Synthesis and opioid receptor binding of indium (III) and [111In]-labeled macrocyclic conjugates of diprenorphine: novel ligands designed for imaging studies of peripheral opioid receptors.
ABSTRACT: Radiolabeled diprenorphine (DPN) and analogs are widely used ligands for non-invasive brain imaging of opioid receptors. To develop complementary radioligands optimized for studies of the peripheral opioid receptors, we prepared a pair of hydrophilic DPN derivatives, conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), for complexation with trivalent metals. The non-radioactive indium (III) complexes, tethered to the C6-oxygen position of the DPN scaffold by 6- to 9-atom spacers, displayed high affinities for binding to ?, ? and ? opioid receptors in vitro. Use of the 9-atom linker conferred picomolar affinities equipotent to those of the parent ligand DPN. The [111In]-labeled complexes were prepared in good yield (>70%), with high radiochemical purity (~99%) and high specific radioactivity (>4000 mCi/?mol). Their log D7.4 values were -2.21 to -1.66. In comparison, DPN is lipophilic, with a log D7.4 of +2.25. Further study in vivo is warranted to assess the suitability of these [111In]-labeled DPN-DOTA conjugates for imaging trials.
Project description:Metformin is the most widely prescribed drug for type 2 diabetes. Chemically, metformin is a hydrophilic base that functions as an organic cation, suggesting that it may have the capacity to inhibit the tubular reabsorption of peptide radiotracers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether metformin could reduce renal uptake of peptidyl radiotracers and serve as a radioprotective agent for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). METHODS:We used two radiolabeled peptides: a 68Ga-labeled cyclic (TNYL-RAW) peptide (68Ga-NOTA-c(TNYL-RAW) (NOTA: 1,4,7 triazacyclononane-1,4,7-trisacetic acid) targeting EphB4 receptors and an 111In- or 64Cu-labeled octreotide (111In/64Cu-DOTA-octreotide) (DOTA: 1,4,7,10 triazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) targeting somatostatin receptors. Each radiotracer was injected intravenously into normal Swiss mice or tumor-bearing nude mice in the presence or absence of metformin administered intravenously or orally. Micropositron emission tomography or microsingle-photon emission computed tomography images were acquired at different times after radiotracer injection, and biodistribution studies were performed at the end of the imaging session. To assess the radioprotective effect of metformin on the kidneys, normal Swiss mice received two doses of 111In-DOTA-octreotidein the presence or absence of metformin, and renal function was analyzed via blood chemistry and histology. RESULTS:Intravenous injection of metformin with 68Ga-NOTA-c(TNYL-RAW) or 111In-DOTA-octreotide reduced the renal uptake of the radiotracer by 60% and 35%, respectively, compared to uptake without metformin. These reductions were accompanied by greater uptake in the tumors for both radiolabeled peptides. Moreover, the renal uptake of 111In-DOTA-octreotide was significantly reduced when metformin was administered via oral gavage. Significantly more radioactivity was recovered in the urine collected over a period of 24 h after intravenous injection of 64Cu-DOTA-octreotide in mice that received oral metformin than in mice that received vehicle. Finally, coadministration of 111In-DOTA-octreotide with metformin mitigated radio-nephrotoxicity. CONCLUSION:Metformin inhibits kidney uptake of peptidyl radiotracers, protecting the kidney from nephrotoxicity. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of these finding and to optimize mitigation of radiation-induced damage to kidney in PRRT.
