E6 and E7 Gene Polymorphisms in Human Papillomavirus Types-58 and 33 Identified in Southwest China.
ABSTRACT: Cancer of the cervix is associated with infection by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). The gene variants differ in immune responses and oncogenic potential. The E6 and E7 proteins encoded by high-risk HPV play a key role in cellular transformation. HPV-33 and HPV-58 types are highly prevalent among Chinese women. To study the gene intratypic variations, polymorphisms and positive selections of HPV-33 and HPV-58 E6/E7 in southwest China, HPV-33 (E6, E7: n = 216) and HPV-58 (E6, E7: n = 405) E6 and E7 genes were sequenced and compared to others submitted to GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by Maximum-likelihood and the Kimura 2-parameters methods by MEGA 6 (Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0). The diversity of secondary structure was analyzed by PSIPred software. The selection pressures acting on the E6/E7 genes were estimated by PAML 4.8 (Phylogenetic Analyses by Maximun Likelihood version4.8) software. The positive sites of HPV-33 and HPV-58 E6/E7 were contrasted by ClustalX 2.1. Among 216 HPV-33 E6 sequences, 8 single nucleotide mutations were observed with 6/8 non-synonymous and 2/8 synonymous mutations. The 216 HPV-33 E7 sequences showed 3 single nucleotide mutations that were non-synonymous. The 405 HPV-58 E6 sequences revealed 8 single nucleotide mutations with 4/8 non-synonymous and 4/8 synonymous mutations. Among 405 HPV-58 E7 sequences, 13 single nucleotide mutations were observed with 10/13 non-synonymous mutations and 3/13 synonymous mutations. The selective pressure analysis showed that all HPV-33 and 4/6 HPV-58 E6/E7 major non-synonymous mutations were sites of positive selection. All variations were observed in sites belonging to major histocompatibility complex and/or B-cell predicted epitopes. K93N and R145 (I/N) were observed in both HPV-33 and HPV-58 E6.
Project description:BACKGROUD:Variations in HPV LCR/E6/E7 have been shown to be associated with the viral persistence and cervical cancer development. So far, there are few reports about the polymorphisms of the HPV-58 LCR/E6/E7 sequences in Southwest China. This study aims to characterize the gene polymorphisms of the HPV-58 LCR/E6/E7 sequences in women of Southwest China, and assess the effects of variations on the immune recognition of viral E6 and E7 antigens. METHODS:Twelve LCR/E6/E7 of the HPV-58 isolates were amplified and sequenced. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed by MEGA 7.0, followed by the secondary structure prediction of the related proteins using PSIPRED v3.3. The selection pressure acting on the HPV-58 E6 and E7 coding regions was estimated by Bayes empirical Bayes analysis of PAML 4.8. Meanwhile, the MHC class-I and II binding peptides were predicted by the ProPred-I server and ProPred server. The transcription factor binding sites in the HPV-58 LCR were analyzed using the JASPAR database. RESULTS:Twenty nine SNPs (20 in the LCR, 3 in the E6, 6 in the E7) were identified at 27 nucleotide sites across the HPV-58 LCR/E6/E7. From the most variable to the least variable, the nucleotide variations were LCR?>?E7?>?E6. The combinations of all the SNPs resulted in 11 unique sequences, which were clustered into the A lineage (7 belong to A1, 2 belong to A2, and 2 belong to A3). An insertion (TGTCAGTTTCCT) was found between the nucleotide sites 7280 and 7281 in 2 variants, and a deletion (TTTAT) was found between 7429 and 7433 in 1 variant. The most common non-synonymous substitution V77A in the E7 was observed in the sequences encoding the ?-helix. 63G in the E7 was determined to be the only one positively selected site in the HPV-58 E6/E7 sequences. Six non-synonymous amino acid substitutions (including S71F and K93 N in the E6, and T20I, G41R, G63S/D, and V77A in the E7) were affecting multiple putative epitopes for both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. In the LCR, C7265G and C7266T were the most variable sites and were the potential binding sites for the transcription factor SOX10. CONCLUSION:These results provide an insight into the intrinsic geographical relatedness and biological differences of the HPV-58 variants, and contribute to further research on the HPV-58 epidemiology, carcinogenesis, and therapeutic vaccine development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins play a crucial role in HPV-related diseases, such as cervical cancer, and can be used as ideal targets for therapeutic vaccines. