FtsZ are required for in vitro FtsZ lateral and longitudinal interactions, respectively and for in vivo cell division. RESULTS: The effect of mutation on the widely conserved glutamate-83 and arginine-85 residues located in the helix H3 (present in most of the tubulin family) was evaluated by in vitro and in situ experiments. The morphology of the cells expressing Escherichia coli FtsZ (E83Q) mutant at 42°C formed filamented cells while those expressing FtsZ(R85Q) formed shorter filamented cells. In situ immunofluorescence experiments showed that the FtsZ(E83Q) mutant formed rings within the filamented cells whereas those formed by the FtsZ(R85Q) mutant were less defined. The expression of the mutant proteins diminished cell viability as follows: wild type > E83Q > R85Q. In vitro, both, R85Q and E83Q reduced the rate of FtsZ polymerization (WT > E83Q >> R85Q) and GTPase activity (WT > E83Q >> R85Q). R85Q protein polymerized into shorter filaments compared to WT and E83Q, with a GTPase lag period that was inversely proportional to the protein concentration. In the presence of ZipA, R85Q GTPase activity increased two fold, but no bundles were formed suggesting that lateral interactions were affected. CONCLUSIONS: We found that glutamate 83 and arginine 85 located in the bend of helix H3 at the lateral face are required for the protofilament lateral interaction and also affects the inter-protofilament lateral interactions that ultimately play a role in the functional localization of the FtsZ ring at the cell division site.
Project description:We engineered a fatty acid overproducing Escherichia coli strain through overexpressing tesA (“pull”) and fadR (“push”) and knocking out fadE (“block”). This “pull-push-block” strategy yielded 0.17 g of fatty acids (C12–C18) per gram of glucose (equivalent to 48% of the maximum theoretical yield) in batch cultures during the exponential growth phase under aerobic conditions. Metabolic fluxes were determined for the engineered E. coli and its control strain using tracer ([1,2-13C]glucose) experiments and 13C-metabolic flux analysis. Cofactor (NADPH) and energy (ATP) balances were also investigated for both strains based on estimated fluxes. Compared to the control strain, fatty acid overproduction led to significant metabolic responses in the central metabolism: (1) Acetic acid secretion flux decreased 10-fold; (2) Pentose phosphate pathway and Entner–Doudoroff pathway fluxes increased 1.5- and 2.0-fold, respectively; (3) Biomass synthesis flux was reduced 1.9-fold; (4) Anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylation flux decreased 1.7-fold; (5) Transhydrogenation flux converting NADH to NADPH increased by 1.7-fold. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the engineered strain increased the transcription levels of pntA (encoding the membrane-bound transhydrogenase) by 2.1-fold and udhA (encoding the soluble transhydrogenase) by 1.4-fold, which is in agreement with the increased transhydrogenation flux. Cofactor and energy balances analyses showed that the fatty acid overproducing E. coli consumed significantly higher cellular maintenance energy than the control strain. We discussed the strategies to future strain development and process improvements for fatty acid production in E. coli.