Project description:The discovery of endogenous peptide ligands for morphine binding sites occurred in parallel with the identification of three subclasses of opioid receptor (OR), traditionally designated as ?, ?, and ?, along with the more recently defined opioid-receptor-like (ORL1) receptor. Early efforts in opioid receptor radiochemistry focused on the structure of the prototype agonist ligand, morphine, although N-[methyl-11C]morphine, -codeine and -heroin did not show significant binding in vivo. [11C]Diprenorphine ([11C]DPN), an orvinol type, non-selective OR antagonist ligand, was among the first successful PET tracers for molecular brain imaging, but has been largely supplanted in research studies by the ?-preferring agonist [11C]carfentanil ([11C]Caf). These two tracers have the property of being displaceable by endogenous opioid peptides in living brain, thus potentially serving in a competition-binding model. Indeed, many clinical PET studies with [11C]DPN or [11C]Caf affirm the release of endogenous opioids in response to painful stimuli. Numerous other PET studies implicate ?-OR signaling in aspects of human personality and vulnerability to drug dependence, but there have been very few clinical PET studies of ?ORs in neurological disorders. Tracers based on naltrindole, a non-peptide antagonist of the ?-preferring endogenous opioid enkephalin, have been used in PET studies of ?ORs, and [11C]GR103545 is validated for studies of ?ORs. Structures such as [11C]NOP-1A show selective binding at ORL-1 receptors in living brain. However, there is scant documentation of ?-, ?-, or ORL1 receptors in healthy human brain or in neurological and psychiatric disorders; here, clinical PET research must catch up with recent progress in radiopharmaceutical chemistry.
Project description:BACKGROUND:4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonous acid (GSAO) when conjugated at the ?-glutamyl residue with fluorophores and radio-isotopes is able to image dead and dying cells in vitro and in vivo by binding to intracellular 90-kDa heat shock proteins (hsp90) when cell membrane integrity is compromised. The ability to image cell death has potential clinical impact especially for early treatment response assessment in oncology. This work aims to assess the biodistribution and tumour uptake of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid GSAO labelled with 111In ([111In]In-DTPA-GSAO) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid GSAO labelled with 67Ga ([67Ga]Ga-DOTA-GSAO) in a murine subcutaneous tumour xenograft model and estimate dosimetry of [67Ga]Ga-DOTA-GSAO. RESULTS:There was good tumour uptake of both [111In]In-DTPA-GSAO and [67Ga]Ga-DOTA-GSAO (2.44?±?0.26% injected activity per gramme of tissue (%IA/g) and 2.75?±?0.34?%IA/g, respectively) in Balb c nu/nu mice bearing subcutaneous tumour xenografts of a human metastatic prostate cancer cell line (PC3M-luc-c6). Peak tumour uptake occurred at 2.7?h post injection. [111In]In-DTPA-GSAO and [67Ga]Ga-DOTA-GSAO demonstrated increased uptake in the liver (4.40?±?0.86?%IA/g and 1.72?±?0.27?%IA/g, respectively), kidneys (16.54?±?3.86?%IA/g and 8.16?±?1.33?%IA/g) and spleen (6.44?±?1.24?%IA/g and 1.85?±?0.44?%IA/g); however, uptake in these organs was significantly lower with [67Ga]Ga-DOTA-GSAO (p?=?0.006, p?=?0.017 and p?=?0.003, respectively). Uptake of [67Ga]Ga-DOTA-GSAO into tumour was higher than all organs except the kidneys. There was negligible uptake in the other organs. Excretion of [67Ga]Ga-DOTA-GSAO was more rapid than [111In]In-DTPA-GSAO. Estimated effective dose of [67Ga]Ga-DOTA-GSAO for an adult male human was 1.54?×?10-?2?mSv/MBq. CONCLUSIONS:[67Ga]Ga-DOTA-GSAO demonstrates higher specific uptake in dead and dying cells within tumours and lower uptake in normal organs than [111In]In-DTPA-GSAO. [67Ga]Ga-DOTA-GSAO may be potentially useful for imaging cell death in vivo. Dosimetry estimates for [67Ga]Ga-DOTA-GSAO are acceptable for future human studies. This work also prepares for development of 68Ga GSAO radiopharmaceuticals.