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) participates in the immune response to block HPV infection and invasion by its target/recognition function. HPV-33 and HPV-58 are highly prevalent among Chinese women. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the E6 and E7 region-specific gene polymorphisms of HPV-33 and HPV-58 in Southwest China and to identify ideal epitopes for vaccine design. Both HPV-33 and HPV-58 belong to ?-9 genus HPV and are highly homologous, so their correlations are included in our research. METHODS:To study the E6 and E7 variations and polymorphisms of HPV-33 and HPV-58 in Southwest China, we collected samples, extracted and sequenced DNA, and identified variants. Nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids by Mega 6.0 software. The physical/chemical properties, amino acid-conserved sequences and secondary structure of protein sequences were analysed by the Protparam server, ConSurf server and PSIPRED software. The T and B cell epitopes of the E6/E7 reference and variant sequences in HPV-33 and HPV-58 were predicted by the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) analysis server and the ABCpred server, respectively. RESULTS:Five and seven optimal HLA-I restricted T cell epitopes were selected from HPV-33 and HPV-58 E6, respectively, and these optimal epitopes are mainly located in 41-58EVYDFAFADLTVVYREGN of HPV-33 E6 and 40-60SEVYDFVFADLRIVYRDGNPF of HPV-58 E6. Six optimal HLA-I-restricted T cell epitopes were selected from HPV-33 and HPV-58 E7, and these epitopes are mainly located in 77-90RTIQQLLMGTVNIV of HPV-33 E7 and 78-91RTLQQLLMGTCTIV of HPV-58 E7. CONCLUSIONS:HPV-33/HPV-58 E6/E7 gene polymorphisms and T/B cell epitopes of their reference and variant sequences were studied, and candidate epitopes were selected by bioinformatics techniques for therapeutic vaccine design for people in Southwest China. This study was the first to investigate the correlation of epitopes between HPV-33 and HPV-58. After experimental validation, these selected epitopes will be employed to induce a wide range of immune responses in heterogeneous HLA populations.
Project description:Globally, human papillomavirus (HPV)?56 accounts for a small proportion of all high?risk HPV types; however, HPV?56 is detected at a higher rate in Asia, particularly in southwest China. The present study analyzed polymorphisms, intratypic variants, and genetic variability in the long control regions (LCR), E6, E7, and L1 of HPV?56 (n=75). The LCRs, E6, E7 and L1 were sequenced using a polymerase chain reaction and the sequences were submitted to GenBank. Maximum?likelihood trees were constructed using Kimura's two?parameter model, followed by secondary structure analysis and protein damaging prediction. Additionally, in order to assess the effect of variations in the LCR on putative binding sites for cellular proteins, MATCH server was used. Finally, the selection pressures of the E6?E7 and L1 genes were estimated. A total of 18 point substitutions, a 42?bp deletion and a 19?bp deletion of LCR were identified. Some of those mutations are embedded in the putative binding sites for transcription factors. 18 single nucleotide changes occurred in the E6?E7 sequence, 11/18 were non?synonymous substitutions and 7/18 were synonymous mutations. A total 24 single nucleotide changes were identified in the L1 sequence, 6/24 being non?synonymous mutations and 18/24 synonymous mutations. Selective pressure analysis predicted that the majority of mutations of HPV?56 E6, E7 and L1 were of positive selection. The phylogenetic tree demonstrated that the isolates distributed in two lineages. Data on the prevalence and genetic variation of HPV?56 types in southwest China may aid future studies on viral molecular mechanisms and contribute to future investigations of diagnostic probes and therapeutic vaccines.