Project description:Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been successfully used for improving circulation time of several nanomaterials but prolonging the circulation of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) has remained challenging. Here, we report a site specific radiolabeling of dual-PEGylated thermally oxidized porous silicon (DPEG-TOPSi) NPs and investigation of influence of the PEGylation on blood circulation time of TOPSi NPs. Trans-cyclooctene conjugated DPEG-TOPSi NPs were radiolabeled through a click reaction with [111In]In-DOTA-PEG4-tetrazine (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) and the particle behavior was evaluated in vivo in Balb/c mice bearing 4T1 murine breast cancer allografts. The dual-PEGylation significantly prolonged circulation of [111In]In-DPEG-TOPSi particles when compared to non-PEGylated control particles, yielding 10.8 ± 1.7% of the injected activity/g in blood at 15 min for [111In]In-DPEG-TOPSi NPs. The improved circulation time will be beneficial for the accumulation of targeted DPEG-TOPSi to tumors.
Project description:1. Endomorphin-1 (E1) is a peptide with high affinity and selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor. The aim of this study was to determine if endomorphin-1 caused desensitization and down-regulation of the mu-opioid receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. 2. Following 10 microM E1 pre-treatment, desensitization was assessed by measuring cyclic AMP inhibition, down-regulation was assessed by [(3)H]-diprenorphine ([(3)H]-DPN) binding and immuno-blotting. 3. Pre-treatment of CHO mu cells with 10 microM E1 for 11 and 18 h caused significant reduction in cyclic AMP inhibition. (11 h=39.0+/-16.7%, 18 h 47.0+/-11.1% reduction). 4. At 18 h E1 pre-treatment there was an enhancement (4.5 fold) of cyclic AMP production under forskolin stimulated conditions accompanied by a small rightward shift in the concentration-response curve (pEC(50) control=7.8+/-0.3, pEC(50) E1=7.3+/-0.2) when cells were re-challenged with E1. 5. In membranes prepared from untreated and 0.5 h E1 pre-treated cells, addition of GTP gamma S produced a significant rightward shift in the concentration response curves for E1 displacement of [(3)H]-DPN (0 h K(i) control=7.86+/-0.11, GTP gamma S=7.37+/-0.15; 0.5 h K(i) control=7.92+/-0.12, GTP gamma S=7.36+/-0.08) This was not observed in membranes prepared from cells that had been treated with E1 for 18 h (18 h K(i) control=7.69+/-0. 11, GTP gamma S=7.75+/-0.08). 6. In whole cells E1 treatment caused a rapid loss of cell surface receptors such that at 0.5 h there was a 30.5+/-1.5 reduction (this was unchanged for 18 h). In crude membranes a loss of receptors was also observed using radioligand binding or immuno-blotting protocols. 7. These data show that E1 causes desensitization and down-regulation of the rat mu-opioid receptor expressed in CHO cells. However, these two responses appear temporally distinct.
Project description:Overexpression of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in tumours is widely used to develop GPCR-targeting radioligands for solid tumour imaging in the context of diagnosis and even treatment. The human vasoactive neuropeptide urotensin II (hUII), which shares structural analogies with somatostatin, interacts with a single high affinity GPCR named UT. High expression of UT has been reported in several types of human solid tumours from lung, gut, prostate, or breast, suggesting that UT is a valuable novel target to design radiolabelled hUII analogues for cancer diagnosis. In this study, two original urotensinergic analogues were first conjugated to a DOTA chelator via an aminohexanoic acid (Ahx) hydrocarbon linker and then -hUII and DOTA-urantide, complexed to the radioactive metal indium isotope to successfully lead to radiolabelled DOTA-Ahx-hUII and DOTA-Ahx-urantide. The 111In-DOTA-hUII in human plasma revealed that only 30% of the radioligand was degraded after a 3-h period. DOTA-hUII and DOTA-urantide exhibited similar binding affinities as native peptides and relayed calcium mobilization in HEK293 cells expressing recombinant human UT. DOTA-hUII, not DOTA-urantide, was able to promote UT internalization in UT-expressing HEK293 cells, thus indicating that radiolabelled 111In-DOTA-hUII would allow sufficient retention of radioactivity within tumour cells or radiolabelled DOTA-urantide may lead to a persistent binding on UT at the plasma membrane. The potential of these radioligands as candidates to target UT was investigated in adenocarcinoma. We showed that hUII stimulated the migration and proliferation of both human lung A549 and colorectal DLD-1 adenocarcinoma cell lines endogenously expressing UT. In vivo intravenous injection of 111In-DOTA-hUII in C57BL/6 mice revealed modest organ signals, with important retention in kidney. 111In-DOTA-hUII or 111In-DOTA-urantide were also injected in nude mice bearing heterotopic xenografts of lung A549 cells or colorectal DLD-1 cells both expressing UT. The observed significant renal uptake and low tumour/muscle ratio (around 2.5) suggest fast tracer clearance from the organism. Together, DOTA-hUII and DOTA-urantide were successfully radiolabelled with 111Indium, the first one functioning as a UT agonist and the second one as a UT-biased ligand/antagonist. To allow tumour-specific targeting and prolong body distribution in preclinical models bearing some solid tumours, these radiolabelled urotensinergic analogues should be optimized for being used as potential molecular tools for diagnosis imaging or even treatment tools.
Project description:Understanding the cellular processes underpinning the changes in binding observed during positron emission tomography neurotransmitter release studies may aid translation of these methodologies to other neurotransmitter systems. We compared the sensitivities of opioid receptor radioligands, carfentanil, and diprenorphine, to amphetamine-induced endogenous opioid peptide (EOP) release and methadone administration in the rat. We also investigated whether agonist-induced internalization was involved in reductions in observed binding using subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy. After radioligand administration, significant reductions in [(11)C]carfentanil, but not [(3)H]diprenorphine, uptake were observed after methadone and amphetamine pretreatment. Subcellular fractionation and in vitro radioligand binding studies showed that amphetamine pretreatment only decreased total [(11)C]carfentanil binding. In vitro saturation binding studies conducted in buffers representative of the internalization pathway suggested that ?-receptors are significantly less able to bind the radioligands in endosomal compared with extracellular compartments. Finally, a significant increase in ?-receptor-early endosome co-localization in the hypothalamus was observed after amphetamine and methadone treatment using double-labeling confocal microscopy, with no changes in ?- or ?-receptor co-localization. These data indicate carfentanil may be superior to diprenorphine when imaging EOP release in vivo, and that alterations in the ability to bind internalized receptors may be a predictor of ligand sensitivity to endogenous neurotransmitter release.
Project description:We recently showed the high target specificity and favorable imaging properties of 64Cu and Al18F PET probes for noninvasive imaging of thrombosis. Here, our aim was to evaluate new derivatives labeled with either with 68Ga, 111In, or 99mTc as thrombus imaging agents for PET and SPECT. In this study, the feasibility and potential of these probes for thrombus imaging was assessed in detail in 2 animal models of arterial thrombosis. The specificity of the probes was further evaluated using a triple-isotope approach with multimodal SPECT/PET/CT imaging.Radiotracers were synthesized using a known fibrin-binding peptide conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane,1-glutaric acid-4,7-acetic acid (NODAGA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid monoamide (DOTA-MA), or a diethylenetriamine ligand (DETA-propanoic acid [PA]), followed by labeling with 68Ga (FBP14, 68Ga-NODAGA), 111In (FBP15, 111In-DOTA-MA), or 99mTc (FBP16, 99mTc(CO)3-DETA-PA), respectively. PET or SPECT imaging, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and metabolic stability were evaluated in rat models of mural and occlusive carotid artery thrombosis. In vivo target specificity was evaluated by comparing the distribution of the SPECT and PET probes with preformed 125I-labeled thrombi and with a nonbinding control probe using SPECT/PET/CT imaging.All 3 radiotracers showed affinity similar to soluble fibrin fragment DD(E) (inhibition constant=0.53-0.83 ?M). After the kidneys, the highest uptake of 68Ga-FBP14 and 111In-FBP15 was in the thrombus (1.0±0.2 percentage injected dose per gram), with low off-target accumulation. Both radiotracers underwent fast systemic elimination (half-life, 8-15 min) through the kidneys, which led to highly conspicuous thrombi on PET and SPECT images. 