Project description:Cervical cancer is associated with infection by certain subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV). The L1 protein comprising HPV vaccine formulations elicits high-titre neutralizing antibodies and confers protection against specific HPV subtypes. HPV L2 protein is an attractive candidate for cross-protective vaccines. HPV-33 and HPV-58 are very prevalent among Chinese women.To study the gene intratypic variations and polymorphisms of HPV-33 and HPV-58?L1/L2 in Sichuan China, HPV-33 and HPV-58?L1 and L2 genes were sequenced and compared with other genes submitted to GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by maximum-likelihood and the Kimura 2-parameters methods (MEGA 6). The secondary structure was analyzed by PSIPred software, and HPV-33 and HPV-58 L1 homology models were created by SWISS-MODEL software. The selection pressures acting on the L1/L2 genes were estimated by PAML 4.8.Among 124 HPV-33?L1 sequences 20 single nucleotide mutations were observed included 8/20 non-synonymous and 12/20 synonymous mutations. The 101 HPV-33?L2 sequences included 12 single nucleotide mutations comprising 7/12 non-synonymous and 5/12 synonymous mutations. The 223 HPV-58?L1 sequences included 32 single nucleotide mutations comprising 9/32 non-synonymous and 23/32 synonymous mutations. The 201 HPV-58?L2 sequences comprised 26 single nucleotide mutations including 9/26 non-synonymous and 17/26 synonymous mutations. Selective pressure analysis showed that most of the common non-synonymous mutations showed a positive selection. HPV-33 and HPV-58?L2 were more stable than HPV-33 and HPV-58?L1.HPV-33 and HPV-58?L2 were better candidates as clinical diagnostic targets compared with HPV-33 and HPV-58?L1. Clinical diagnostic probes and second-generation polyvalent vaccines should be designed on the basis of the unique sequence of HPV-33 and 58?L1/L2 variations in Sichuan, to improve the accuracy of clinical detection and the protective efficiency of vaccines.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The molecular epidemiological studies showed that some variants of HPV-16, distributed geographically, would present a higher risk of causing cervical cancer. This study aimed to analyze nucleotide changes of HPV-16 E6 and E7 genomic regions from infected Southwestern Congolese women. METHODS:DNA of twenty HPV-16 isolates was analyzed by amplifying the E6 and E7 genes using type-specific primers PCR and direct sequencing. The sequences obtained were aligned with the HPV-16 GenBank reference sequences. RESULTS:Thirteen (65.0%) out of 20 DNA-samples were successfully amplified. Genetic analysis revealed 18 and 4 nucleotide changes in E6 and E7 genomic regions respectively. The most frequently observed nucleotide variations were the missense C143G, G145T and C335T in E6 (100%), leading to the non-synonymous amino acid variation Q14D and H78Y. E7 genomic region was found to be highly conserved with two most common T789C and T795G (100%) silent variations. All HPV-16 variants identified belonged to the African lineage: 7 (53.8%) belonged to Af-1 lineage and 6 (46.1%) to Af-2 lineage. The missense mutation G622A (D21N) in the E7 region seems to be described for the first time in this study. CONCLUSION:This study reported for the first time the distribution of HPV-16 E6 and E7 genetic variants in infected women from southwest Congo. The findings confirmed almost ascendancy of the African lineage in our study population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main etiological agent of cervical cancer, the third most common cancer among women globally and the second most frequent in Mexico. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV genotypes is associated with premalignant lesions and cervical cancer development. HPVs considered as low risk or not yet classified, are often found in coinfection with different HPV genotypes. Indeed, HPV62 is one of the most prevalent HPV detected in some countries, but there is limited information about its prevalence in other regions and there are no HPV62 variants currently described. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV62 in cervical samples from Mexican women and to identify mutations in the L1, E6 and E7 genes, which have never been reported in our population. METHODS:HPV screening was performed by Cobas HPV Test in women who attended prevention health programs and dysplasia clinics. All HPV positive samples (n?=?491) and 87 additional cervical cancer samples were then genotyped with Linear Array HPV Genotyping test. Some samples were selected to corroborate genotyping by Next-Generation sequencing. On the other hand, nucleotide changes in L1, E6 and E7 genes were determined using PCR, Sanger sequencing and analysis with the CLC-MainWorkbench 7.6.1 software. L1 protein structure was predicted with the I-TASSER server. RESULTS:Using Linear Array, HPV62 prevalence was 7.6% in general population, 8% in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1) samples and 4.6% in cervical samples. The presence of HPV62 was confirmed with Next-Generation sequencing. Regarding L1 gene, novel sequence variations were detected, but they did not alter the tertiary structure of the protein. Moreover, several nucleotide substitutions were found in E6 and E7 genes compared to reference HPV62 genomic sequence. Specifically, three non-synonymous sequence variations were detected, two in E6 and one in E7. CONCLUSIONS:HPV62 is a frequent HPV genotype found mainly in general population and in women with CIN1, and in 90.5% of the cases it was found in coinfection with other HPVs. Novel nucleotide changes in its L1, E6 and E7 genes were detected, some of them lead to changes in the protein sequence.
Project description:The prognostic significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and E6/E7 mRNA, the presence of specific types, and the physical state of HPV DNA, were studied in 202 cervical squamous cell carcinomas. Absence or non-detectable levels of high-risk (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52 and 58) E6/E7 mRNA, using the real-time nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) assay, and absence of HPV high-risk/HPV 6, 26, 66, 69, 73 (all methods collectively) were associated with poor overall survival in univariate analysis (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively) and had independent prognostic value in multivariate analysis (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively) including FIGO stage and age. Based on the individual results of type-specific PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH), the presence of HPV DNA was not found to be a prognostic factor. Likewise, concerning the presence of specific HPV types and the HPV integration status (determined by ISH), no prognostic significance was found. Mutation analyses of the TP53 gene revealed mutations in 3 of the 6 HPV negative samples (50%).