99mTc-FBP16 displayed low target uptake and distribution consistent with aggregation or degradation. Triple-isotope imaging experiments showed that both 68Ga-FBP14 and 111In-FBP15, but not the nonbinding derivative 64Cu-D-Cys-FBP8, detected the location of the 125I-labeled thrombus, confirming high target specificity.68Ga-FBP14 and 111In-FBP15 have high fibrin affinity and thrombus specificity and represent useful PET and SPECT probes for thrombus detection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although a 3-arm DOTA construct, which has three carboxylic acids, h has been applied for conjugation to many peptides, we investigated if a 4-arm DOTA construct conjugated to peptides improves chemical properties for melanoma imaging of the melanocortin 1 receptor compared to 3-arm DOTA-conjugated peptides. METHODS:Specific activities, radiolabeling efficiencies, and partition coefficients were evaluated using 111In-labeled 3-arm and 4-arm DOTA-?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). For assessment of MC1-R affinity and accumulation in tumor cells in vitro, B16-F1 melanoma and/or 4T1 breast cancer cells were incubated with 111In-labeled 3-arm and 4-arm DOTA-?-MSH with and without ?-MSH as a substrate. The stability was evaluated using mouse liver homogenates and plasma. Biological distribution and whole-body single photon emission computed tomography imaging of 111In-labeled 3-arm and 4-arm DOTA-?-MSH were obtained using B16-F1 melanoma-bearing mice. RESULTS:Specific activities and radiolabeling efficiencies of both radiotracers were about 1.2 MBq/nM and 90-95%, respectively. The partition coefficients were -0.28 ± 0.03 for 111In-labeled 3-arm DOTA-?-MSH and -0.13 ± 0.04 for 111In-labeled 4-arm DOTA-?-MSH. Although accumulation was significantly inhibited by ?-MSH in B16-F1 cells, the inhibition rate of 111In-labeled 4-arm DOTA-?-MSH was lower than that of 111In-labeled 3-arm DOTA-?-MSH. 111In-labeled 4-arm DOTA-?-MSH was taken up early into B16-F1 cells and showed higher accumulation than 111In-labeled 3-arm DOTA-?-MSH after 10 min of incubation. Although these stabilities were relatively high, the stability of 111In-labeled 4-arm DOTA-?-MSH was higher than that of 111In-labeled 3-arm DOTA-?-MSH. Regarding biological distribution, 111In-labeled 4-arm DOTA-?-MSH showed significantly lower average renal accumulation (1.38-fold) and significantly higher average melanoma accumulation (1.32-fold) than 111In-labeled 3-arm DOTA-?-MSH at all acquisition times. 111In-labeled 4-arm DOTA-?-MSH showed significantly higher melanoma-to-kidney, melanoma-to-blood, and melanoma-to-muscle ratios than 111In-labeled 3-arm DOTA-?-MSH. CONCLUSIONS:The 4-arm DOTA construct has better chemical properties for peptide radiotracers than the 3-arm DOTA construct.
Project description:To examine the proportion of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) patients receiving pharmacologic DPN treatments and specifically to identify the rates and factors associated with opioid use and first-line opioid use.A 10% sample of IMS-LifeLink claims data from 1998 through 2008 was used. The study population consisted of diabetic patients who met DPN criteria using a validated DPN algorithm. Multivariable logistic regression controlling for demographics, comorbidities, and other clinical characteristics was used to identify factors associated with any DPN pharmacologic treatment, any opioid use, and first-line opioid treatment. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore variations in exclusion criteria as well as opioid use definitions.A total of 666 DPN patients met inclusion criteria and pharmacologic treatment was received by 288 patients (43.24%) and of those, 154 (53.47%) had DPN-related opioid use and 96 (33.33%) received opioid as first-line treatment. Persons with diabetic complications were more likely to use opioids (odds ratio=4.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-18.92). Food and Drug Administration-approved DPN agents duloxetine 1.04% (n=3) and pregabalin 5.56% (n=16) had much lower rates of use. DPN-related drug use and DPN-related opioid usage increased as we used less restrictive samples in sensitivity analyses.Opioids were the most frequently prescribed first-line agents for DPN. More than 50% of DPN patients remained untreated with pharmacologic agents 1 year after a DPN diagnosis.