Project description:Sero-epidemiological studies of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been undertaken over the last two decades. In this study, the prevalences of nine serum antibodies (anti-E6, E7 and L1 antibodies of HPV types 16, 18, and 58) were evaluated in normal (control) Korean women and women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I, CIN II, CIN III, and cervical cancer. The frequencies of all types of anti-HPV antibodies were higher in the CIN stages and cervical cancer than in normal women, and those of anti-HPV16 E6 and E7, anti-HPV18 E6 and E7, and anti-HPV58 E7 antibodies were higher in the cervical cancer group than in the CIN stages. The frequencies of antibodies against HPV16, 18, and 58 E7 tended to increase with increasing severity of cervical lesions. However, there were few differences in the frequencies of antibodies against the L1 antigens of HPV16, 18 and 58 in cervical cancer versus CIN stages. The anti-HPV antibodies were detected in 26.5% of normal, 46.3% of CIN I, 62.5% of CIN II, 51.6% of CIN III, and 75% of cancers when any of the nine antigens was used as a criterion. Correlations between HPV DNA positivity and seropositivity for anti-HPV E6, E7, or L1 antibodies were found only in HPV16 DNA-positive cervical cancers for anti-HPV16 E6 and L1 antibodies. In addition, strong positive correlations in seropositivity were found between anti-HPV16 E7 and anti-HPV58 E7 antibodies, and between anti-HPV18 E6 and anti-HPV58 E6 antibodies. These findings should advance global profiling of the seroprevalences of antibodies against HPV antigens.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus type-6 (HPV6) is the major etiological agent of anogenital warts both men and women. The present study aimed to characterize the genetic diversity among HPV6 in Southwest China, and to investigate the origin of, selective pressure experienced by, and impact of the resultantly identified genetic variants on the HPV6 secondary structure. METHODS:Phylogenetic trees were constructed by Maximum-likelihood and the Kimura 2-parameters methods by Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. The diversity of secondary structure was analyzed by PSIPred software. The selection pressures acting on the E6/E7 genes were estimated by Phylogenetic Analyses by Maximum Likelihood version 4.8 software. RESULTS:HPV6 was the most prevalent low risk HPV type in southwest China. In total, 143 E6 and E7 gene sequences of HPV6 isolated from patients were sequenced and compared to GenBank HPV6 reference sequence X00203. The results of these analyses revealed that both the HPV6 E6 and E7 were highly conserved within the analyzed patient samples, and comprised only 3 types of variant sequence, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of HPV6 E6 and E7 sequences revealed seven/five single-nucleotide mutations, two/four and five/one of which were non-synonymous and synonymous, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses of the E6 and E7 sequences indicated that they belonged to sub-lineage A1 and sub-lineage B1, whereas the selective pressure analyses showed that only the E7 mutation sites 4R, 34E, and 52F were positive selection. CONCLUSIONS:HPV6 (detection rate?=?13.10%) was very prevalent in southwest China, both the HPV6 E6 and E7 sequences were highly conserved within the analyzed patient samples in southwest China, indicating that the low risk HPV6 can adapt to the environment well without much evolution.
Project description:Background:Persistent infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) has been associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. However, why only a fraction of HPV cases progress to cancer is still unclear. Methods:We focused on the heterogeneity, classification, evolution and dispersal of variants for 14 common HPV types in 262 HPV-positive patients with cervical lesions. The E6 and E7 genes of HPV were sequenced and compared with the HPV reference for sequence analysis. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbour-joining tree method with MEGA 7.0. Results:In this study, 233 E6 and 212 E7 sequences were successfully amplified by PCR, and these sequences were divided into 5 species groups: alpha-9 (HPV16, 31, 33, 52, 58), alpha-5 (HPV51), alpha-6 (HPV53, 66), alpha-7 (HPV18, 39, 59, 68) and alpha-10 (HPV6, 44). The incidence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in patients infected with alpha-9 HPV was significantly increased compared with other groups (P <?0.0001), especially HPV16 (P <?0.0001). Strikingly, E7 had significantly fewer nonsynonymous variants in the HSIL compared to <HSIL groups (P =?3.17× 10-?4). The A388C (K93?N) variation in HPV58 E6 can significantly reduce the risk of HSIL (P =?0.015). However, T7220G (D32E) variation in HPV16 E6 and A7689G (N29S) in HPV16 E7 increased the incidence of HSIL compared to the <HSIL group (P =?0.036 and 0.022). Conclusions:Strict conservation of E7 is important for HPV carcinogenicity, especially N29 of HPV16. The findings in this work provide preventative/therapeutic interventions for HPV infections and CIN.